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  • Articles
    GUAN Weihua, WU Xiaoni, WANG Hao, ZHANG Hui, WU Lianxia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(4): 629-643. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.04.001

    Changes in production factors have an important impact on the evolution of the spatial pattern of regional economic development. Based on the panel data of 290 prefecture-level cities in 1990-2020, the Mann-Kendall method was applied to classify China's municipal economic growth into two stages—1990-2012 and 2013-2020, and the Malmquist productivity index and spatial Durbin model were further used to analyze the effects of changes in production factors on China's regional economic growth at different stages. The results show that: 1) China's regional economy has always maintained its growth trend, and the regional economic growth areas have gradually shifted from the eastern coastal areas to the inland areas, and the growth pattern has changed from an obvious east-west difference to a coexistence of east-west and north-south differences. 2) There are clear differences in the spatial distribution pattern of changes in production factors. The regions with a large proportion of capital stock have gradually shifted from a contiguous distribution in the northeast and the Bohai Rim to the southeast coastal region, while sporadically distributed in core cities in the central and western regions; the pattern of incremental employment is consistently high in the southeast and low in the northwest, with high-value areas mainly distributed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations; the level of capital deepening and factor input-output efficiency generally show a year-on-year upward trend, and the core urban agglomerations are still the ones with higher levels of capital deepening and efficiency. 3) The degree of influence of factor changes on regional economic growth varied over time and at different scales, with factor input-output efficiency and the number of people employed being the main contributors to regional economic growth in the two periods, respectively. The research findings can serve as a decision-making reference for China's economic development under the new circumstance.

  • Special Column: Rural hollowing governance and revitalization
    QIAO Jiajun, XIAO Jie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(3): 417-433. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.03.001

    The coordinated development of rural revitalization and new urbanization is related to the sustainable development of regions. By constructing the evaluation index system of rural revitalization and new urbanization, we used the coupled coordination degree model and geographic detector to quantitatively analyzed the spatial differentiation characteristics of rural revitalization and new urbanization used the coupled coordination degree model and geographic detector to levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the spatial and temporal change patterns of coupling and coordination from 2010 to 2020, and examined their driving mechanisms. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution characteristics of rural revitalization and new urbanization levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River were clearly differentiated. The spatial distribution pattern of new urbanization level basically remained stable, and provincial capitals were the main clusters of high-value areas. 2) The spatial heterogeneity of the coupling degree types was large, dominated by the improving stage, while the coupling and coordination degree was mainly on the verge of disorder, concentrated in areas such as Longdong and northern Shaanxi, and the relative development type as a whole was dominated by the new urbanization lagging type. 3) The change of coupled and coordinated development pattern of rural revitalization and new urbanization is the result of mutual constraints and joint action of various factors, with population, income, consumption, and investment being the main driving forces. Therefore, in the context of consolidating and expanding the achievements of poverty eradication and promoting high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin, it is important to study the coupled and coordinated development of rural revitalization and new urbanization to promote the construction of urbanization with counties as the carrier and to realize the comprehensive revitalization of rural areas.

  • Articles
    WANG Tengfei, MA Renfeng, ZHUANG Rulong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(2): 203-214. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.02.001

    Many evolutionary economic geography studies emphasize the role of local capabilities in industrial development based on the path dependence theory. With the rapid development of new-generation information technology and infrastructure such as high-speed rail, the cross-regional flow of knowledge is becoming increasingly common and has a significant impact on regional and industrial evolution. Therefore, in the era of the knowledge economy, the multi-scale knowledge interaction network is crucial to the evolution mechanism of industrial comparative advantages. This study used patent citation big data and other statistical data, such as the total output value of the 2-digit manufacturing industry of 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta in 2011, 2016 and 2021 and the Logit model to analyze the evolution of industrial comparative advantages and its knowledge dynamics. The research found that: 1) With the increasingly close intercity knowledge flow network in the Yangtze River Delta, the industries with comparative advantages in cities are becoming increasingly diverse as a whole. 2) Under the premise of controlling for local capabilities and other related variables, the evolution of urban industrial comparative advantages is also significantly influenced by the advantageous industries of cities with strong knowledge flows. In other words, a city is more likely to develop its own industrial comparative advantage in the specialized field of another city that has a strong knowledge correlation with it. 3) There is a significant knowledge network correlation in the evolution of the industrial comparative advantage structure of cities in the Yangtze River Delta. The stronger the knowledge flows, the higher the similarity of industrial comparative advantage structure between cities. To some extent, this study deepens the understanding of the knowledge dynamics and multi-scale related variety of the evolution of industrial comparative advantages in the digital economy era and helps to provide a theoretical basis for regional innovation and industrial upgrading policies.

  • Articles
    ZHANG Shengwu, HAN Ri, LI Xiaosheng, SONG Malin, LIU Haimeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2024.01.001

    New urbanization is an important carrier of ecological civilization construction. How to promote the construction of water ecological civilization through new urbanization is a major practical problem facing the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt in the process of modernization in which people and nature live together in harmony. This study empirically examined the mechanism of influence and spatial effects of urbanization on the construction of water ecological civilization using a spatial econometric model based on the urban panel data of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt from 2006 to 2020. The results are as follows: 1) The impact of comprehensive urbanization and population urbanization on the construction of water ecological civilization in the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt follows a typical environmental Kuznets curve, exhibiting a "U"-shaped relationship. The urbanization restrains the construction of water ecological civilization in its early stage of development. Once the level of urbanization reaches a certain threshold, this effect will become positive. 2) The urbanization of population in each city has reached the inflection point value in 2014, while the comprehensive urbanization level has not yet reached the inflection point, therefore it is necessary to speed up the conversion of the transferred agricultural population into urban residents and effectively promote the new urbanization with people as the core. 3) The urbanization of the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt has a significant inverted "U"-shaped spillover effect on water ecological civilization construction. Meanwhile, water ecological civilization construction in the region exhibits a negative spatial spillover effect. Therefore, the Huaihe River Eco-economic Belt should establish a sound system for the protection of water ecological civilization and strengthen the coordinated construction of urbanization and water ecological civilization in order to enhance the quality of new urbanization development and create an ecological demonstration belt that is harmonious between humans and water. This study offers a new perspective for analyzing the interplay between urbanization and water resource, and provides theoretical reference and empirical evidence for leveraging the new urbanization to promote the construction of water ecological civilization.

  • Articles
    ZHANG Yinghao, WANG Mingfeng, KUANG Aiping, FU Linrong, CUI Luming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(12): 2283-2295. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.12.001

    Enabling urban innovation and development with the digital economy is an important manifestation of the new development concept. This study examined the multidimensional influence mechanism of the digital economy on the innovation and development of Chinese cities. Based on a panel data set of 275 prefecture-level and above cities in China from 2010 to 2019, the mechanism was analyzed by using spatial econometric models and other methods for revealing the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the level of urban innovation (LUI). The results of the study show that: 1) During the study period, LUI in Chinese cities showed an uneven development, with a tendency to widen the development differences between regions, and a significant and stable spatial agglomeration distribution characteristic. 2) Nationwide, the development of digital infrastructure (DIF) and digital industry (DID) only helped to raise LUI within the regions, while digital technology (DT) had a stronger permeability and diffusion effect in promoting LUI. 3) The multidimensional development levels of the digital economy all showed a positive effect on the innovation levels of cities in the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions, but only digital technology passed the test of significance in the models for all four broad regions. In terms of city type heterogeneity, digital technology also showed the strongest influence and technology diffusion effects. This study expanded the research perspective of digital economy-enabled innovation and development, and provides decision-making references for utilizing digital economy to promote urban innovation and development.

  • Articles
    YAO Yongling, CHEN Xingtao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(11): 2071-2083. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.11.001

    The development of the urban sub-center in Tongzhou District, Beijing involves new city planning and construction that include the relocation of the city's administrative centers. While reshaping the spatial pattern, it also bears the responsibility of high-quality development demonstration. By using the synthetic control method and the panel data from 2002 to 2020, this study examined the impact of Beijing's sub-center construction on the high-quality development of the relocation area from the five dimensions of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing. The results show that the construction of the sub-center has improved the output efficiency of Tongzhou, promoted energy conservation and emission reduction, but reduced the level of medical service supply. The development had no significant impact on the improvement of industrial structure, the utilization of foreign investment, the increase of residents' income, and the increase of education service supply. These heterogenous results indicate that observing high-quality development from different dimensions is more comprehensive than simply evaluating the total economic output. Targeted measures should be taken to address the changing characteristics of different dimensions of high-quality development. First, infrastructure, population migration, industrial planning, and public services should be matched to improve the level of public service supply. Second, the new sub-center should quickly improve the level of modern service industry to provide support for the upgrading of its industries. Third, the sub-center should fully leverage its role as a window for opening up to the outside world, providing a benchmark of openness for other regions.

  • Special Column: Man-land Relationship on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    DUAN Jian, WANG Weiting, CHEN Jing, FU Huijuan, SHI Fanji
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(10): 1869-1881. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.10.001

    Government grain reserves are the ballast for national food security, and local government grain reserves are the first line of defense to safeguard national food security and market stability. Bordering India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and the Kashmir region, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is China's strategic front for national defense, and it is of great significance to examine the scale and spatial distribution of grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study proposed a demand-based method to measure the scale of grain reserves. Considering the grain storage conditions and the characteristics of grain production and consumption on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we applied the model and revised the key parameters to calculate the scale of grain reserves on the plateau. On this basis and using the road network analysis method, we further discussed the spatial location of grain storage infrastructures. The results show that: 1) The total scale of required grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 815100 t, which was equivalent to 24.04% of the total annual grain consumption, and the ratio of grain reserves to consumption was higher than the minimum safe level recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which is 17%-18%. 2) Grain production, consumption, and reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were unbalanced. Only 27.19% of the counties could achieve a balance between grain production, consumption, and storage, and most counties had grain shortages. 3) The total grain deficit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 1.82 million t, and the grain deficit in agricultural areas, pastoral areas, and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas were 1.24 million t, 331600 t, and 241400 t, respectively. 4) The grain storage infrastructure system on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau consisted of three vertical levels: two first-level nodes (Xining and Lhasa), 15 second-level nodes, and 114 third-level nodes. 5) In reality, the scale of local grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was 26.39% lower than the theoretical value. Therefore it is urgent to further increase the scale of local grain reserves. The results can provide policy references for the reform of the grain reserve system in Tibet and Qinghai.

  • Special Column: Water Source Conservation and Hydrological Effects in the Yellow River Basin
    CAO Can, ZHANG Yongyong, LIU Yu, ZHANG Shiyan, LIU Xiaojie, WANG Guoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(9): 1667-1676. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.09.001

    The water conservation zone of the Yellow River (including the source region of the Yellow River, the Weihe River Watershed controlled by the Huaxian Station, and the Yiluo River Watershed) is the main runoff producing area. Identifying the comprehensive change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regime can provide an important scientific basis for analyzing the water cycle evolutions and their causes in the Yellow River Basin under the changing environment. Current research focused on the influence of environmental change on runoff magnitude in the Yellow River Basin, but cannot comprehensively explain the change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regimes. In this study, 31 source small watersheds in the water conservation zone of the Yellow River were taken as the research areas. The characteristics of flow regimes, including the magnitude, rate of change, frequency, duration, and timing metrics, were comprehensively considered. The Theil-Sen trend-free pre-whitening with Mann-Kendall (TFPW-MK) trend analysis and Sen's slope estimator methods were used to detect the variation of flow regime metrics in all the watersheds from 2000 to 2020. The hierarchical clustering method was used to identify the main patterns of flow regime changes and spatial distribution characteristics. The results show that: 1) At most watersheds, significant increases in all magnitude metrics, rate of change in high flow, and low flow frequency were detected, while rate of change in low flow, high flow frequency, and all duration and timing metrics showed a significant decrease. 2) The typical flow regimes found in the Huangshui River, the Tao River, downstream of the Weihe River, and the Luohe River were more sensitive to climate change, mainly showed significant increase in high flow magnitude but decrease in timing, and significant increase in low flow frequency but decrease in duration and timing metrics. 3) The variation of flow regime characteristics was divided into three patterns. The first pattern accounted for 42%, located in the Taohe River, the Huangshui River, the trunk and tributaries of the Weihe River, and the main stream of the Yi River, with significant increases in magnitude, frequency, and rate of change, and significant decreases in duration and timing. The second pattern accounted for 35%, located in the upstream and downstream of the three major watershed divisions, with metrics of low flow increased significantly except for a decrease in rate of change; while the five type metrics in high flow all decreased significantly. The third pattern accounted for 23%, located in the middle and lower reaches of the three watershed divisions, with significant increases in magnitude and frequency, and significant decreases in rate of change, duration, and timing.

  • Special Issue: High-quality Development of Rural Revitalization and Rural Culture and Tourism
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(8): 1433-1436.
  • Articles
    WANG Bei, LIU Yanhua, CHEN Kebi, ZHANG Dongsheng, HE Chaodong, YANG Ming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1229-1242. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.07.001

    Strengthening the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities is of great significance for promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and enhancing the competitiveness of the whole region. In order to depict the characteristics of interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin in detail, this study proposed an analytical framework for the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin based on the theory of dual-nuclei structure. According to this framework, the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin can be divided into three aspects: resident population mobility, firm economic factor mobility, and government cooperation platform co-construction. The characteristics of these interactions between Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed by integrating multiple sources of data, including traditional statistical data, big data of mobile signaling, big data of enterprise contact, and field research data. The results show that Beijing and Tianjin have already had significant business cooperation that benefits both cities by combining their strengths. However, compared to Tianjin, Beijing has absolute advantage in most economic development factors, which leads to the deep dependence of Tianjin on Beijing. Tianjin needs to make efforts to enhance the spillover capacity of its advantageous fields to the whole Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Beijing and Tianjin clearly share common understanding of the functional positioning of the two cities, but the characteristics of the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin show that they still need to further refine their functional coordination and improve the policies and mechanisms on some important links. For example, Beijing should improve its cooperation with Tianjin while conducting its non-capital function dispersion and Tianjin has room for improvement in optimizing its allocation of factors and industrial environment, and actively responding to Beijing's functional positioning. In particular, Tianjin, as a gateway and traditional manufacturing city and a city with advantages in R&D resources, should put more emphasis on responding to Beijing's spillover of talents and transfer of manufacturing industries and scientific and technological achievements, and provide more supports to Beijing in its shipment of import/export goods and cooperation and exchanges with other countries.

  • Articles
    SUN Caizhi, LIANG Zonghong, ZHAI Xiaoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1025-1038. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.06.001

    China's marine economy has entered the stage of high-quality development. Total factor productivity of the marine economy, as an important indicator reflecting the structural optimization, technological progress, and management innovation of marine development, is an important characterization of high-quality development level. The improvement of total factor productivity is not only driven by traditional factors such as capital and labor. Although the system theory and an overall perspective should be adopted to constantly explore and discover new drivers of marine economic growth, most of the existing studies are based on a single or a few limited driving factors. Most of them focus on traditional factors such as nature and material, and lack analysis of the common driving mechanism and effects of natural, intellectual, social, and institutional capitals on economic growth. Therefore, in order to explore the dynamic mechanism of total factor productivity of the marine economy, this study used a Translog-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model based on a transcendental logarithmic production function to measure the total factor productivity of the marine economy in coastal areas from 2000 to 2020, and identified the dynamic mechanism of development by constructing an evaluation indicator system including natural, intellectual, social, institutional, and external environment factors. The results showed that: 1) The average level of capital factor endowment increased steadily with a significant growth rate, and the accumulation rate of various types of capital generally presented a slow-fast-slow growing trend. The regional factor endowment of various types of capital was quite different. 2) The average total factor productivity of the marine economy was on the rise, which is at the medium level. The growth rate was slow, the regional difference was obvious, and growth showed certain path dependence. 3) The total factor productivity of the marine economy was mainly driven by natural capital in 2000-2012 and by intellectual capital in 2013-2020. The total factor productivity of the marine economy in the northern, central, and southern marine economic zones were mainly driven by natural capital from 2000 to 2012 and by natural, social, and institutional capital respectively from 2013 to 2020. The driving force of natural capital was decreasing, and the driving forces of intellectual, social, and institutional capitals were increasing. The research results can be used as a reference in formulating differentiated marine economic development policies.

  • Articles
    QI Honggang, QI Wei, LIU Zhen, ZHAO Meifeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(5): 821-836. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.001

    Educational attainments of talents are different, and exploring the spatiotemporal distribution of talents with different educational attainments and its driving factors is of key significance for formulating different kinds of talent policies and optimizing the high-quality economic development pattern of the urban system. Using data of the 2005, 2010 and 2015 population sample surveys of China, this study examined the differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of China's talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees from 2005 to 2015 at the prefecture level, and used a spatial econometric model to explain the driving factors of these differences. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of China's talents with different educational attainments was highly uneven, and talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees were mainly concentrated in the municipalities, provincial capitals, and independent plan cities. There was also some concentration of talents with college and undergraduate degrees in resource-based cities of the northwestern region, such as western Inner Mongolia and northern Xinjiang. The level of uneven distribution of talents increased with the increment of educational attainments and the unevenness was alleviated through time, but the degree of its alleviation decreased with the increase of educational attainment. 2) The dynamic agglomeration of talents showed the Matthew effect—the higher the proportion of talents at the beginning of the study period, the greater the increase of the proportion of talents during the period. The intensity of the Matthew effect of dynamic agglomeration of talents gradually increased with the increase of educational attainment. 3) The concentration of China's talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees was mainly economic driven, and salary played the most important role in influencing the concentration of talents with different educational attainments. The reduction of regional salary gaps in China had caused a decrease in the level of uneven distribution of talents with different educational attainments. The rapid growth of service industry and improvements in social amenities such as secondary education, medical service, and transportation had also promoted the agglomeration of talents with different educational attainments. Nevertheless, environmental factors such as elevation and green leisure space did not significantly boost the agglomeration of talents in China. The role of both economic development and social amenities in promoting talent agglomeration showed a tendency to increase with increasing educational attainments.

  • Articles
    WANG Shengyun, DUAN Liancheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(4): 617-628. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.001

    Ecological well-being performance (EWP) is the ecological efficiency of improving human well-being. Analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns and driving effects of EWP can help reveal regional differences in ecological efficiency of human well-being enhancement in China and its causes. This study analyzed the evolution of the spatiotemporal patterns of EWP in China based on a comprehensive subjective and objective well-being perspective, and used the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) method to reveal the driving effects of EWP changes and the determinants of economic growth effect in China. The results show that: 1) The changes in EWP in China in 2006-2018 relied mainly on the effect of economic growth, but the overall level of EWP decreased due to the constraints of environmental well-being effect and social well-being effect. Among the determinants of the economic growth effect, technological progress played the most important role. 2) The differences between the mean values of EWP of southern and northern provinces in China had increased from 0.762 to 1.005, showing a spatial variation of high in the south and low in the north. The economic growth effect value in the south was much higher than that in the north, which was the main reason for the widening of the north-south differences in EWP in China. 3) The change in EWP in China as a whole appeared to be driven by economic growth, with only Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai showing a change driven by economic growth + environmental well-being improvement. There was a significant regional heterogeneity in the determinants of the economic growth effect in the southern and northern regions and in eastern, central, and western China. The results of the study can provide reference suggestions for promoting the coordinated regional development of EWP in China.

  • Articles
    FANG Yelin, WANG Qiuyue, HUANG Zhenfang, WU Yanni
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(3): 417-427. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.001

    Tourism economic resilience involves high-quality development of tourism. By using the relevant data of tourism development in the Chinese mainland from 1998 to 2020 and based on the quantitative measurement of provincial tourism economic resilience, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of tourism economic resilience and revealed the mechanism of impact. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: China's tourism economy has strong resilience from 1998 to 2020, and the special events in individual years have not fundamentally changed the long-term positive trend. The temporal and spatial evolution of China's tourism economic resilience has the characteristics of instability and spatial agglomeration. The results of the spatial Markov chain model show that the probability of evolution of tourism economic resilience to high-value areas is high, and the tourism economic resilience at different levels generally presents agglomeration distribution. The mechanism of impact of regional tourism economic resilience was analyzed by using geographical detectors. The value of interactive leading factor q is generally greater than the maximum value of a single influencing factor, and this reflects that the impact on tourism economic resilience is generally from "resultant force". In general, the tourism economic resilience of the eastern region is closely related to the internal factors of the tourism industry, which indicates an endogenous driving type. The tourism economic resilience of the central and western regions is closely related to the external socioeconomic factors, which belongs to an exogenous driving type. Promoting the internal and external circulations of the economy plays an important role in improving the regional economic resilience. The research on the temporal and spatial evolution mechanism of tourism economic resilience provides a theoretical basis and decision-making reference for an objective understanding of the high-quality development of tourism and the risks and challenges faced by regional tourism.

  • Articles
    ZHANG Pei, WANG Jiao'e, XIAO Fan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(2): 209-220. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.02.001

    New infrastructure has become an important support for China's economic transformation and high-quality development in the new era. In order to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of China's new infrastructure development and its driving factors, this study first constructed a comprehensive evaluation index of the development level of new infrastructure based on the provincial panel data from 2013 to 2020. Then, it used the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) entropy method and spatial econometric model to measure the development level of new infrastructure and analyze its driving factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of China's new infrastructure has increased year by year, and there is a trend of balanced development among provinces. 2) There is great spatial heterogeneity in the development level of China's new infrastructure. The new infrastructure development level is much higher in the eastern region than the central, western, and northeastern regions. The overall temporal and spatial evolution pattern showed an east-west expansion trend, and the center of gravity continued to move to the southwest. 3) The development level of new infrastructure is affected by many factors, among which the economic development level, financial development level, innovation foundation, urbanization process, and population size are the key driving factors. By examining the evolution of the spatial pattern of China's new infrastructure development level and its influencing factors, this article may provide a decision-making reference for its optimal layout and development.

  • Articles
    CHU Jun, TONG De, GU Hengyu, CAO Zhiqiang, PAN Xiangxiang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.01.001

    Spatial interaction of human mobility is a heated topic for scholars, but little is known about the nonlinear relationship of the influencing factors in the spatial interaction. Using Tencent migration data in 2018 and employing the gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) model, this study analyzed the nonlinear characteristics of the distance-decay parameter. The results show that: 1) In the annual data benchmark model the distance-decay parameter presents nonlinear characteristics; the partial dependence curve presents two "platform areas" where the distance-decay parameter is close to 0, and two "attenuation areas" where the distance-decay parameter is about 2.8; and the results are still robust using road-based distance or data from other years. 2) There are significant differences between the distance-decay parameters of aviation, railway, and road transportation. The distance-decay pattern during the Spring Festival is basically consistent with the annual benchmark model. We recommend to plan metropolitan areas and urban agglomerations according to the nonlinear characteristics of intercity connection influenced by distances-decay pattern, and optimize the layout of territorial development accordingly.

  • Articles
    YANG Yiming, WANG Jian, WU Qun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(12): 2191-2202. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.12.001

    The flow of urban and rural elements runs through the entire process of urban and rural development and is the core of achieving urban and rural integration. Exploring the mechanism of influence of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integrated development can provide a scientific guidance for breaking the plight of urban-rural integrated development. Based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) model, this study evaluated the development level of urban-rural integration in 292 cities across China, and used the ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to explore the impact mechanism of urban-rural element flow on urban-rural integration. The results show that: 1) There are large spatial differences in the level of urban-rural integrated development at the city level in China. Most of the cities that have reached the level of deep urban-rural integration are economically developed. In general, the eastern region has the most balanced urban-rural integration. 2) Overall, the flow of land elements and population elements has the most significant impact on the urban-rural integrated development, and the driving effects of the two are negative. Locally, the influence of the flow of various urban-rural elements on the urban-rural integrated development has obvious regional differences. 3) The loss of land elements of the countryside causes loss of production elements and development space in these areas, and the lost talents have no effective way to return to the countryside, which limits urban-rural integrated development. Government investment promotes the agglomeration of elements and reduces the cost of element flow, urban and rural industries achieve division of labor and complement each other in functions, and the effective flow of information elements reduces allocation costs and improves allocation efficiency of other elements, which are beneficial to urban-rural integration.

  • Articles
    WANG Liangjian, ZHOU Jingjing, CHEN Kunqiu, YAN Lei, TU Yingjie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(11): 1991-2003. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.11.001

    Poverty reduction is one of the primary goals of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda of the United Nations. Clarifying how inclusive finance alleviates rural poverty and impacts rural development can provide new perspectives and avenues for alleviating rural poverty. Based on the sustainable livelihood analysis framework, this study explored the poverty reduction mechanism of rural inclusive finance and integrated multi-source data and methods to conduct a systematic empirical test on the poverty reduction effect, pathways, and heterogeneity of rural inclusive finance. The results indicate that rural inclusive finance plays a direct and an indirect role in reducing poverty. According to the three-dimensional poverty standard, the marginal impact of rural inclusive finance is 67.5%, and the poverty reduction effect is stable. Rural inclusive finance has a variable poverty reduction effect based on group differences, such as poverty degree, educational level, and type of poverty. There is a relatively small effect of poverty reduction on the deeply impoverished groups and the poor with low education levels, but a mitigation effect on income, employment, health, and living standards poverty. For the purpose of deepening, extending, and sustaining the reduction of rural poverty through inclusive finance, it would be necessary to scientifically identify the coupling process between rural inclusive finance and poor groups/regions and to determine and develop the differentiated supply of inclusive finance and an in-depth connection with rural education.

  • Articles
    LUO Qing, CHEN Siyi, WANG Yifei, LI Menglin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(10): 1783-1794. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.10.001

    Accurate assessment and classification of rural development levels is an important issue in rural revitalization research, which can provide a scientific basis for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies by development type and stage. Taking Luanchuan County, Henan Province as an example, this study integrated multi-source data such as administrative village census and electronic maps to construct a multi-dimensional development potential measurement indicator system for the village scale, and carry out multi-dimensional evaluation and type identification of rural development potential. The results show that: 1) The overall situation of rural multi-dimensional development potential in Luanchuan County is poor, with only 45.89% of the villages having medium and above development potential, and the interaction between any two dimensions has a nonlinear enhancement effect on explaining the spatial differentiation of multi-dimensional development potential. 2) The spatial differentiation characteristics of rural multi-dimensional development levels are obvious. Villages with high development potential are concentrated near the county seat and where key township centers are located, while villages with low and medium-low development potential are mainly distributed in the border areas of the county and in the areas between the towns in the central part. 3) The development level of each dimension shows relatively significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, but the spatial agglomeration pattern is different for different dimensions. Villages with higher development level in geographical location and natural background are mainly concentrated in areas with good resource endowment and relatively flat terrain; and villages with higher development level in the four dimensions of geographical location, population development, economic foundation, and social welfare gather near the county seat, township centers, and tourist attractions. 4) According to the multi-dimensional development assessment results, the villages are divided into five types: priority revitalization, preliminary revitalization, maintaining the status quo, decline and relocation, and priority relocation. Based on the characteristics of different types of villages, revitalization paths and development strategies are proposed to improve the development quality of villages.

  • PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(9): 1553-1554.
  • LIU Yi, REN Yawen, MA Li, WANG Yun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(9): 1555-1565. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.09.001

    Building an international science and innovation center is the strategic direction for the sustainable development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), and it is also an important spatial carrier for China to cope with future global competitions. On the occasion of the third anniversary of the promulgation and implementation of the "Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Development Plan Outline", by reviewing the main progress and problems of the innovation and development of the region, this article presents the strategic re-thinking of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area international science and technology innovation center under the new situation. The GBA has initially entered the stage of "innovative economy" development. Platform construction, talent agglomeration, and policy support have continued to be strengthened. Diversified cross-regional innovation collaboration models have emerged, but real challenges also exist in the areas of R&D output quality, resource allocation, and structure of talents. On the basis of continuing to consolidate the progress made in the construction of an international science and technology innovation center in the region, it is necessary to focus on the acquisition of innovation resources and improvement of innovation capabilities and the coordination and redistribution of innovation resources in the future, with continuous strategic optimization and adjustment.

  • Articles
    YANG Yong, SUI Xiayun, LIU Zhen
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(8): 1349-1363. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.08.001

    Virtual tourism flow (VTF) to some extent represents geographic biases of tourist demands. It is a crucial entry point for analyzing the spatial structure of China's tourism and promoting the formation of domestic circulation. From the perspective of VTF, this study built models of virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness using Baidu index search data from 2016 to 2020. Coefficient of variation and spatial autocorrelation were employed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics. Virtual tourism dominance degree and correlation of each provincial node were analyzed to further investigate the characteristics of the spatial change of VTF network structure. The results show that: 1) Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan are the radiating centers in the spatial structure of China's VTF. Based on this, a virtual spatial structure with the core of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta region, and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region is formed. 2) The polarization and diffusion features of VTF are manifested in the obvious diffusion effect of the Yangtze River Delta, and the significant polarization effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south and the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region. Among them, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and areas to its south has changed from a dual core to a single core structure, while the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan-Chongqing region has formed a robust regional circulation structure with multiple cores and multiple levels due to the region's continuously strengthened internal and external ties. 3) According to the spatial change of VTF network structure, intra-regional circulation is an effective way to balance the development of tourism within and outside a region. Meanwhile, provinces with strong virtual tourism advantage degree have stronger resilience, which can well boost the circulation of inter-regional tourism flow. 4) The change of VTF network structure is mainly affected by economic development level, tourism resource endowment, infrastructure development, and temporal and spatial proximity. This study broadens the horizon of tourism flow research by introducing the concept of VTF and analyzing both virtual tourism attraction and latent emissiveness. Its results provide a reference for the geographic direction of tourist demands, which can help to promote the coordinated regional development of tourism.

  • Articles
    ZHAN Yarong, GU Renxu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(7): 1145-1155. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.07.001

    In the era of digital economy, digital technology has brought profound changes to the production system of creative industries. The influence of virtual space built on Internet platforms on physical geographical space is increasing, which destroys the old spatiotemporal relationship, new socioeconomic organization geospatial pattern is created, and the changing importance of geographical proximity and its role in the decentralization of cultural production remain to be explored. In order to examine the impacts of new digital technologies on the geographies of cultural production and to provide a reference for exploring the high-quality development model of cultural industry in the new era, this study applied social network analysis and negative binomial gravity model to examine the urban cooperative network structure and multi-dimensional proximity mechanism of the online game industry, based on the data of Chinese online game projects from 2016 to 2020. The conclusions are as follows: First, the new digital technology has strengthened the decentralization and agglomeration trend of the online game industry. The findings demonstrate the dominant role that external networks play in the operation of online game projects. Small and medium-sized cities rely more on cross-regional cooperation networks in particular, because they lack strong and influential local companies. Second, the connections between cities based on the division of value chain of the online game industry are relatively sparse, the cooperative network presents an uneven diamond-shaped connection pattern, the spatial pattern of the network is highly imbalanced, and the industry is mainly concentrated in the economically developed eastern coastal region. There is a mismatch between the influence of cities in the network and the scale of local clusters. The network hierarchy basically follows that of China's existing urban system, and the core nodes are highly concentrated in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou. Local administrative centers also play an important role in the cooperation network. Social proximity, cognitive proximity, urban industrial scale, external connectivity, and human capital have positive effects on the establishment of cooperative network in the online game industry, while the wide application of digital technology makes the effects of geographical proximity and institutional proximity insignificant. At present, the main channel for enterprises in remote areas to obtain resources is still the dominant cultural production centers, which is related to the complex and diverse urban structure system in China.

  • Articles
    LI Bo, CAO Gai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(6): 945-955. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.06.001

    With the continuous improvement of the strategic status of China's marine economy, enhancing the resilience of marine economy in China's coastal areas under internal and external disturbances has become an inevitable way and an important guarantee for its development. In this study, we carried out resilience research from the perspective of marine economic network structure. We used the data of sea-related A-share listed companies and their subsidiaries to build a marine economic network, and evaluated the structural resilience of the marine economic network in 2010, 2015 and 2020 from the three dimensions of hierarchy, assortativity, and transmission. The results show that: 1) The hierarchical structure of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas has been enhanced, and regional absolute polarization and relative equilibrium coexist. 2) Assortativity has changed to disassortativity, and the connection between core cities and peripheral cities has been strengthened. 3) Transmission is generally at a low level but has the tendency to improve. 4) The enhancement of hierarchical structure, disassortativity, and transmission has improved the cohesion, innovation, and openness of the marine economic network, which increased the structural resilience of the marine economic network in China's coastal areas. This study aimed to enrich the resilience research in economic geography and provide some basis and reference for the safe development of the marine economy, in order to facilitate the high-quality development of marine economy in China.

  • Articles
    ZHAO Ziyu, WANG Shijun, CHEN Xiaofei, HAN Zhonghui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(5): 741-754. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.001

    Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.

  • Articles
    LI Fengjiao, LIU Jiaming, JIANG Lili
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(4): 541-553. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.04.001

    Strategic emerging industries are important support for national economic development. It is of great significance to explore the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the development level of related industries in Northeast China to promote regional economy and industrial innovation development. Using the Tianyancha software to extract the A-shares and the new over-the-counter market listed company data in 2009, 2014, and 2019 for Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces and applying the methods of Markov chain, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geographical detector model, this study explored the spatial and temporal change of strategic emerging industry development level and analyzed its influencing factors. The results show that: 1) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is constantly improving, and the growth rate is slowing down. All types of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China have achieved leap-forward development, while the industries at a high development level have achieved steady development. 2) The development level of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China is characterized by a "polar area" in the central part of the region and a "S-shaped polar zone" in the south. Spatial agglomeration is weakened, and the spatial differentiation of the provinces is gradually enhanced. The spatial centers of gravity of development level of various industries have shifted southward, with both diffusion and agglomeration effects. 3) Different factors play different roles, and multiple factors jointly affect the change of the development level and spatial pattern of strategic emerging industries in Northeast China.

  • Articles
    SUN Bindong, WANG Yanyan, ZHANG Zhiqiang, LI Wan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(3): 361-370. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.03.001

    Based on the data of permanent residents from six national population census of China over the period 1953-2010, this study conducted an empirical analysis on the size heterogeneity of city size distribution and the relationship between the evolution of city size distribution and city growth model, to which little attention was paid in previous studies. We selected all cities (including prefecture-level cities and county-level cities) and prefecture-level cities (city propers) alone as samples, and empirically analyzed the morphological characteristics and evolution trends of urban rank-size distribution in China and its relationship with Gibrat's Law. The results show that the main body of city size distribution in China conforms to the linear distribution of Zipf's Law. However, the two ends of the city size distribution spectrum, namely small cities and megacities, deviate from the linear distribution due to insufficient sizes. This phenomenon is not unique to China, but supported by evidence from other countries of the world. From the perspective of evolution, the city size distribution in China gradually dispersed and deviated from Zipf's Law in the early stage. However, from 2000, it began to return to the direction in line with Zipf's Law, with big cities taking the lead in 1990, which shows the coupling with the random growth of urban population in this stage and verifies the logical consistency between Zipf's Law and Gibert's Law. The findings of this study have important implications for promoting the high-quality development of city size distribution in China.

  • Articles
    ZHAO Biao, WANG Kaiyong, ZHAO Yicai
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(2): 185-198. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.02.001

    The scientific and reasonable siting of administrative centers directly affects the efficient allocation of resource elements, equality of basic public services, coordinated and balanced regional development, and modernization of national governance system and governance capacity. This study used spatial analysis and the difference-in-differences (DID) model to analyze the basic characteristics, mechanism, and economic effects of administrative center relocation in China since the reform and opening up in 1978. The results show that in terms of relocation characteristics, the higher the administrative level, the longer the relocation distance is, and the relocation is mainly concentrated after 2000, especially in North China, while the relocation distance in western China is generally much longer than that of other regions. In terms of relocation effects, the growth rates of population, economy, and construction land around the new administrative centers are obviously faster than that of the original administrative centers. On the whole, the relocation of administrative centers plays a certain role in promoting economic development, but there is also a clear spatial heterogeneity. In terms of the factors and mechanism of influence, the process is mainly influenced by the restriction of resources and environmental conditions, the promotion of old city planning and reconstruction, the guidance of the development and construction of new areas, the reform of the administrative system, and urban development strategies. The relocation of administrative centers is usually the result of the joint action of multiple factors.

  • Special Column: Theories and Methods of Behavioral Geography
    TA Na, CHAI Yanwei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2022, 41(1): 1-15. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.01.001

    Beginning from the behavioral revolution, behavioral geography has gradually moved towards a diversified development direction, by continuously expanding its theoretical framework and practical extension, as well as reflecting on its own meaning. It is an important part of human geography. In the 21st century, geographic mobility has increasingly become a core factor in shaping human-environment relationships. Mobility not only constitutes a new mode of operation of the world through flows and networks, but also fundamentally reshapes the relationship between geographic space and social space. As an important part of geographic mobility, space-time behavior demonstrates the diversity and dailyness of mobility, which is key to understanding urban and rural space and social development. This brings new opportunities for the development of behavioral geography, which promotes related research to micro-interpretation, simulation, and evaluation, and puts the actual problems of people and society at the core of the research. To understand the recent development and future direction of behavioral geography, this article examined the disciplinary position of behavioral geography, reviewed the latest research results of behavioral geography in the past 10 years, discussed the challenges faced by the development of behavioral geography, and explored its future development trends. Behavioral Geography is a branch of human geography describing and explaining the interactions between the geographical environment and human behavior. The core is to explore how people's spatial behaviors are generated in the geographical environment and how people's behaviors react to space. Behavioral geography has five characteristics, including microscopic perspective, behavioral process, subjective and objective combination, integration of time and space, and interdisciplinary. The development of behavioral geography has experienced rise, integration, and expansion, and has gradually developed from the initial narrow positivist framework to more diversified directions. In the recent years, behavioral geography has presented three frontier development directions, including understanding dynamic human-environment relationship, individual quality of life, and sustainable social development. First, behavioral geography provides a new perspective to understand the interaction between geographic space and individual behavior from the perspective of micro-processes. It includes three new directions including analyzing dynamic geographic backgrounds, emphasizing the combination of subjective and objective, and deepening the understanding of cognitive space. Second, behavioral geography focuses on the quality of life at the individual level, and understands the quality of life and its changes from the perspective of temporal and spatial behavior. The main topics include lifestyle, social relations, subjective well-being, and physical and mental health. Third, behavioral geography understands urban issues and improves urban governance from the perspective of micro-processes, and bridges the gap between individual research at the micro-scale and urban spatial research at the macro-scale. It brings a behavioral perspective on social equity, smart cities, low-carbon cities, and planning applications. Behavioral geography faces challenges in methodology, research methods, and interdisciplinary aspects. It needs to think about aggregation and scale issues, develop theory- and problem-oriented research, find new interdisciplinary development points, consolidate the core of geography, expand its boundary, and optimize its theoretical system.

  • Articles
    SUN Caizhi, SONG Xianfang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2021, 40(12): 1983-1998. https://doi.org/10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.12.001

    Based on the external conditions of technological progress and market demand upgrading in the process of high-quality development and the evolution of production factors, the factors of production in a digital economy are no longer limited to the traditional factors of production of labor, land, and capital. As knowledge and information, data have become the new core factor of production. However, data do not spontaneously generate economic value, and their impact on the economy does not break away from the framework of the traditional endogenous growth theory. They integrate technology flow, material flow, capital flow, and talent flow effectively, which render many factors in the traditional economic growth theory with new meanings. Therefore, it is necessary to appropriately expand the existing theoretical system. Based on the evolution of the endogenous growth model, this study constructed an input-output indicator system including data factor to measure the total factor productivity of marine economy in 11 coastal provinces of Chinese mainland (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and the productivity changes of each factor from 2006 to 2018 using the directional distance function (DDF)-Luenberger index and its decomposition model. The results show that: 1) The performance of data factor in all coastal areas of Chinese mainland increased to different degrees, but the digital divide between these areas during the study period still cannot be ignored. 2) The measurement results of the DDF-Luenberger index show that since 2006, the total factor productivity of marine economy in all coastal areas has increased, and the stage characteristics are obvious. 3) The results of single factor performance measurement show that: with regard to the data factor, having large amounts of data only indicate the potential to transform them into real productivity, and the change of total factor data productivity still depends more on the change of digital technology. With regard to the labor factor, the development of digital economy shows the Matthew effect in the improvement of labor skills. During the study period, the total factor labor productivity in all coastal areas showed an upward trend. With regard to the capital factor, the change of total factor capital productivity shows obvious temporal and spatial differentiation characteristics. With regard to the resource factor, in general, the total factor resource productivity of coastal provinces shows positive changes with obvious stage characteristics.