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  • Special Column: Rural hollowing governance and revitalization
    QIAO Jiajun, XIAO Jie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(3): 417-433.

    The coordinated development of rural revitalization and new urbanization is related to the sustainable development of regions. By constructing the evaluation index system of rural revitalization and new urbanization, we used the coupled coordination degree model and geographic detector to quantitatively analyzed the spatial differentiation characteristics of rural revitalization and new urbanization used the coupled coordination degree model and geographic detector to levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the spatial and temporal change patterns of coupling and coordination from 2010 to 2020, and examined their driving mechanisms. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution characteristics of rural revitalization and new urbanization levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River were clearly differentiated. The spatial distribution pattern of new urbanization level basically remained stable, and provincial capitals were the main clusters of high-value areas. 2) The spatial heterogeneity of the coupling degree types was large, dominated by the improving stage, while the coupling and coordination degree was mainly on the verge of disorder, concentrated in areas such as Longdong and northern Shaanxi, and the relative development type as a whole was dominated by the new urbanization lagging type. 3) The change of coupled and coordinated development pattern of rural revitalization and new urbanization is the result of mutual constraints and joint action of various factors, with population, income, consumption, and investment being the main driving forces. Therefore, in the context of consolidating and expanding the achievements of poverty eradication and promoting high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin, it is important to study the coupled and coordinated development of rural revitalization and new urbanization to promote the construction of urbanization with counties as the carrier and to realize the comprehensive revitalization of rural areas.

  • Reviews
    SUN Bindong, FU Yu, GU Honghuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(9): 1841-1852.

    The urban life cycle theory was proposed by Hall and Van den Berg and colleagues based on European urban research. According to the changes in the population of the urban core and rings, the urban spatial evolution process is divided into four stages: Urbanization, suburbanization, deurbanization, and reurbanization. The stage alternation and specific stages described by the theory have also been confirmed by subsequent empirical research, and this theory has been widely applied in identifying and studying the stages of urban development. However, this theory has been criticized and questioned as follows: 1) The process of urban development cannot be measured solely from a single population change perspective; 2) There are heterogeneities in urban development under different backgrounds; 3) The division of stages is unreasonable and debatable; and 4) Urban space does not always evolve linearly in a unidirectional order. In this context, many studies have made revisions, supplements, and improvements to this theory, and some new theories have been proposed, but there is still room for breakthroughs and development. Future breakthroughs can be made in the following aspects: 1) Incorporate marginal cities, shrinking cities, gentrification, and new urban phenomena into research of the post crisis and post pandemic period, and consider changes in people's lifestyle and thinking, socioeconomic background, and so on, to expand the applicability of the theory; 2) Refine urban types to identify the diversity of evolution, and conduct comparative research to identify urban life cycle models that are suitable for China; 3) Incorporate population structure and integrate the data of population size, age, and household and socioeconomic characteristics to enhance the depth of urban spatial analysis; and 4) Increase research on the migration of residents and businesses, expand micro-scale perspectives, and integrate multiple urban systems to enhance the comprehensiveness of urban spatial evolution theory.

  • Articles
    PENG Qiuzhi, HUANG Peiyi, CHEN Di, ZHU Dan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(10): 2019-2032.

    One of the basic topics in population geography is how the population distributes and changes on terrain gradients. With the improvement of data accuracy and quality, it is feasible to conduct macroscopic analysis for this question based on kilometer grid cells. This study analyzed the distribution and change characteristics of China's population on the gradients of elevation, ruggedness, and slope from 2000 to 2020, using methods of frequency distribution statistics, based on 1-km grid statistical cells, and using spatial demographic datasets (WorldPop) and digital elevation model datasets (SRTMGL1). The effects of different digital elevation model datasets (including ASTER GDEM and SRTMGL1) and spatial demographic datasets (including WorldPop, LandScan, and GPW) on the results were also compared and the differences between the 1-km grid and 100-meter grid data were further explored with SRTMGL1 and WorldPop. The results show that: 1) The population increasingly tends to be distributed at the lower position of terrain gradients. The half-balance points of the population distribution on elevation, ruggedness, and slope gradients were 95.6 m, 50.7 m, and 3.01° respectively in 2000, and decreased to 77.0 m, 46.8 m, and 2.88° in 2020. 2) Dominant area of population distribution relative to land area has been stably located at a lower position of terrain gradients. The upper boundary of the dominant part of the population over terrain (MU) is stably located at the elevation of 520 m, the ruggedness of 137 m, and the slope of 6.84°, respectively, and the population dominance rate rose from 0.511, 0.248, and 0.217 in 2000 to 0.522, 0.274, and 0.255 in 2020, respectively. 3) Different spatial demographic datasets have no effect on the distribution and change pattern of population on terrain gradients, while DEM datasets have significant effects on the ruggedness gradient and slope gradient distribution of population. There is no difference between 1-km grid and 100-meter grid data for this study, and the 1-km grid dataset is recommended for the study of population distribution at the national scale and above. This study provides a new basic reference for understanding of the relationship between population distribution and terrain in China at the kilometer grid scale.

  • Articles
    WANG Bei, LIU Yanhua, CHEN Kebi, ZHANG Dongsheng, HE Chaodong, YANG Ming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1229-1242.

    Strengthening the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities is of great significance for promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and enhancing the competitiveness of the whole region. In order to depict the characteristics of interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin in detail, this study proposed an analytical framework for the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin based on the theory of dual-nuclei structure. According to this framework, the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin can be divided into three aspects: resident population mobility, firm economic factor mobility, and government cooperation platform co-construction. The characteristics of these interactions between Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed by integrating multiple sources of data, including traditional statistical data, big data of mobile signaling, big data of enterprise contact, and field research data. The results show that Beijing and Tianjin have already had significant business cooperation that benefits both cities by combining their strengths. However, compared to Tianjin, Beijing has absolute advantage in most economic development factors, which leads to the deep dependence of Tianjin on Beijing. Tianjin needs to make efforts to enhance the spillover capacity of its advantageous fields to the whole Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Beijing and Tianjin clearly share common understanding of the functional positioning of the two cities, but the characteristics of the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin show that they still need to further refine their functional coordination and improve the policies and mechanisms on some important links. For example, Beijing should improve its cooperation with Tianjin while conducting its non-capital function dispersion and Tianjin has room for improvement in optimizing its allocation of factors and industrial environment, and actively responding to Beijing's functional positioning. In particular, Tianjin, as a gateway and traditional manufacturing city and a city with advantages in R&D resources, should put more emphasis on responding to Beijing's spillover of talents and transfer of manufacturing industries and scientific and technological achievements, and provide more supports to Beijing in its shipment of import/export goods and cooperation and exchanges with other countries.

  • Special Column: Water Source Conservation and Hydrological Effects in the Yellow River Basin
    CAO Can, ZHANG Yongyong, LIU Yu, ZHANG Shiyan, LIU Xiaojie, WANG Guoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(9): 1667-1676.

    The water conservation zone of the Yellow River (including the source region of the Yellow River, the Weihe River Watershed controlled by the Huaxian Station, and the Yiluo River Watershed) is the main runoff producing area. Identifying the comprehensive change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regime can provide an important scientific basis for analyzing the water cycle evolutions and their causes in the Yellow River Basin under the changing environment. Current research focused on the influence of environmental change on runoff magnitude in the Yellow River Basin, but cannot comprehensively explain the change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regimes. In this study, 31 source small watersheds in the water conservation zone of the Yellow River were taken as the research areas. The characteristics of flow regimes, including the magnitude, rate of change, frequency, duration, and timing metrics, were comprehensively considered. The Theil-Sen trend-free pre-whitening with Mann-Kendall (TFPW-MK) trend analysis and Sen's slope estimator methods were used to detect the variation of flow regime metrics in all the watersheds from 2000 to 2020. The hierarchical clustering method was used to identify the main patterns of flow regime changes and spatial distribution characteristics. The results show that: 1) At most watersheds, significant increases in all magnitude metrics, rate of change in high flow, and low flow frequency were detected, while rate of change in low flow, high flow frequency, and all duration and timing metrics showed a significant decrease. 2) The typical flow regimes found in the Huangshui River, the Tao River, downstream of the Weihe River, and the Luohe River were more sensitive to climate change, mainly showed significant increase in high flow magnitude but decrease in timing, and significant increase in low flow frequency but decrease in duration and timing metrics. 3) The variation of flow regime characteristics was divided into three patterns. The first pattern accounted for 42%, located in the Taohe River, the Huangshui River, the trunk and tributaries of the Weihe River, and the main stream of the Yi River, with significant increases in magnitude, frequency, and rate of change, and significant decreases in duration and timing. The second pattern accounted for 35%, located in the upstream and downstream of the three major watershed divisions, with metrics of low flow increased significantly except for a decrease in rate of change; while the five type metrics in high flow all decreased significantly. The third pattern accounted for 23%, located in the middle and lower reaches of the three watershed divisions, with significant increases in magnitude and frequency, and significant decreases in rate of change, duration, and timing.

  • Articles
    CHAO Buga, BAO Gang, YUAN Zhihui, WEN Durina, TONG Siqin, GUO Enliang, HUANG Xiaojun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(9): 1809-1824.

    The peaking time and peak Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are important indicators of vegetation phenology and growth that play a decisive role in annual productivity. Using MODIS EVI (MOD13C1) data and a double logistic four-parameter model, we quantified the spatial and temporal variations of peaking time of vegetation growth and peak EVI, and their sensitivities to climate at the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during 2001-2020. The results show that: 1) During the 20 years, the peaking time of vegetation growth occurred between June and August. It first advanced and then delayed with the increase in latitude. Discounting land north of 70°N, the peaking time tended to advance with increasing latitude. Peak EVI ranged between 0.2 and 0.6, with higher EVI in high latitudes. 2) The spatially averaged peaking time of vegetation growth in the study area showed a nonsignificant advancing trend during the study period (0.12 d/a, p>0.05). The percentage of pixels showing advancing trend (60.3%) was larger than that with delaying trend (39.7%). Peak EVI showed a significant increasing trend, with an increase of 0.01/10 a (p<0.01). Spatially 74.5% of the study area showed an increasing trend in peak EVI. 3) During 2001-2020, the impacts of changing temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover in the spring and the summer were widespread. Temperature had the strongest effect on the peaking time and peak EVI of vegetation growth, with asymmetric effects at high latitudes. At low latitudes, a rise in temperature was likely to decrease peak EVI through events such as droughts. In contrast, the effects of precipitation and cloud cover on the peaking time and peak EVI of vegetation growth were relatively complex and spatially heterogeneous. The results of our study may provide data and information to elucidate the mechanisms that drive vegetation phenology and growth patterns and their responses to climate change at the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, and to predict the impacts on ecosystem changes.

  • Reviews
    ZHANG Ruibo, WANG Jinsong, WANG Quancheng, HU Jian, WU Fei, LIU Ning, GAO Zhangwei, SHI Rongxi, LIU Mengjie, ZHOU Qingping, NIU Shuli
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(12): 2471-2484.

    Improving the carbon sequestration and sink capacity of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the most economical and green ways to achieve the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals on schedule. Soil particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), as important soil organic carbon fractions, are the key to understanding changes in the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that climate warming has changed the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and affected the input of organic carbon from plants and microorganisms at the same time, but there is no unified conclusion on the response of soil organic carbon components to climate warming and their controlling factors. This article systematically introduced the framework of soil particulate and mineral-associated organic matter. The formation, transformation, and stabilization of the two components were described. The article reviewed current research progresses on the response of soil particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon to climate warming and their influencing factors. On this basis, the shortcomings of existing research and future challenges were discussed, and the key scientific issues that need to be solved urgently at present and future research directions were proposed, in order to provide a theoretical reference for the formulation of soil organic carbon management and solutions to climate change.

  • Special Column: Man-land Relationship on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    DUAN Jian, WANG Weiting, CHEN Jing, FU Huijuan, SHI Fanji
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(10): 1869-1881.

    Government grain reserves are the ballast for national food security, and local government grain reserves are the first line of defense to safeguard national food security and market stability. Bordering India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and the Kashmir region, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is China's strategic front for national defense, and it is of great significance to examine the scale and spatial distribution of grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study proposed a demand-based method to measure the scale of grain reserves. Considering the grain storage conditions and the characteristics of grain production and consumption on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we applied the model and revised the key parameters to calculate the scale of grain reserves on the plateau. On this basis and using the road network analysis method, we further discussed the spatial location of grain storage infrastructures. The results show that: 1) The total scale of required grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 815100 t, which was equivalent to 24.04% of the total annual grain consumption, and the ratio of grain reserves to consumption was higher than the minimum safe level recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which is 17%-18%. 2) Grain production, consumption, and reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were unbalanced. Only 27.19% of the counties could achieve a balance between grain production, consumption, and storage, and most counties had grain shortages. 3) The total grain deficit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 1.82 million t, and the grain deficit in agricultural areas, pastoral areas, and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas were 1.24 million t, 331600 t, and 241400 t, respectively. 4) The grain storage infrastructure system on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau consisted of three vertical levels: two first-level nodes (Xining and Lhasa), 15 second-level nodes, and 114 third-level nodes. 5) In reality, the scale of local grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was 26.39% lower than the theoretical value. Therefore it is urgent to further increase the scale of local grain reserves. The results can provide policy references for the reform of the grain reserve system in Tibet and Qinghai.

  • Articles
    LI Xiande, LI Weijiang, LI Min
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(10): 1994-2005.

    The once-in-a-century revolution in the automobile manufacturing industry has triggered a "car-making frenzy" in China, subsequently reshaping the spatial landscape of the country's automobile manufacturing industry. This study used comprehensive micro-enterprise databases and employed location quotient indicators to compare the spatial agglomeration characteristics of the Chinese automobile manufacturing industry between 2013 and 2021. It examined the distinctive location traits of both new energy and traditional automobile manufacturing sectors, while also evaluating the co-agglomeration patterns of three pivotal industries—automobile, electronics, and electrical-in Chinese cities. Additionally, the study employed the negative binomial regression method to investigate the factors that influence the site selection of Chinese automobile manufacturing enterprises. The findings of this study are as follows: Chinese automobile manufacturing enterprises tend to concentrate in cities with a solid historical industrial foundation, showcasing a blend of continuity and change in the industrial layout. The location choices of Chinese new energy automobile manufacturing enterprises are both path dependence and path breakthrough. While cities with established prowess in traditional automobile manufacturing still hold potential for developing the new energy automobile sector, cities with weaker traditional automobile manufacturing sectors, such as Shenzhen, have made remarkable strides in the realm of new energy vehicles. In 2021, only 11 cities in China, including Shanghai, Hefei, and Suzhou, achieved the co-agglomeration of the three major manufacturing industries (automobile, electronics, and electrical). Notably, cities with well-developed automobile industries, such as Chongqing, did not gain specialized advantages in the electronics and electrical manufacturing sectors. Factors such as the diversification index of the manufacturing industry, the complexity of manufacturing knowledge, the size of the resident population, and the location quotient of the automobile manufacturing industry contribute to attracting automobile manufacturing enterprises. Traditional automobile manufacturing tends to gravitate towards cities with a concentration of foreign industrial enterprises, which diverges from the agglomeration patterns observed in the electronics manufacturing sector. The impact of location quotient in the electronics and electrical manufacturing industry on the site selection of Chinese new energy vehicle manufacturing enterprises did not demonstrate statistical significance. This study contributes to enriching the theory of industrial location in China and provides valuable insights for automotive manufacturing companies in their site selection process, as well as informing government policies related to industrial layout planning.

  • Articles
    WANG Fang, GUO Mengyao, NIU Fangqu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1243-1255.

    With the collaborative development of the urban agglomeration of the Yellow River Ji-shaped bend, it is of great scientific value to carry out the study of its spatial patterns. With the development of modern transportation, communication, and information technologies, the pattern of flow space based on dynamic element flow has become a research frontier. This study combined traditional static data and dynamic flow spatial data to examine the hierarchical spatial pattern of the urban agglomeration of the Yellow River Ji-shaped bend. The static data include the calculated comprehensive strength of the cities in the region, and the dynamic data are related to the dynamic flow space of three types of flows, namely population flow, logistics flow, and information flow. These elements were considered to make a comprehensive assessment of the multi-level spatial pattern of the urban agglomeration of the Yellow River Ji-shaped bend. This study found that: 1) There are some differences in the strength of spatial linkages among various types of flows in the region, where information flows are the strongest and there are strong linkages between information flows and other elemental flows. 2) Ordos is the dominant city in the urban agglomeration of the Yellow River Ji-shaped bend, and Yinchuan, Hohhot, Taiyuan, and Wuhai are the secondary dominant cities. Small city clusters centered on these cities have been formed in the region. In the future, the cities in this urban agglomeration should focus on strengthening the overall radiation capacity and spatial linkage strength to promote the rapid, coordinated, and comprehensive development of the urban agglomeration. This will eventually stimulate the urban network development from point to axis, and then to a "surface" in the urban agglomeration of the Yellow River Ji-shaped bend.

  • Articles
    JIN Xianghao, LI Peng, LI Xia, ZHANG Guozhuang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1365-1379.

    The combinations of regional climate factors and climate risk types caused by temperature rise in the backdrop of global warming are complex and diverse. South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) have attracted great attention due to their tropical monsoon climate and related unique characteristics. Exploring the patterns of change in temperature and precipitation in SSEA is of great significance for evaluating their effects on regional human activities and disaster risk such as the occurrence and development of active fires. Based on the 1980-2018 global climate element dataset (Climatologies at High Resolution for the Earth Land Surface Areas (CHELSA) V2.1, 30″×30″), and using statistical methods such as linear fitting and Mann-Kendall test, the spatiotemporal characteristics and evolution trends of temperature and precipitation in SSEA were examined from the aspects of overall trend of change and regional difference characteristics. The main conclusions are that: First, precipitation in SSEA has increased significantly in the past nearly four decades. A mutation of the trend of precipitation was detected in 2005. Second, nearly 2/3 of the SSEA region experienced an increasing trend of precipitation. Although rainfall change intensities in South Asia and Southeast Asia were similar in the rainy season, the amplitude in Southeast Asia was greater in the dry season. Third, SSEA has shown a significant warming trend in the last 40 years, and difference in monthly temperature rise was slight. Fourth, the regions with an increasing trend in temperature accounted for nearly 99.13% of SSEA, and the temperature change in Southeast Asia was more significant than that in South Asia during the rainy season. However, temperature rise in South Asia was more significant in the dry season, while it was the opposite in Southeast Asia. Finally, SSEA showed a notable trend of warming-wetting climate since the 1980s, which was featured by greater significance and intensity of temperature and precipitation changes in Southeast Asia.

  • Articles
    ZHANG Zifan, LIU Shiyin, MA Kai, ZHANG Xianhe, YANG Yanwei, CUI Funing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1139-1152.

    The upper Jinsha River has seen increased variability of stream runoff under the global warming since 1990 and extreme flood events with a 100-year recurrence period have occurred in recent years with flood peaks double or triple that of its normal annual mean flow, which has led to challenges to the utilization of water resources and reservoir operation in the basin. The upper Jinsha River Basin covers a large area but has few observation stations. Compared to the traditional models, the single objective runoff simulation based on machine learning (ML) model has shown advantages in forecasting floods, but the research on runoff prediction of ML model for large rivers originated in alpine mountains is insufficient. In this study, the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model was used to simulate the annual runoff process in the upper Jinsha River and the model was driven by daily precipitation, mean temperature, and snow cover area extracted from the 500 m elevation bands of GPM, ERA5-Land, and MODIS snow cover products. The model was built with the runoff observation data as the objective. An ensemble model driven by daily means of all above parameters of the whole basin was also built and compared with the LSTM model. Both models used data from 2001-2014 for training and 2015-2019 for validation. The results show that the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of the two models was greater than or equal to 0.80 within 15 days lead-time, the models had similar NSE in adjacent lead-times, and the NSE decreased to about 0.70 for the lead-times of 25 and 30 days, which indicates that the runoff simulation results of the two models are reasonable at the 30 days and shorter lead-times. Better results of runoff simulation were generated by the LSTM model driven by the vertical zonation data for the 1-5 days lead-times as compared to the ensemble model. The advantage of the vertical zonation data-driven model reduced for the 7-13 days lead-time and the simulation results are equivalent for the 15-30 days lead-time. The vertical zonation data-driven model was superior to the ensemble model in simulating flood season runoff. In general, the runoff simulation accuracy of the vertical zonation data-driven model is the highest at the 3 days lead-time, especially for spring and summer floods. We conclude that the developed model driven by the elevation zonation data can provide reliable prediction of floods, which can provide a reference for the operation of the downstream cascade hydropower stations of the middle Jinsha River. However, the improvement of the ML model for extreme spring floods should still be an important direction in future research.

  • Special Issue: High-quality Development of Rural Revitalization and Rural Culture and Tourism
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(8): 1433-1436.
  • Articles
    WANG Yan, XIU Chunliang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1272-1284.

    With the development of 5G, AI, and the Internet, we have entered the era of video socialization. Based on the Douyin (TikTok) data, this study analyzed the characteristics of the urban network in China with the help of the social network analysis method, and explored the influencing factors by using the optimal parameters-based geographical detector. The results show that: 1) The unbalanced distribution pattern of different types of cities based on local and non-local connections is basically consistent with the long-standing east-west gap, and the city grade based on the Douyin (TikTok) social media platform does not completely follow the traditional city grade system. 2) The overall network showed a triangular pyramid structure, which is very similar to the development pattern of urban agglomerations in the 14th Five-Year Plan. 3) The main influencing factors of urban network centrality in China are the level of economic development and information development, and the secondary influencing factors are the level of logistics development and tourism development. 4) Due to the varied stages of development, different regions showed obvious spatial differences. The southwestern region was more affected by the level of logistics development, the northeastern region was more affected by the level of tourism development, and the northwestern region was more affected by the level of economic development.

  • Articles
    NIU Xiaoyu, CHEN Wei, YU Zhaoyuan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1069-1081.

    Trade connectivity is a crucial component in the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Based on the BRI trade network database, this study integrated three mesoscale analysis methods, including community detection, core-periphery profile, and disparity filter, to build an analytical framework for exploring trade network connectivity and further investigated the spatiotemporal patterns, topological relationship, and structural evolution of "the Belt and Road" trade network from 2000 to 2020 in two dimensions, including nodes and edges. This study aimed to provide scientific references for a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of "the Belt and Road" trade network connectivity. The results show that: 1) The BRI trade network connections and density continuously increased, and the size distribution in trade volumes showed spatial heterogeneity, gradually forming patterns with an apparent hierarchical structure, unbalanced spatial distribution, and increasingly close trade ties. 2) The BRI trade network included five trade blocs with significant geographical proximity, and geographical distance still played an essential role in the evolution of the international trade division of labor system at the global and regional scales. 3) The core-periphery structures of the BRI trade network are undergoing structural adjustments, with the core and peripheral structures showing apparent differentiation and the core-peripheral polarization effect emerging. 4) The backbone structures of the BRI trade network have been continuously expanded and enriched, showing a trend of convergence to the core countries, forming backbone network patterns with China as the absolute core, radiating outward and linking the whole region while India, Russia, and Turkey have also formed their backbone networks in local regions. From the perspective of network science, examining trade network connectivity is crucial for understanding the trade network structure, optimizing the trade development pattern, and enhancing the trade network resilience in "the Belt and Road" regions.

  • Articles
    ZHANG Yinghao, WANG Mingfeng, KUANG Aiping, FU Linrong, CUI Luming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(12): 2283-2295.

    Enabling urban innovation and development with the digital economy is an important manifestation of the new development concept. This study examined the multidimensional influence mechanism of the digital economy on the innovation and development of Chinese cities. Based on a panel data set of 275 prefecture-level and above cities in China from 2010 to 2019, the mechanism was analyzed by using spatial econometric models and other methods for revealing the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the level of urban innovation (LUI). The results of the study show that: 1) During the study period, LUI in Chinese cities showed an uneven development, with a tendency to widen the development differences between regions, and a significant and stable spatial agglomeration distribution characteristic. 2) Nationwide, the development of digital infrastructure (DIF) and digital industry (DID) only helped to raise LUI within the regions, while digital technology (DT) had a stronger permeability and diffusion effect in promoting LUI. 3) The multidimensional development levels of the digital economy all showed a positive effect on the innovation levels of cities in the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions, but only digital technology passed the test of significance in the models for all four broad regions. In terms of city type heterogeneity, digital technology also showed the strongest influence and technology diffusion effects. This study expanded the research perspective of digital economy-enabled innovation and development, and provides decision-making references for utilizing digital economy to promote urban innovation and development.

  • Articles
    YAO Yongling, CHEN Xingtao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(11): 2071-2083.

    The development of the urban sub-center in Tongzhou District, Beijing involves new city planning and construction that include the relocation of the city's administrative centers. While reshaping the spatial pattern, it also bears the responsibility of high-quality development demonstration. By using the synthetic control method and the panel data from 2002 to 2020, this study examined the impact of Beijing's sub-center construction on the high-quality development of the relocation area from the five dimensions of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing. The results show that the construction of the sub-center has improved the output efficiency of Tongzhou, promoted energy conservation and emission reduction, but reduced the level of medical service supply. The development had no significant impact on the improvement of industrial structure, the utilization of foreign investment, the increase of residents' income, and the increase of education service supply. These heterogenous results indicate that observing high-quality development from different dimensions is more comprehensive than simply evaluating the total economic output. Targeted measures should be taken to address the changing characteristics of different dimensions of high-quality development. First, infrastructure, population migration, industrial planning, and public services should be matched to improve the level of public service supply. Second, the new sub-center should quickly improve the level of modern service industry to provide support for the upgrading of its industries. Third, the sub-center should fully leverage its role as a window for opening up to the outside world, providing a benchmark of openness for other regions.

  • Articles
    LIU Zhen, QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, QI Honggang, JIN Haoran, ZHANG Xuefei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1055-1068.

    Understanding the employment preferences of the floating population is crucial for formulating relevant employment policies. In this study, based on the China dynamic monitoring survey data for the floating population in 2017, we categorized the employment options into traditional secondary industry, high-tech manufacturing industry, traditional service industry, and modern service industry, and then scrutinized the floating population's employment choices and spatial variations at the prefecture level. We also established a mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression model to investigate individual and regional factors of the employment choice of the floating population. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) The majority of the floating population have engaged in employment in the traditional service and traditional secondary industry, with only a small fraction opting for high-tech manufacturing and modern service employment. 2) The percentages of the floating population engaged in employment in the traditional secondary industry and high-tech manufacturing industry were significantly higher in the eastern region than in other regions, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Shandong Peninsula. 3) Most city units in the central-west and Northeast regions had a high concentration of floating population employment in the traditional service industry, with some city units showing relatively high employment percentages in the modern service industry. 4) The floating population's employment choices were influenced by both regional and individual factors. Specifically, regional industrial structure and urban population size affected the regional employment structure, while employment competition and human capital levels of the floating population affected their integration into the regional employment structure. Moreover, gender, age, and population registration status of the floating population also affected their employment choice. The research findings can deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the employment choice of the floating population in Chinese cities, especially the relationship between the employment choice of the floating population and urban industrial development, providing references and support for the formulation of employment policies on the floating population.

  • Articles
    WANG Li, HU Lingling, TIAN Xiaoqi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1112-1123.

    The vitality of metro station domains is an important indicator to reflect the vitality of urban space and to test the coordinated and balanced development of station-city space. Taking Xi'an City as an example, this study used multi-source data to construct an indicator system from the two dimensions of crowd activity and built environment to quantitatively evaluate the metro station domain vitality, classify the metro station domains, and analyze their various characteristics based on the comparison of vitality value dimensions. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The comprehensive vitality of metro station domains was insufficient—with the increase of vitality level, the number of metro stations increased first and then decreased. The number and proportion of stations of the third and fourth vitality levels were higher than those of the first, second, and fifth vitality levels, and the spatial distribution of the vitality of station domains was not balanced. The vitality of metro station domains on both weekdays and weekends went through three stages: rising, stable, and declining. 2) The spatial distribution of metro station vitality in general showed a core-periphery spatial structure. The average vitality of the station domains of the No. 2 metro line running north-south in Xi'an City was the strongest, while the vitality of the station domains of the first and last sections of each line was generally low, and the vitality of the metro transfer station domains, metro stations covering tourist attractions, and university cluster feeder stations were high. Functional mixing degree, subway accessibility, global integration degree, and crowd activity heat played an important role in creating the vitality of metro stations. 3) The metro stations in Xi'an City can be divided into four categories: breeding, growing, balanced, and low degree of maturity. In terms of quantitative distribution, breeding-type station domains > growing-type station domains > low degree of maturity-type station domains > balanced-type station domains, and the spatial distribution also presents an obvious core-periphery characteristic. The core urban areas have a large number of low degree of mature and balanced stations, the main urban areas have balanced, growing, and breeding stations, and the peripheral areas mainly have breeding and growing stations. An improved theoretical framework for spatial vitality evaluation was proposed to strengthen the research on the vitality of Xi'an metro station domains, so as to provide some decision-making reference for the renewal and planning of metro station domains and the empowerment of urban vitality.

  • Visitors, New Farmer, Farmers and Herders and Rural Culture and Tourism
    LIU Xiaoquan, MO Yan, ZHANG Chun, WANG Shasha
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(8): 1636-1650.

    Modern new media technology tools represented by Tiktok provide an important means for "New Farmer" to participate in rural cultural tourism and rural revitalization. However, existing research had paid little attention to the spatial distribution characteristics of this group, and there was a lack of reasonable and objective evaluation of the cultural tourism transformation potential of "New Farmer" anchors. Based on the data of Tiktok "New Farmer" anchors on the Chanmama website, this study comprehensively measured the rural cultural tourism transformation potential of "New Farmer" anchors from three aspects: directivity, recognition, and dissemination and used hotspot analysis to analyze the spatial differentiation of the characteristics of "New Farmer" anchors and their cultural tourism transformation potential. It further explored the cultural tourism driving mode of "New Farmer" anchors, revealing the regional differences in their cultural tourism transformation potential from a spatial perspective to provide a reference for better leveraging the cultural tourism driving capabilities of the "New Farmer" anchors. The results show that: 1) "New Farmer" anchors exhibited obvious characteristics of more in the south and fewer in the north, with more males and fewer females. There were significant differences in the spatial pattern of anchor scale and cultural tourism transformation potential, and the cultural tourism transformation potential of Henan and Shandong, was very limited. 2) The southwestern region, especially Sichuan and Chongqing, had prominent advantages in terms of the number and scale of "New Farmer" anchors, live streaming sales, and potential for cultural tourism transformation. 3) Less than 40% of ordinary media users had the potential for cultural tourism transformation. Although the number of "rural guardians" was limited, they brought significant potential for cultural tourism transformation. 4) There were significant regional differences in the advantageous characteristics of rural cultural tourism transformation potential. "New Farmer" anchors in the southwest had strong cultural tourism promotion concepts, and their short videos showed higher degree of direction towards cultural tourism content. The cultural and tourism videos in the southeastern region showed significant advantages in recognition and dissemination, and the content quality of cultural and tourism videos was even better. 5) The "New Farmer" anchors with different identities were different in terms of creative motivation, narrative mode, and narrative content. Their driving mode of cultural tourism could be divided into grassroots cadres-direct driving, rural guardians-indirect driving, and ordinary personal media users-potential driving. In general, Tiktok "New Farmer" anchors, characterized by individual creation, had played a significant role in breaking through the differences in the eastern, central, and western regions of China, and promoted equal development between the central and western regions and the eastern region. However, the significant differences between the south and the north and the limited potential for cultural tourism transformation still need further attention.

  • Reviews
    FAN Xuewei, MIAO Chiyuan, GOU Jiaojiao, WU Yi, ZHANG Qi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1204-1215.

    The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has developed rapidly from establishing in the mid-1990s, which provides irreplaceable data support for global climate change simulation and future climate change projection. This paper reviewed systematically the development process from CMIP1 to CMIP6, including theoretical framework, future scenario construction, international participation, etc. On this basis, the paper comprehensively summarized the performance of CMIP models in simulating global and China's temperature, precipitation, and other variables. Furthermore, the simulation results of historical experiment in CMIP3, CMIP5 and CMIP6 was emphatically compared. With the development of CMIP, the simulation performance of global climate models has also been improved due to the improvements of physical parameterization scheme and spatial resolution. However, the performances of CMIP models in simulating climate characteristics at regional scale are still limited, especially for the simulations of precipitation change in small-middle scale, and the simulation performances of different models varies greatly. Finally, the paper looks forward to the possible development directions of CMIP models according to the above problems.

  • Articles
    SUN Caizhi, LIANG Zonghong, ZHAI Xiaoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1025-1038.

    China's marine economy has entered the stage of high-quality development. Total factor productivity of the marine economy, as an important indicator reflecting the structural optimization, technological progress, and management innovation of marine development, is an important characterization of high-quality development level. The improvement of total factor productivity is not only driven by traditional factors such as capital and labor. Although the system theory and an overall perspective should be adopted to constantly explore and discover new drivers of marine economic growth, most of the existing studies are based on a single or a few limited driving factors. Most of them focus on traditional factors such as nature and material, and lack analysis of the common driving mechanism and effects of natural, intellectual, social, and institutional capitals on economic growth. Therefore, in order to explore the dynamic mechanism of total factor productivity of the marine economy, this study used a Translog-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model based on a transcendental logarithmic production function to measure the total factor productivity of the marine economy in coastal areas from 2000 to 2020, and identified the dynamic mechanism of development by constructing an evaluation indicator system including natural, intellectual, social, institutional, and external environment factors. The results showed that: 1) The average level of capital factor endowment increased steadily with a significant growth rate, and the accumulation rate of various types of capital generally presented a slow-fast-slow growing trend. The regional factor endowment of various types of capital was quite different. 2) The average total factor productivity of the marine economy was on the rise, which is at the medium level. The growth rate was slow, the regional difference was obvious, and growth showed certain path dependence. 3) The total factor productivity of the marine economy was mainly driven by natural capital in 2000-2012 and by intellectual capital in 2013-2020. The total factor productivity of the marine economy in the northern, central, and southern marine economic zones were mainly driven by natural capital from 2000 to 2012 and by natural, social, and institutional capital respectively from 2013 to 2020. The driving force of natural capital was decreasing, and the driving forces of intellectual, social, and institutional capitals were increasing. The research results can be used as a reference in formulating differentiated marine economic development policies.

  • Special Column: Rural hollowing governance and revitalization
    XU Yuli, LONG Hualou, TU Shuangshuang, JIANG Yanfeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2024, 43(3): 434-445.

    In the process of rapid urbanization, regional human-environment relationships in rural areas have become increasingly complex, and these areas are facing the challenge of integrating limited resources to realize industrial transformation and development. From the perspective of the factor-structure-function transformation of the rural territorial system, this study elucidated the conceptual connotation and driving force of rural industrial restructuring. On this basis, it classified the typical patterns of rural industrial restructuring according to the development direction of the dominant industries, with a specific focus on Guangxi. The study then proceeded to construct the guarantee mechanism for rural industrial restructuring. The following four main conclusions were reached: 1) Rural industrial restructuring can be comprehended as the process of optimizing spatial layout, extending the industrial chain, and enhancing the industrial system through industrial cultivation, adjustment, upgrading, and transformation. This process is grounded in the integration of the basic factors of industrial development—such as labor, land, and capital—in the context of local development conditions and external market environment. Rural industrial restructuring is characterized by the diversification of subjects and business forms, aiming to achieve both the benign and balanced development of rural industries internally and the value output externally. 2) In the practice of industrial restructuring, external driving forces and endogenous development forces of the rural territorial system interact with each other to jointly promote the coupling and coordination of various factors related to industrial development. 3) Rural industrial restructuring comprises five typical patterns, including the specialization of agricultural production, the industrialization of traditional culture, the tourism-driven development, the agglomeration of manufacturing, and service-oriented commerce and logistics. 4) In terms of policy, emphasis should be placed on guiding the concentration of key factors of production in rural areas by breaking down institutional barriers; building modern rural industrial systems by optimizing the industrial structure and improving the industrial layout; and improving the benefit linkage mechanism by adhering to the principle that the central position of farmers should not be compromised. Through a comprehensive approach, an institutional arrangement can be made for promoting rural industrial restructuring and facilitating the revitalization of rural industries.

  • Articles
    QIAO Yu, JI Xiaomei, ZHANG Wei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1153-1161.

    In the context of global climate change, compound flood disasters occur frequently in coastal areas, and thus it is of great significance to examine the related disaster risks. In this study, 223 typhoon events that affected Hong Kong from 1962 to 2021 were selected as statistical samples to analyze the compound disaster risk of rainfall and storm surges in Hong Kong under the influence of typhoons. The Mann-Kendall method was used to analyze the characteristics of typhoon events, and we found that the typhoons in Hong Kong during the past 60 years show the characteristics of low probability and high impact. The optimal marginal distribution function of the maximum storm water increase and cumulative rainfall under typhoon events was determined by a variety of statistical testing methods, and the Frank Copula function was used to fit the joint probability distribution of rainfall-storm surge compound disasters. Based on the risk assessment and design value calculation of single factors and compound disasters, the risk rate of the "or" return period is high, and the risk rate of the "and" return period is low. Finally, we concluded that the optimal design values of maximum storm surge and cumulative rainfall in the secondary return period should be selected for the design of coastal engineering projects in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay area. This study showed the compound disaster risk characteristics of the Greater Bay area and provides a reference for the construction of relevant disaster scenarios.

  • Articles
    HONG Huikun, CAI Zhicong, LIAO Heping, WANG Gang, LIU Ting
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1098-1111.

    Coordination of rural housing and employment is the key to promoting common prosperity and implementing the rural revitalization strategy. Based on the cross-section data of Chongqing Municipality in 2007, 2014, and 2020 and from the perspective of conjugation, this study constructed an evaluation indicator system and evaluation model for the coordinated development of rural housing and employment at the county level, revealed its spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics, and classified the types of housing-employment coordinated development and proposed differentiated rural revitalization paths. The results show that: 1) There were significant spatial and temporal differences in the degree of rural housing-employment coordination in Chongqing Municipality, which generally showed a positive development trend both in terms of quantity and quality and a spatial pattern of high in the central area and low in the surroundings; The balance index of rural housing-employment generally showed an upward trend and a spatial pattern of local prominence and high in the south and low in the north. The efficiency index of rural housing-employment showed a steady upward trend and its spatial distribution pattern changed from clustered to high in the west and low in the east. 2) The coordination of rural housing-employment at the county level can be divided into six types, including high coordination type, medium coordination type, balanced medium type, balanced medium-low efficiency type, strong employment medium-low efficiency type, and strong housing medium-low efficiency type. The high coordination type was mainly distributed in the core area of the main metropolitan area. The medium-low imbalance type was mainly concentrated in the periphery of the main metropolitan area and the northeastern area of the municipality. The severe imbalance type was mainly concentrated in the key districts and counties that received assistance from the rural revitalization program. 3) There was a higher degree of coordination in the economically more developed counties in the main metropolitan area, and these counties can attract their rural population to live and work there. After the implementation of the targeted poverty alleviation program and the rural revitalization strategy, the rural housing-employment coordination in the economically less developed northeast and southeast areas of Chongqing showed a faster improvement trend compared with the main metropolitan area. The backflow of rural population has occurred. Finally, based on the types and spatial distribution characteristics of rural housing-employment coordination, the article put forward a differentiated path for rural revitalization.

  • Reviews
    TANG Lisha, LONG Hualou, ZHOU Guipeng, GE Dazhuan, YANG Jiayi
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(9): 1853-1868.

    This study reviewed the research progress of Chinese agricultural geography, and examined the change of themes of agricultural studies in China. This article discussed the development characteristics of agricultural geography in different time periods, and summarized the experience and achievements, which has theoretical and practical values for promoting the development of agricultural geography and meet the needs of agricultural production and rural development in China. The study used literature review and comparative analysis to analyze the characteristics of Chinese agricultural geography research in different periods. The results show that: 1) From the perspective of research process, agricultural geography research can be divided into four stages—historical description period, agricultural collectivization period, reform and development period, and modern revolution period. 2) Modern agricultural geography in China, mainly involves four research fields—sustainable utilization of agricultural resources, sustainable development of regional agriculture, adjustment and transformation of agricultural structure, and comprehensive study of agricultural and rural geography. 3) Future agricultural geography research will focus on themes around climate change, urban and rural integration, adaptive resilience, and digital technologies and apply them to the practices of development of decision -making.

  • Rural Tourism, Rural Recreational Agriculture, and Forest-based Health andWellness Tourism
    ZHAO Qiuhao, JIN Pingbin, WANG Bingbing, XU Pengfei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(8): 1541-1555.

    Evaluating tourism competitiveness is important for ensuring the sustainable development of rural tourism. In the digital information era, multi-source data and machine learning methods can efficiently reveal the characteristics of relevant elements from a geospatial perspective, providing a new method for scientific evaluation of rural tourism competitiveness. Based on multi-source remote sensing and Internet data at the village level from 2019 to 2022, this study identified the rural tourism competitiveness in Lin'an District of Hangzhou City using four machine learning models, including logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting tree (XGB), and the optimal model was selected to reveal the spatial pattern of competitiveness and analyze the critical indicators of identification. The results show that: 1) The accuracy of the rural tourism competitiveness evaluation using the random forest (RF) model is better than the other three machine learning models. 2) Tourism resources, service facilities, accessibility, and policy conditions are the main factors affecting the rural tourism competitiveness. 3) Villages in the high tourism competitiveness category are distributed in strips in the northern and western areas of Lin'an District, with superior development conditions. The medium competitiveness villages are distributed in clumps in the eastern and central-western areas of the district, which have lower quality of tourism resources and service facilities. Low-competitiveness villages are distributed in patches in the central and western areas of the district, with superior ecological environment and land endowment, but lacking resource development and policy support. The study results may provide some policy references and technical supports for promoting the sustainable development of rural tourism.

  • Articles
    BAO Yanlei, WU Chaoyang, ZHENG Dongbo
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1124-1138.

    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change, and the effects of different meteorological factors and changes in atmospheric pollutants on peak vegetation growth have not been fully explored. In this study, we used satellite observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from 2001 to 2015 to investigate the temporal changes of peak of growing season (POS) and maximum vegetation growth (NDVImax) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by the Theil-Sen slope estimator. We also analyzed the effects of preseason temperature and precipitation on POS and NDVImax considering the effects of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to investigate the indirect effect of PM2.5 on POS and NDVImax in the region, and the direct effects of PM2.5 on POS and NDVImax by partial correlation analyses. The results showed that earlier POS and higher NDVImax occurred in the Yanshan Mountains and Taihang Mountains, POS in the eastern and southern plains were relatively late, and the NDVImax in Zhangjiakou City, the Yanshan Mountains, and the Taihang Mountains showed a significant increasing trend. Preseason precipitation had a greater impact on POS and NDVImax (the area where significant correlation was found accounted for 12.9% and 15.2% of the study area), which was similar to the effect of temperature (8.7% and 5.9%, respectively). Under the impact of PM2.5, the feedbacks of precipitation and temperature were different in different regions and seasons, and the responses of phenology to the changes of precipitation and temperature caused by PM2.5 also showed spatial heterogeneity. PM2.5 led to the underestimation of the advancing effect of precipitation on POS in the central and eastern plains and northern Yanshan Mountains, overestimation of the advancing effect of precipitation on POS in the northern Zhangjiakou area, and overestimation of the advancing effect of temperature on POS in the eastern and southern plains and the Bashang areas. Overall, the indirect effect of PM2.5 on NDVImax was reducing NDVImax (P<0.1). In the long run, PM2.5 would directly advance POS and increase NDVImax in most areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (P<0.1). Our study revealed the response of peak vegetation growth to climate factors and atmospheric pollutants in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which are of great significance for an in-depth understanding of the response and feedback of vegetation growth to changes in the climate and air pollution.

  • Reviews
    XIONG Wei, ZHANG Xinyue, LIU Zhigao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(6): 1181-1191.

    Infrastructure investment and construction is an important factor for understanding socioeconomic development. As the large-scale cross-border infrastructure investment and construction continue to thrive in recent years, however, it is not unusual to find those failed to achieve sustainable development. Such infrastructure-led development model is increasingly questioned. This article reviewed different conceptualizations and characteristics of infrastructure and infrastructure-led development model, and examined relevant Chinese and international research focusing on the theoretical assumptions, bases, and explanation of mechanism through time: 1) During the Keynesian period, infrastructure as public goods matched national policies and provided key support for industrial and social development. 2) In the neoliberal era, infrastructure, on the one hand as an "input factor of production", influenced socioeconomic development by external effects; and on the other hand, as a "component" embedded in the socioeconomic system, adapted to and adjusted the socioeconomic environment. 3) In the post-neoliberal period, the mutual influence between complicated infrastructure and the socioeconomic environment reveals that their relationships are a dynamic process rather than simply promoting or suppressing. Therefore, combined with the theory of co-evolution, this article proposed a research framework of "infrastructure-institutions and culture-industry and trade foundations" co-evolution for sustainable development-oriented infrastructure investment and construction practices.

  • Articles
    HE Shanfeng, LI Zheng, CHEN Chaobing, WU Shaohong, PAN Tao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY. 2023, 42(7): 1355-1364.

    Identifying the characteristics of landing typhoons and analyzing typhoon hazard are of great practical significance for scientifically improving the risk prevention capability of typhoon disasters. Based on the best track data set of tropical cyclones from the China Meteorological Administration and the data of the China Typhoon Network, this study conducted a statistical analysis of the characteristics of typhoons that landed in Hainan Province from 1949 to 2021, and carried out a typhoon hazard assessment in cities and counties of the province based on typhoon frequency, intensity, and tracks. The results show that: 1) In the past 73 years, the average annual number of typhoons that landed in Hainan Province was about 2.3, and the frequency of landings was gradually declining. In each year, typhoon landing time was concentrated in July to October, and the accumulated landfall between August and September accounted for about 48% of the annual numbers. 2) Typhoon landing sites were located in the eastern coastal cities and counties of Hainan Province, mainly in Wenchang and Wanning. High-frequency typhoon transit areas were predominantly in central Hainan Province along the southeast-northwest line with zonal distribution. 3) The spatial pattern of typhoon hazard level in Hainan Province was similar to its typhoon transit frequency. Generally, typhoon hazard in coastal cities and counties was higher than inland cities and counties. Dongfang City, Ledong Li Autonomous County, and Qiongzhong Li and Miao Autonomous County were among the highest hazard level regions. The results of this research can provide a reference and basis for typhoon disaster prevention and mitigation and long-term national economic development planning in Hainan Province.