Table of Content

    25 September 2008, Volume 27 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Spatial Values of Coastal Environments and Its Policy Implications in Tianjin, China
    GAO Xiaolu, ZHAI Guofang,
    2008, 27 (5):  1-11.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (987KB) ( )   Save

    In the past years, large - scale coastal development accompanied by water pollution, excessive industrial development, and marine land reclamation have seriously degraded the natural environment and ecosystem of costal areas in China. To solve these problems, it is deemed extremely important to balance coastal development with the preservation of environment and ecosystem by effective policies. This study addressed the above issue with a case study of Tianjin. With a policy choice experiment approach, the willingness to pay of coastal residents was analyzed toward various policies leading to environmental improvement, disaster prevention, and economic development. Accordingly, the values of coastal environments were quantitatively identified, together with their differentiations across geographical, socio- economic and psychological spaces. The results provided significant insights for the policies of coastal management in that, it helps to determine the main strategies of coastal development in specific areas and provides valuable research bases for the policy- making of ecological and environmental compensation.

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    Holocene Environmental Change and Its Impacts on Cultur al Development in the Weihe Basin
    ZHOU Qunying, HUANG Chunchang
    2008, 27 (5):  12-18.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (953KB) ( )   Save

    The Holocene climate experienced several widespread high - amplitude and long - duration change. While at about the same time, ancient societies also witnessed several stages of rise and fall. This paper through combining experimental data of environmental evolution with high resolution historical data, it is showed that some coupling relationships exist between evolution of human culture and evolution of soil formation in the Weihe valley during Holocene. During 8500 - 3100 aB.P., with advantageous water, soil and organisms resources, the Dadiwan culture, the Yangshao culture, the Longshan culture and the Xiashang culture developed, original settling- down dry farming culture formed gradually, which laid sound foundation for agriculture civilization in the Weihe valley; Among which, land use of arable farming was replaced largely by pastoral farming in the mixed area of agriculture and animal husbandry in north Weihe region between 4000- 3000 aB.P., because of dry and cold weather resulted in environment deterioration and soil degradation. At the beginning of 3100 aB.P., as the climate has become dry, and dust storms and dust - fall occurred frequently in the whole Weihe valley, the recent loess (L0) has begun to accumulate and gradually covered the mid - Holocene soil (S0). The change from soil formation to loess accumulation indicates environment deterioration and soil degradation. Degeneracy of water, soil and organism has shaken the economic foundations of dry agriculture and nomadic industry and affected the social development of Xian Zhou and Western Zhou Dynasty.

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    The Analysis of Regional Climate Change Featur es over Yunnan in Recent 50 Year s
    CHENG Jiangang, XIE Mingen
    2008, 27 (5):  19-26.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.003
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    Some features of the climate change and response of extreme strong rainfall events and droughts to global climate warming over Yunnan Province have been analyzed by using temperature and rainfall data. The regional climate changing trend also has been explored respectively in the areas of Shangri- la, Xishuangbanna and Kunming. The results shows Yunnan temperature changing trend in recent 50 years behaved nearly in paralleling with the global, Northern Hemisphere and China, Yunnan temperature changing range is slightly more than the global and a little less than the Northern Hemisphere and China. The average temperature over Yunnan Province has been increasing since the late 1980s and has become most obviously warmed since the 1990s, and 13 warm winters have occurred since 1986. The number of frost days in winter and spring has gradually decreased in many areas over Yunnan. With the climate warming in recent years, the number of snow days in Shangri- la and fog days in Xishuangbanna has been decreased most obviously and the number of rain days also has decreased gradually, the change of heavy rain occurrence frequency was not obviously, but rainstorm appeared frequently, the occurrence frequency of heat wave and drought events increased. Upon entering the 21st century, the changing trend of rainfall over Yunnan has been reduced, the number of heat wave and drought events has been changed frequently and increased, and the occurrence frequency interval changed from 2- 3 years to 1- 2 years. The spring and summer continuous drought in 2005 and spring drought in 2006 were respectively most severe drought events over Yunnan Province in recent 50 and 20 years.

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    Extr action of Soil Organic Matter Information by Hyper spectr al Remote Sensing
    ZHOU Ping, WANG Runsheng, YAN Bokun, YANG Suming, WANG Qinghua
    2008, 27 (5):  27-34.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1021KB) ( )   Save

    This paper reported research conducted to document the ability of the OMIS- 1 (400- 2500nm) reflectance sensor and the spectrophotometer ASD FieldSpec FR to predict soil organic matter (SOM) of surface soil, and correspondingly to achieve SOM mapping. Data acquired from field survey and hyperspectral airborne sensor were precessed to determine the surface soil characteristic of an agricultural area located in Dongliang village, Zhaoyuan of Shandong province. The method adopted was based on correlation and a forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis linking SOM content. The results showed that SOM could be well evaluated by the logarithm 1st differential reflectivity using linear regression model. This model would be available for evaluating and predicting soil organic matter by spectral reflectance and would provide guidance for the management of SOMand the prediction of fertility in precision agriculture.

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    Progr ess and Prospect of Study on Car rying Capacity of Resour ce and Environment of City Cluster s
    LIU Xiaoli, FANG Chuanglin
    2008, 27 (5):  35-42.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (385KB) ( )   Save

    The study on carrying capacity of resource and environment of city clusters has important theoretic and practical meanings. The carrying capacity of resource and environment of city clusters is a special kind of regional carrying capacity of resource and environment. The scholars at home have discussed and appraised more about the study on carrying capacity for single factor of resource and environment. This paper mainly remarked on the progress of study on integrated carrying capacity of resource and environment of regions as well as in city clusters at home and abroad. It found that at present the research fruits about carrying capacity of resource and environment of city clusters are limited, and the shortages in the correlative studies mainly display as: (1) study on carrying capacity is still not deep and has not formed a perfect theoretic system; (2) study on carrying capacity of resource and environment mainly focuses on the single factor and but lacks that on the compositive factors; (3) the concept and research methods of carrying capacity of resource and environment awaits deep discussion; and (4) study on the carrying capacity of resource and environment of city clusters has not considered enough the characteristics of the exoteric system. Aiming at these shortages, the main study trends and orientations in the future can be summarized as: (1) to strengthen the study on the carrying capacity of exoteric system of city clusters from the synthetic and multi- factors angles; (2) to think much of the holistic character of regional spatial structure of city clusters; (3) to attach importance to the influences of social and cultural factors such as science and technology, management and so on; (4) to enhance the study on the methods of integrated measure and quantificational calculation of carrying capacity of resource and environment of city clusters; and (5) to pay attention to the utilization of advanced technique and methods like complex system methods, GIS, RS and so on.

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    Var iation of Summer Pr ecipitation in Tianjin Region and Its Urbanization Effect
    YU Xuan, YANG Guiyu, ZHOU Zuhao, WANG Jianhua, QIN Dayong
    2008, 27 (5):  43-48.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (471KB) ( )   Save

    The precipitation data of 25 rain gauges in Tianjin from 1956 to 2005 were selected to analyze the spatial and temporal variation using accumulated variance, correlation analysis and Mann- Kendall method. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the urbanization effect on summer precipitation were revealed by the spatial analysis tool of GIS. The result showed that: more than 70% of the rainfall in a whole year concentrates in summer, and the summer precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend during the past 50 years. The summer precipitation slopes of the 25 sites were below zero, and 60% of them reached the significant level of. The weighted average of summer precipitation showed the slope from 1956 to 2005 was 24.7 mm/10a, the slope was 7.6 mm/10a from 1956 to 1988, and it was - 28.6 mm/10a from 1989 to 2005. So it was concluded the decline of summer precipitation mainly happened in recent 17 years. After an advanced study, it was found that the down trend of summer precipitation differed between northern and southern, between urban and suburban areas, which showed rain island effect. The effect turned more significant after the early 1970s, and had a strong relation with amount of the rainfall. The rain island effect was more apparent in high rainfall years than that of low rainfall years.

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    Var iations of Groundwater Depth in Yellow River Delta in Recent Two Decades
    LI Shengnan, WANG Genxu, DENG Wei, LU Yuxiang,
    2008, 27 (5):  49-56.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1222KB) ( )   Save

    Groundwater is one of the most important aspects of hydrological cycle in Yellow River Delta. Groundwater systems play an important role in integrating land and water management as well as in maintaining and protecting wetland. In this study, the isograms of groundwater depth show that the depth of groundwater near the Yellow River is deeper and near the sea and the interfluvial lowlands is shallower in the typical region. Based on the bivariate and partial analysis by SPSS 11.5 software, the interactions between groundwater depth and precipitation or runoff quantity are analyzed both on the annual and monthly variations of groundwater. It is revealed that: the variations of groundwater depth in Yellow River Delta (besides the nature reserves) do not have obvious rule and are controlled by multiple driver factors, which have different effects on groundwater depth at different stages or sites. In this region, the variations of groundwater are complicated and not controlled by precipitation and runoff quantity. Moreover, human activities, including the irrigated- runoff, the deposited- runoff in reservoirs from the Yellow River which provide urban domestic and industrial water quantity, may become more important influencing factors which lead to the rise of groundwater level. This study provides some basic information as requirement for the management of groundwater resource and protection of wetland in the delta. However, limited by data and length of the paper, the quantitative relationship between human activities and groundwater depth will be studied in future research.

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    Analysis of the Runoff and Sediment Development Distr ibution and Influencing Factor of Fenhe River dur ing the Last 50 Year s
    YUAN Zhihua, YAN Junping, LIU Yufeng
    2008, 27 (5):  57-63.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.008
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    Based on the hydrologic data from the Hejin station of Fenhe River since the 1950s, the seasonal and annual change of runoff and sediment was analyzed,and the influence of human activities on the runoff was estimated. The results show that the seasonal distribution of runoff and sediment was quite uneven, while there was obvious increase in the Cvy and the degree of stability became lower and lower. The annual distribution of runoff and sediment was different in great scope, annual runoff was rainless period since the 1980s. To analysis the trend of runoff and sediment change using the cumulative filter method, the results show that there was obvious decline, and the variation of sediment change was greater runoff change. Analyses of double mass curve of annual runoff and precipitation showed that the decline in the runoff occurred in 1964. On average, 75.912% of total annual runoff reducition was induced by human activities.Human activities were main reasons of runoff reduction in Fenhe River basin.

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    Optimum Study on Landscape Pattern Change in the Western Region of Henan Province in Recent Near ly 20 Year s
    TIAN Li, LIANG Guofu, SHEN Huaifei, DING Shengyan
    2008, 27 (5):  64-70.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1032KB) ( )   Save

    At the regional scale, the characteristics of the spatial and temporal changes of the land- use exert significant impact on the stability and structural difference. In the study area, the technologies of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) were applied, meanwhile three LANDSAT TM images of 1987, 1995 and 2000 were interpreted. The combination of land- use GPS data and ground- based data was taken as the main data source. We analyzed the change of time and space landscape pattern in the study area with typical landscape index including the level of landscape and type of landscape level. The dynamic change of landscape patterns was dealt with according to landscape pattern connectivity and the degree of relationship of landscape feature. Through the perspective of function - start and then based on minimum cumulative cost algorithm, relevant factors in different time and space were found out, meanwhile human interference was intensified. Based on the landscape pattern on the timeline changes, further analysis of pattern changes was carried out and the driving force was generated by these changes in the ecological effects. Integrating natural factors (such as the slope, friction, distance etc.) with man- made interference factors (such as the type of landscape, the degree of fragmentation of the landscape, etc.), it is possible to optimize the methods used to identify visual effects needed to optimize the landscape pattern of key areas, in order to maintain ecological stability and socioeconomic development, to improve the rational distribution of the structure of space landscape, and to improve the watershed biodiversity and ecosystem services.

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    Cultivated Land Quality Assessment Based on SPOT Multispectr al Remote Sensing Image:A Case Study in J imo City of Shandong Province
    FANG Linna, SONG Jinping
    2008, 27 (5):  71-78.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2979KB) ( )   Save

    The cultivated land quality assessment study was carried out in Jimo city, Shandong Province, based on SPOT multispectral remote sensing image (2004) and data using in cultivated land fertility survey in 2004. Cultivated land quality assessment indicators were abstracted from SPOT multispectral image, e.g. NDVI, DVI and RVI, which represented soil fertility, water availability and soil degradation respectively. The assessment indicator system was constructed using the indicators mentioned above. By virtue of PSR framework, the assessment model was developed in order to explore the feasibility of RS technology in cultivated land quality assessment. The result showed that local cultivated land prevalently had a good quality. This paper classified the local cultivated land into six grades and corresponding suggestions were put forward respectively to promote policy making for land protection. The paper showed that the model was competent for its work in the study area and evaluation results would supply beneficial information for sustainable land management.

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    Method in Implementation Evaluation of Gener al Land Use Planning in Beijing
    HUANG Daquan, LIN Jian, LIANG Jinshe, ZHAO Jun
    2008, 27 (5):  79-86.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1844KB) ( )   Save

    In order to optimize the land use structure and realize the land resource assign rationally in different departments, China has implemented two rounds of general land use planning. As a decision- making process, there are some unconformities between the general land use planning and the practical condition. Therefore, an implementation evaluation of general land use planning is needed to provide experiences and references before a new round of planning revision's developing. Basing on the space analysis function of ARCGIS9.0 and the techniques and methods of GIS technology and method, this article analyses the land- use changes with the data collected in the research of “Evaluation of Implementation of General Land Use Planning in Beijing (1997- 2001)”, and identified three most concerned plot types: plot in accordance with planning, plot overstepping planning, and plot without implementation. These three plot types are quantitatively located on the map of implementation evaluation. As an exploration, the author designed a set of GIS technical route and method according to evaluation of implementation of general land use planning. This method has the advantages of convenient, valuable in application and easy to have normal and regular monitoring.

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    Review of Resear ch on Land Use and Land Cover Change in Coastal Zone
    MA Wandong, ZHANG Yuanzhi, SHI Ping, XING Qianguo
    2008, 27 (5):  87-94.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (394KB) ( )   Save

    The environmental characteristics of coastal zone are intricate and variable for it is the interaction area of the land, the ocean and the atmosphere. The research on land use and land cover change in coastal zone is the key parts of the Land and Ocean Interaction of Coastal Zone (LOICZ) research. The status of land use and land cover change research, especially in coastal zone is very important in global change research. This paper reviewed the research on land use and land cover change in coastal zone home and abroad. The aims and contents of land use and land cover change research in coastal zone have been stated and introduced in this paper. Finally, the existing problems in the process of research on land use and land cover change in coastal zone is discussed, such as the shortage of the research areas of environmental friability, superficiality of modeling and driving force mechanism research, the dynamic ambiguity of climate and water environment, and so on. So the trend and perspective of land use and land cover change in coastal zone in future are identified: 1) strengthening the research of land use and land cover change in coastal zone; 2) the response patterns between land use and land cover change and the coastal environment should be studied in future; and 3) deepening the relationship pattern research between coastal sustainable development and land use and land cover change.

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    The Total Shift and Evolution of the Yangze River Delta Container Por t System
    LIANG Shuangbo CAO Youhui, CAO Weidong, WU Wei
    2008, 27 (5):  95-102.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (780KB) ( )   Save

    It is interesting to examine the validity of the Hayuth model in the context of the Yangtze River Delta, especially when considering the differences between the coastal container port ranges and rivers container port ranges or different port categories. In this paper, a distinction between small ports (average container traffic for the period 1990- 2006 of less than 100000TEU), medium - sized ports (between 100000 and 400000TEU) and large container ports (at least 400000TEU). Then, share - shift analysis models are used to measure the total shift and the evolution of the Yangtze River Delta container port system from 1990 to 2006. By calculating the concerned statistics, the author holds that there are four obvious features: (1) From 1994 to 1998, Shanghai was one of the major winners in terms of the total shift, but in the other periods, it lost some TEU. (2)Ningbo port has been the major winner in terms of the total shift since 1990 and shows the best performances in the period of 1990- 1994 and 1998- 2006. (3)In the mass, the coastal container port range is superiorior, along rivers container port range is inferior. The net volume of containers shifted between the respective ranges reached an expectionally high level in the third period. In this period the coastal container port range won a potential growth of approximately 607046 TEU to ports situated in the other ranges. (4)In competition, large container port ranges have won much TEU since 1994;middle container port ranges lost throughout some TEU (from a positive total shift of 22109TEU in the first period to a negative shift in the last); small container port ranges have won much TEU since 1990. A systematic analysis has been carried out on the formation of the total shift change. Finally, this paper holds that there are three development stages for this container port system: initial container port development, hub or load center container port and large deep- sea direct container port.

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    The Pattern of Development in the Restr icted Zone of Liaoning Province Dur ing the Tr ansition Per iod Based on Major Function Or iented Zoning
    LI Fujia, HAN Zenglin, WANG Li
    2008, 27 (5):  103-111.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1916KB) ( )   Save

    The formulation and implementation of the major function oriented zoning in China is a long time- span complex process. A period in this process, which the pattern of the development in all regions transit from the traditional one to the new one established by major function oriented zoning, called the transition period. The transition period is the key element of the implementation of the major function oriented zoning. Because during this period, there are a lot of major practical problems that have to be resolved, such as the changes in industrial system and so on. The restricted zone faced the most prominent and complex development difficulties. Taking the typical and representative part of the old northeast industrial base- Liaoning Province as an example, we analyzed the development difficulties of the restricted zone in the province: reconcile traditional industries and environmental protection policies, rehousing the overloading population, and selecting alternative industries of the regions lack of resources and so on. Finally, many targeted manners are suggested: to establish industrial parks surround the restricted zone, to gather the traditional industries with develop prospects; to develop ecological and characteristic economy in the restricted zone; and to perfect the governor performance appraisal system and legal system and so on.

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    The Spatial Pattern of Wor ld Energy Based on Energy System
    ZHU Mengjue, CHEN Zhongnuan, CAI Guotian
    2008, 27 (5):  112-120.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.015
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    Based on system theory, the paper analyzes the spatial pattern of world energy including energy resource base, energy production, energy consumption, energy transportation and the internal connection among them. The paper also analyzes three amounts (total amount, increment, average) and two structures (category structure, regional structure), and discusses the pattern of world energy geographical politics and the impact on China. Some suggestions are made as follows. First of all, we must acquire a correct energy system outlook; what's more, China should constantly improve energy consumption structure, develop new energy sources,and carry out resource saving strategy and structural diversity strategy; finally, China must seek various energy import channels, carry out energy transportation strategy and energy diplomatic strategy, and establish a new steady, economic, clean and sustainable energy security system.

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    Study on the Method of Ar eal Differ entiation Based on SOFM
    HAO Chengyuan, WU Shaohong, LI Shuangcheng
    2008, 27 (5):  121-127.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.05.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (742KB) ( )   Save

    In the south of Yunnan Province in China, there are Mt. Laobie, Mt. Bangma, Mt. Wuliang and Mt. Ailao, which influenced its climate and vegetation. And the study area is commonly controlled by the Indian monsoon system and East Asian monsoon system, i.e., it is one of the main areas where the two summer monsoon systems merge. Therefore, the obvious regional difference of spatio - temporal heterogeneity of vegetation is induced by the complicated topographical terrain and the monsoon climate system, which cause various river hydrologic characteristics, soil types, vegetation types, etc. That is, these unique microhabitats formed by such kinds of combination of complicated topography and subtropical warm- humid air current are beneficial to differentiation and variation of local species to a certain extent, thus leading to even more diverse vegetation type. Clustering analysis based on self - organizing feature mapping (SOFM) network is a new unsupervised clustering method that develops from neutral networks. In this paper, the neural network has been trained to perform complex functions in various fields of application including elevation, temperature, precipitation, wind speed, active accumulated temperature, evapotranspiration potential and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) at 30 meteorological stations. The result reveals that Ailao Mountain is such a firm barrier blocking the cold air coming from northern into southwest mountain region, and such a possible boundary between summer southwestern monsoon and winter northeastern monsoon of our country that it becomes a demarcation boundary of climate sort between west and east regions. This way, SOFM network is used in areal differentiation study of ecological geographical, is a rather good comprehensive physical regionalization method. For it can reflect the similarities and differences of different areas near the basic boundaries, and reveal a continuous process from quantitative changes to qualitative changes.

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