Industrial revitalization is the core content and a breakthrough point of the strategy of rural revitalization. With the change of rural functions, leisure tourism, catering and accommodation, cultural experience, health care, and elderly care industries in rural areas not only can make use of the rural resources, but also can meet the needs of urban and rural residents and thus have become alternative paths to promote rural innovation and entrepreneurship, stimulate rural vitality, and broaden the channels for farming households to increase income. Speed up the transformation and upgrading of rural tourism industry and improving the consumption structure of rural tourists are not only an important starting point for the implementation of the strategy of rural revitalization, but also a major practice of "turning green mountains into golden mountains and silver mountains". As a common result of economic and social developments, the lock-in effect is gradually emerging in the development of rural tourism industry in China. In order to ensure the sustainable development of rural tourism industry in accordance with local conditions, this study examined the relevant theories and the development status of Chinese and international rural tourism industry. First, expert consultation and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods were combined to determine the main control factors of the regional lock-in effect of rural tourism industry, analyze the relationship between the factors that affect the development of rural tourism industry, study the mechanism of the regional lock-in of rural tourism industry, and build a multiple lock-in mechanism framework of the comprehensive effect of internal factors and external environment. Under the influence of traditional small-farmer rationale, the dynamic factors of rural resources endowment, operation and management, talent and technology, stakeholder participation, capacity of village collectives, institution and policy, market demand, and other factors form a positive feedback mechanism, which continuously strengthens the regional lock-in effect of rural tourism industry. Based on the analysis of the positive and negative effects of multiple lock-in, Guantou Village, a typical rural tourism village in Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, was selected as the case study area. In 2005, Guantou Village set foot on the road of rural tourism development based on the large-scale management of agritainment by relying on the scenic sites and providing supporting tourism infrastructure for these sites. Through the field survey of Guantou Village, in-depth interviews were conducted with different research subjects including farmers, ordinary villagers, village leaders, and tourists. In total there are 110 farmers and 3081 beds in the village at present. This study examined the characteristics of cognitive lock-in, market lock-in, tourism product lock-in, and business model lock-in of the tourism industry in the village, and made a comprehensive comparative analysis of other relevant cases. Finally, the article put forward three characteristic paths: the service quality improvement path of market specialization locking and disarding outdated operation; the cultural value activation path of product differentiation locking and discarding homogeneity and low quality, and the co-development, sharing, and win-win path of mode unification locking and discarding closed-up individualization, so as to facilitate the revitalization of rural tourism industry and the construction of beautiful countryside.
Based on a multi-factor comprehensive perspective, a conceptual model of micro-scale rural regional system was constructed with land use and livelihood dimensions. Taking Shangwang Village in Xi'an City as an example, and using remote sensing images, survey questionnaires, and interview data, this study explored the transformation of land use and the livelihood change of farmers in a "suburban village". On this basis, four "scenery-surrounding villages" with different location characteristics and development types were compared and analyzed, and the following conclusions were obtained: 1) With the scaling-up and specialization of rural tourism development, the land use of Shangwang Village has gradually become diversified, compounded, and tourism-focused. The combination of farmers' livelihood strategies begin to change, and the correlation between employment, income, consumption, and tourism continues to increase. Shangwang Village has been transformed from a traditional agricultural village to a destination for rural tourism. 2) The transformation and development of Shangwang Village is the result of the comprehensive effect of internal and external factors. Its superior location is the basis of the transformation and development, and the timely intervention and regulation of the government is an important support. The development of the tourist market of rural tourism is its external driving force, and the rational choice of farmers is its internal driving force. 3) The differences between the "suburban village" and the "scenery-surrounding villages" in terms of terrain condition, resources endowment, and tourist market due to their different locations have led to the differentiation of the rural tourism development and have affected their transformation and development processes.
As a multi-level and organic regional system composed of different levels of nodes, a village and town system is the spatial carrier of rural factor agglomeration and implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. It is of great importance to build a rank-size appropriate, livable, and efficient village and town system and promote the strategy of rural revitalization scientifically by examining the logical relationship between the village and town system and rural revitalization, and exploring the spatial optimization path of different types of rural village and town systems. Based on the sampling data of 356 villages and 14 towns in Feng County of Jiangsu Province, this study analyzed the agglomeration capacity of population, agricultural, and non-agricultural factors, spatial polarization characteristics, and the coordination pattern of housing-jobs in Feng County by constructing the evaluation system of village and town system from the two dimensions of rank-level appropriateness and the coordination degree of housing-jobs. This study then identified the spatial types of rural revitalization based on the division of different types of villages, and finally, proposed rural revitalization paths and specific measures for different spatial types. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The village and town system of Feng County is characterized by relatively stable rank distribution, weak spatial polarization, relative imbalance of housing-jobs in some areas, and insufficient motivation of rural revitalization. 2) According to the characteristics of factor agglomeration and housing-job coordination, the villages can be divided into six types—weak employment functional type with lagging population and non-agricultural factors (I), weak employment functional type with lagging population and agricultural factors (II), low-level housing-job coordination type with relatively lagging population and non-agricultural factors (III), high-level housing-job coordination type with relatively coupled factors (IV), weak residential functional type with lagging non-agricultural factors (V), and weak residential functional type with lagging agricultural factors (VI). 3) Based on the result of village spatial type identification, this study further delineated the core area, peripheral area, and potential area of promoting rural revitalization in the future; from the perspective of cultivating the growth pole of rural revitalization, building the demonstration area of rural housing-job coordination, improving the self-development ability of the peripheral area, and promoting the coordination of housing-jobs at the county level by undertaking the transfer of resource factors in potential area, this study developed the basic thoughts and suggested specific paths of the rural revitalization strategy.