Table of Content

    28 August 2017, Volume 36 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Conceptual and research frameworks of rural production space system
    Cheng WANG, Haoying LI
    2017, 36 (8):  913-923.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.001
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    As China enters a new stage of rural transformation, rural production space is changing from household-based fragmented land management to moderate-scale land management of various forms. New conflicts due to the spatial competition of multiple stakeholders in the rural area and disordered spatial allocation of rural production resources have arisen. By introducing system theory thinking into the study of rural production space, this research puts forward the concept of rural production space system. Inspired by a series of theories and concepts, including the space concept in geography, behavior space and spatial behavior, the theory of "production of space," and the thoughts of regional system of human-land relation, this study traced the theoretical origin of rural production space system and proposed its core connotation. Following the logic of conceptual development to operation and regulation, this study proposed four basic problem domains of rural production space system, including its theoretical analysis, mechanism of change, mechanism of formation, and optimization and regulation. After briefly outlining a research framework of rural production space system, this article prospects three important objects of future research. We need to understand the essential factors that rural production space system consists of, as well as the definition of their relationships; focus on the mechanism of interactions between "human" and "land"; and pay close attention to the behavioral aspect of human-land relationship. Also, we should explore the use of new approaches that are multidisciplinary and integrate multiple methods. On these bases, this study aimed at providing a theoretical basis for the research of sustainable development of rural production space, expanding from basic research to practical applications.

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    Overview on estimation models of land net primary productivity integrating remote sensing data
    Changqiao HONG, Xiaobin JIN, Changchun CHEN, Shenmin WANG, Xuhong YANG, Xiaomin XIANG
    2017, 36 (8):  924-939.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.002
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    As a general term that describes the accumulation of organic matters within specific temporal and spatial scopes on crop land, woodland, grassland, or other types of lands, land net primary productivity (NPP) is considered an important parameter to measure carbon cycle, guide land use, assess ecological security, reflect environmental changes, and indicate the level of food security. The estimation precision of NPP is significantly influenced by the type of models and input of key surface parameters of ecosystems. In recent years, with the continuous growth of remote sensing data and the rapid development of remote sensing data processing technologies, NPP estimation models based on remote sensing data, as compared to NPP estimation using traditional observation data such as climate and soil data with coarse spatiotemporal resolutions, have become very prominent in analyzing temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Based on the Web of Science and CNKI databases and statistical analysis methods, this study systematically reviewed research on NPP and its estimation models integrating remote sensing data in China and internationally. The commonly used models can be divided into four categories: statistical models, light use efficiency models, process models, and coupling models. We examined the mechanisms, differences, suitability, and limitation of the various kinds of models, Based on an analysis of the difficulties and scientific challenges that face integrating remote sensing data into NPP estimation models, research prospects are put forward with regard to model mechanism, influencing factors, data provision, parameter derivation, expansion of spatiotemporal scales, and hardware and software supports.

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    Migrant workers' migration patterns from the dual perspectives of attributes and network structures
    Yike REN, Liancheng SONG, Ruifang SHE, Haifeng DU
    2017, 36 (8):  940-951.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.003
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    Migrant workers' migration at the micro level is associated with intercity economic linkages at the macro level. Jointly considering attributes of migrant workers and source/destination cities and network relation structures provides a powerful tool for the analysis of such association. Using the survey data of 1142 migrant workers and network data of 198 cities from official websites, this article analyzes the effects of individual and city attributes, individual social network factors, and city network factors on migrant workers' migration. Regression results indicate that individual attributes such as age, education, occupation type, working years, emigration and immigration areas, and individual network factors such as the type of helpers in job seeking and whether the helpers hold a public service position, have significant impact on migrant workers' choice of destination area, migration distance, and income. Through analyzing city attributes and whole networks' out-degree and in-degree, correlation between networks, scale-free properties, core-periphery structure, and small world characteristics, the following migration patterns are revealed: from underdeveloped areas to developed cities, pursuing high wages at the expense of long distance, clustering in target cities, no guarantee of high salary working in developed cities, and migrating to developed cities directly rather than through indirectly routes. Based on the above conclusions, some countermeasures and suggestions are proposed for guiding migration decision making, reducing information cost, and optimizing the allocation of labor resources.

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    Spatiotemporal and structural characteristics of interprovincial population flow during the 2015 Spring Festival travel rush
    Ziyu ZHAO, Ye WEI, Ruiqiu PANG, Ran YANG, Shijun WANG
    2017, 36 (8):  952-964.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.00
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    China is one of the most active areas of the world's population mobility. The social structure of China during the socioeconomic transition period, the country's development phase, and its unique cultural background together form the Spring Festival travel rush, a social behavioral phenomenon with a significant regularity and a high degree of uniformity and unity. By constructing the 2015 Spring Festival interprovincial population flow relation matrix, we examined the dynamics of population flow and its spatial characteristics. The results are as follows: (1) 13-17 February and 25 February-1 March were the peak population flow periods before and after the holiday season. Inflow and outflow of population between provinces during these time periods can be indicative of interprovincial migration of floating population in China. We identified 14 net population inflow provinces and 17 net population outflow provinces. The top six and bottom eight population inflow provinces in the eastern and central regions form the double vertical pattern of immigration and emigration of floating population in China. (2) Provincial population outflow primary directions are clear and flow from the central to the eastern coastal areas is the main direction and path of migration of the floating population. Guangdong and Beijing are the primary migration destinations of the floating population in southern and northern china. These two province/municipality monopolized 2/3 of the interprovincial population flow of the country. (3) The source areas of the floating population in the Beijing and Tianjin area, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta—the three major population agglomeration areas—are significantly different. Those in the Beijing and Tianjin area and the Pearl River Delta are mainly directly from the floating population emigration provinces, but the Yangtze River Delta has formed a more advanced network structure. (4) Mobility-based study on the temporal and spatial characteristics of China's population flow contains a wealth of information on floating population migration, and the Spring Festival travel rush provides an opportunity for such study. By comparing the result with previous research results, similarity between the new data and many conclusions based on the census data is clear.

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    Evaluating method on service quality of seismic emergency shelters based on evacuation behaviors
    Jue JI, Xiaolu GAO, Congcong XU, Shixiang XU, Fei TANG
    2017, 36 (8):  965-973.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.005
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    Service quality of seismic emergency shelters is an important reference of seismic planning. Spatial coverage of seismic shelters has been used for evaluating service quality of seismic emergency shelters. However, population distribution and evacuation behaviors were rarely considered, which rendered the evaluation results inaccurate. Based on a multi-agent simulation model, this study examined earthquake evacuation behaviors, such as choice of destination, routing, and sheltering. Evacuation rate—the rate of evacuees who successfully arrived at seismic shelters to take refuge within a specific time period—was then calculated. Coverage rate of emergency shelters and evacuation rate of residents both were used to indicate the evacuation success rate. A case study was conducted in Haidian district. The evaluation result shows significant difference between the spatial coverage rate of seismic shelters and evacuation rate. It indicates that coverage of emergency shelters alone cannot fully evaluate emergency shelters. Coverage rate of seismic shelters together with use efficiency of emergency shelters and signs for evacuation routes that lead to quick and order evacuation are all crucial indicators for evaluating service quality of seismic shelters.

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    Path creation in China's industrial evolution
    Lulu JIN, Canfei HE, Yi ZHOU, Xuqian HU
    2017, 36 (8):  974-985.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.006
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    In evolutionary economics, the notion of path creation has attracted much attention in recent years. Previous research has expounded the possibility of path dependence and path creation in the process of regional industrial evolution, but it remains unknown that who changes the existing production capacity and accomplishes path creation. This article focuses on regional production capacity, and applies the indicator of density defined by Hidalgo. Based on the data of 424 four-digit industry of 337 prefecture-level cities in China from 1999 to 2012, this article discusses the path creation of China's industrial evolution. It is found that the entry and exit of an industry would break the original production structure of a region and become the creator of a new path. Governmental subsidies, on the one hand, can promote the development of a region's existing production capacity to enhance the regional's path dependence trend, but also can influence industry dynamics and accelerate the process of path creation. The selection of evolutionary path has significant regional differences. This study will help deepen the understanding of the change of China's industrial structure and its regional differentiation, and provides new evidence from developing countries for the development of evolutionary economic geography.

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    Influencing factors of regional economic resilience in the 2008 financial crisis:A case study of Zhejiang and Jiangsu Provinces
    Yuanyuan XU, Chen WANG
    2017, 36 (8):  986-994.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.007
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    Regions show different economic resilience after the 2008 financial crisis. However, there is no agreement on what factors impact regional economic resilience. In this study, we took Zhejiang and Jiangsu Provinces as an example and established a binary logistic regression model to analyze the influencing factors of regional economic resilience. Based on quantitative and qualitative analyses, we found that: (1) Regions with a higher level of innovation and a higher extent of unrelated variety and a larger proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) tended to have better resilience in the economic crisis. (2) Regions with a large amount of financial expenditure and a stronger dependence on international trade showed a relatively weak ability to resist crisis. (3) Related variety had limited influences on regional economic resilience. This study points out that the impact of fiscal expenditure on economic resilience and regional development cannot be generalized. We should give full considerations to the structure of fiscal expenditure. Moreover, it is necessary to pay more attention to regional environment and institutions to fully understand the positive influence of the proportion of SMEs on regional economic resilience. Local governments should encourage innovation and increase investment in research and development, develop a diversified industrial structure, provide more support to SMEs, and optimize fiscal expenditure structure.

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    Impact of public services on housing prices in different functional spaces:A case study of metropolitan Chengdu
    Shaoyao ZHANG, Xueqian SONG, Wei DENG
    2017, 36 (8):  995-1005.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.008
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    In China, the rise of housing prices has become one of the most pressing issues that residents encountered in recent years and received considerable attention. Regulating housing prices and preventing them from overheating have become an urgent question in some regions. This study examined the impact of public service provision on the spatiotemporal patterns of housing prices and its explanatory power in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province. A dataset of Chengdu housing prices and selected public service factors were constructed for the year 2016, and geographical detector technique was adopted in this study. The results indicate that the average housing price was 8480 yuan/m2 in Chengdu in 2016, and it showed a progressive decrease from the city center to the suburbs between the traffic circles and along the radial arteries, forming the circular and radial patterns. In general, housing prices were high in the western and southern parts while low in the eastern and north parts of the city. The impact of public service provision (mainly health care, financing, and education services) on housing prices was most pronounced in the third circular zone and southwest of the downtown area, where it was higher than the overall impact in Chengdu downtown areas. The impact of public services on housing prices was significantly affected by the difference of spatial functions in different zones. Differences in public service provision and spatial functions will further deepen the differentiation pattern of housing prices, and promote the overheating of local property prices. We argue that a better understanding of the influence of public services on housing prices will help Chinese policymakers not only to formulate traditional financial and economic policies, but also to optimize spatial functions and public services.

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    Spatial differentiation and change of green production efficiency in China
    Xueying MU, Kai LIU, Jianlan REN
    2017, 36 (8):  1006-1014.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.009
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    Evaluating green production efficiency has become an important way to examine the feasibility of China's ecological civilization construction and economic transformation. Based on the concepts of coordinated human-environment development and process and pattern-oriented evaluation, this study established an input-output index for measuring green production efficiency. Using data envelopment analysis method, we measured the efficiency of green production of 30 Chinese provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) between 2005 and 2014. Using entropy, Gini coefficient, exploratory spatial data analysis, combined with ArcGIS and Geoda software, we explored the divergence and spatiotemporal change of green production efficiency in China from 2005 to 2014. The results indicate that: (1) The efficiency of green production in China showed an upward trend in 2005-2014, shifting from large gap at an overall low level to small gap at an overall high level. (2) The efficiency of green production in the four main regions of China during the 10 years showed the following spatial characteristics: the efficiency of green production in the eastern region > Northeast region > central region > western region. (3) The efficiency of green production in China presented a "three steps" spatial pattern, that is, high in the east and low in the west. (4) The green production efficiency value of each province (municipality, autonomous region) was similar to that of the neighboring areas, and showed certain spatial agglomeration characteristics. (5) The basis of economic development and differentiation in resources, environment, and regional policies are the main factors influencing regional differences in green production efficiency.

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    Sensitivity of first flowering dates to temperature change for typical woody plants in Guiyang City, China
    Wenjie HUANG, Quansheng GE, Junhu DAI, Huanjiong WANG
    2017, 36 (8):  1015-1024.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.010
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    Temperature sensitivity of phenophases can reflect how and to what degree plants could tract climate change, and is related to the ability of plants to adapt to climate change. Investigating the temperature sensitivity of phenophases of different plant species could help us to identify species that are sensitive to climate change. To date, the studies about temperature sensitivity of first flowering date (FFD) mainly focused on the temperate area, and fewer studies focused on the subtropical area. We selected Guiyang City, located in subtropical China, as the study area, and analyzed the temporal changes in FFD of plants and their temperature sensitivities based on phenological observation data of 60 typical woody plants from 1980 to 2014. In addition, we evaluated the impact of the length of time series on the stability of the estimates of temperature sensitivity. The results show that: (1) Guiyang City experienced notable climate change with significantly increased annual mean temperature during the study period. The warming of spring and autumn was stronger than summer and winter. (2) FFD of 53 species (88.3%) advanced during the study period with 13 species (21.7%) significantly advancing (P<0.05). Most trends of FFD were between -4 and -2 d/decade. The overall advancing trend for FFD of 60 species was 2.89 d/decade. (3) FFD was significantly and negatively correlated with mean temperature during the optimum period for most species (88.3%). Most temperature sensitivities of FFD ranged from -8 to -4 d/°C. The overall temperature sensitivity for FFD of all species was -5.75 d/°C. (4) Sample size clearly affected stability of the estimates of temperature sensitivity. The time series of 15 years could make the difference of estimates less than 2 d/°C with a probability of 99%. Thus, time series should be as long as possible to be used in estimating the temperature sensitivity of flowering phenology with a stability that is sufficient for interspecific comparisons.

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    Impacts of climate change and human activities on vegetation dynamics in Inner Mongolia, 1981-2010
    Ziyu WANG, Duanyang XU, Hua YANG, Xue DING, Dajing LI
    2017, 36 (8):  1025-1032.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.011
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    This study constructed growing season NDVI in 1981-2010 based on GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI data in Inner Mongolia. The characteristics of NDVI change were analyzed and natural and human influencing factors were investigated in each county (banner) by trend analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that NDVI changes in Inner Mongolia showed great heterogeneity. The regions that experienced significantly increased vegetation cover were mainly distributed in Erdos City and Alashan Prefecture in southwestern and Tongliao City in eastern Inner Mongolia, and the regions that experienced significantly decreased vegetation cover were in HulunBuir and Xilinguole Prefectures in northern Inner Mongolia. For the increased vegetation cover regions, human activities were the dominant factor, and climate change played the second role; the coupling of climate change and human activities also had certain impact on the vegetation increase. The increase of the rainfall, implementation of banned grazing policies and increase of cropping area were the main factors driving the increase of vegetation. However, for the decreased vegetation cover regions, the role of human activities was slightly greater than that of climate change. The reduction of rainfall in the central and eastern Inner Mongolia and the raise of wind speed in some counties in nearly 10 years were the main climatic factors driving the significant decrease of vegetation. Although afforestation and the increase of cropping area might lead to the increase of vegetation cover at local scale, it was not enough to counteract the adverse effects of drought on vegetation growth at county scale; nevertheless, it might lead to regional vegetation degradation.

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    Comparison of applications of different reanalyzed precipitation data in the Lhasa River Basin based on HIMS model
    Yuhan GUO, Zhonggen WANG, Yuliang WU
    2017, 36 (8):  1033-1039.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.012
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    Hydrological simulation in ungauged basins is a challenging topic in hydrology and water resource fields internationally. With the fast development of remote sensing technology, it is possible to utilize remote sensing derived precipitation data in hydrological fields to accelerate the progress of research in the PUB (predictions in ungauged basins) plan. This study compared the applications of different reanalyzed precipitation data—the grid and forcing precipitation data—in hydrological simulation in the Lhasa River Basin. The study built a distributed hydrological model using the HIMS model for the basin. The process started with inputting the daily precipitation data from the National Meteorological Center, then based on the measured flow in the Lhasa hydrological control station to calibrate and verify the hydrological model. After this, two types of remote sensing reanalyzed precipitation data in HIMS model were imported for runoff simulation, and the results were compared with simulation results of the measured weather station daily precipitation data. Subsequently, the applicability of the two types of remote sensing reanalyzed precipitation data in the Lhasa River Basin was analyzed. On the whole, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of the runoff simulation based on daily precipitation data is 0.86 (daily process) and 0.93 (monthly process), and the correlation coefficient is above 0.9. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of the rainfall-runoff simulations based on the two reanalyzed precipitation datasets are both above 0.7 in the daily scale process and over 0.8 in the monthly scale process, and the correlation coefficient are both around 0.9. The results show that the measured weather station daily precipitation data resulted in the best simulation outcomes and both the grid precipitation data and forcing precipitation data generate satisfactory runoff simulation results in the Lhasa River Basin. This indicates that daily precipitation data are useful although the number of rainfall stations in this area is limited. The remote sensing reanalyzed precipitation datasets can be well used in ungauged areas such as the Lhasa River Basin and it may become a reliable source when analyzing the relationship between rainfall and runoff in ungauged basins. Using rainfall-runoff model to examine the impact of multi-sources reanalyzed precipitation datasets on the accuracy of runoff simulation is essential for evaluating the quality of such datasets.

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    Spatiotemporal variations of evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration in Shandong Province based on station observations and MOD16
    Shen ZHAO, Shaohui CHEN
    2017, 36 (8):  1040-1047.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.08.013
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    Spatiotemporal pattern analysis of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the interaction between climate change and water resources. Based on the Penman-Monteith formula, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of land surface evapotranspiration and its correlation with meteorological factors in Shandong Province from 2000-2014 with the MODIS ET product (MOD16) and the observation data of evaporation dishes at meteorological stations. We first examined the accuracy of MOD16 for Shandong Province and selected 13 weather stations within the province with daily values of atmospheric pressure, temperature, precipitation, evaporation, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, sunshine hours, and 0 cm land surface temperature from 2000-2014. Through the analysis of the spatiotemporal correlation between MOD16 potential evapotranspiration (PET) and the observation data of evaporation dishes at the meteorological stations, the effectiveness of the MOD16 PET in the area was verified. Then we used the MRT tool provided by MODLAND to splice MOD16 and convert the projection into longitude and latitude by taking WGS-8 as the reference surface. Finally, based on MOD16 and the meteorological data, the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of ET and PET from 2000-2014 were analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) There was plentiful water in the eastern part of Shandong Province while the western part was short of water, which resulted in a clear difference of ET over different areas in the province. (2) The annual fluctuations of ET and PET from 2000-2014 were relatively small. The average value of ET was 1529 mm while that of PET was 2178 mm, which indicates that Shandong Province is a relatively dry area. (3) The correlation analysis between evapotranspiration and meteorological factors indicates that the spatiotemporal variation of evapotranspiration was closely related to many climatic factors, especially the water and heat conditions.

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