Studying on residential satisfaction of the new urban poverty space is of great significance for understanding the living condition of the urban poverty group, improving the life quality, and enriching the research of residential area. Taking the typical old enterprise communities in the central city of Xi'an as an example, this study explored residential satisfaction of enterprise communities and its influence factors based on survey data and structural equation modeling (SEM) method. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) theory was introduced to identify the priorities and sequence of enterprise community renewal, and we propose methods for the renewal of the old urban communities. The results show that: 1) Residential satisfaction of enterprise communities is at an average level, and the mean value of the 5-point Likert scale is 3.21. 2) Residential satisfaction is successively affected by the living environment, housing conditions, and supporting facilities, and has a significant negative impact on residents' willingness to move out. 3) There were significant differences in residential satisfaction among individuals with different socioeconomic attributes, such as age, educational level, household registration, occupation, monthly income, length of residence, housing property rights, and enterprise operation. 4) In order to improve the living conditions, it is necessary to give priority attention to the factors of community recreation and activity, sanitation, medical and nursing facilities suitable for the aged population, property services, public service facilities, and so on, and strengthen the sense of community belonging and cohesion of residents. It is recommended that the renewal of the old urban community in the future should be carried out from four aspects: management mode, living environment, housing, and supporting facilities.