Implementing the strategy of rural revitalization is an inevitable requirement for solving the main social conflicts in China in the new era, which is related to the success of the country's modernization. Rural revitalization is a comprehensive process of natural and human systems. To implement the strategy of rural revitalization, it is necessary to establish a scientific and sound planning system of rural revitalization in order to coordinate and optimize the allocation of urban and rural factor resources. Based on the system perspective of geography, this study analyzed the connotation of the "rural" concept and the basic characteristics of rural development. It summarized the basic features and main problems and then preliminarily constructed a framework of rural revitalization planning system. The results show that there are multiple attributes of rural system, which contains social and cultural, political and economic, and geographical space. It also has many functions such as production, living, ecological, and cultural. Rural revitalization is a comprehensive process combining rural resources utilization, economic and social development, and coupling of natural and human systems. Rural system is characterized by decentralization of factors and self-organization of development, spatial heterogeneity and diversity of types, dependence on regions and cities, and strong restriction of industrial development by natural factors. Rural revitalization planning is an integrated and coordinated process of allocation of rural spatial factor resources. Its essence is to promote equity-oriented planning and more emphasis should be placed on the participation process of planning. There are some main problems of rural planning. At present, China's rural planning has not yet formed a complete system. Rural planning lacks legal support and the development of rural planning technology and theory lags behind. The boundary and depth of rural revitalization planning have not been clearly understood. The guarantee mechanism for the implementation of plans needs improvement. Based on the above analysis, a "five-in-one" rural revitalization planning system is proposed, including the main planning system, institutional guarantee system, technical support system, multi-planning coordination system, and participation feedback system. This system can coordinate the allocation of rural factor resources more effectively, integrate into regional and urban development, form planning synergy, and activate development vitality. It will also be helpful for enhancing the authority, feasibility, and practicability of rural revitalization planning.