Table of Content

    07 August 2017, Volume 36 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Use of community networks and its impact on community participation: A case study of Nanjing City
    Enyu CHANG, Feng ZHEN, Chen SUN
    2017, 36 (7):  785-794.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.001
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    In the 1970s, the United States launched a large number of practices and research focusing on "community network" in community informatics area. In recent years, with the rapid penetrating of information and communication technology in the daily life of community residents, virtual network platforms based on the community entity also appear in large numbers in urban communities of China, which brings an opportunity to improve community participation of urban residents. However, research by Chinese scholars rarely concerned with community networks, especially that quantitative research in this area has been few. Under this background and taking into consideration the practice of community networks in China, this study analyzed the characteristics of community network use and community participation of residents in Nanjing City based on a sample survey. Furthermore, the study used multiple-linear regression method to investigate the factors influencing community participation. The survey was conducted in 35 communities of Nanjing City by a research group at Nanjing University. The results show that overall community network use was characterized by high popularity and low intensity. Although the average coverage of community network use of Nanjing residents was high, the intensity of use only remained at the "occasional use" level. Most users were from newly built communities. As for the usage type of community networks, "mobile Internet" was most popular among the residents, and community QQ/WeChat groups showed the highest use intensity, followed by community Official Accounts/APPs, and community websites/community forums had the lowest use intensity. With regard to community "O2O", community participation was significantly promoted by using community networks. The use of community networks will enhance the depth of participation by promoting transaction type community participation. This article proposes that smart community development should compensate for the lack of attention to community networks and community involvement, and facilitate a return to community public life through participation in community activities that increases the vitality of communities.

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    The study of regional innovation network patterns:Evidence from the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration
    Can ZHOU, Gang ZENG, Zefeng MI, Guo XIAN
    2017, 36 (7):  795-805.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.002
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    In recent years, a large and growing body of scholarly research in economic geography has focused on analyzing the knowledge flows and innovation linkages at different spatial scales. The recognition that the network of both local and trans-local linkages are important for a regional actor’s access to knowledge and resources has pushed scholars to go beyond the traditional local-global dichotomy and adopt a so-called glocal network view of regional innovation. Along with the emergence of network paradigm, the need to better understand regional innovation patterns is widely recognized. From a theoretical perspective, this study sought to consider the linkage between networks, knowledge flows, and innovation patterns. Taking the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration as the object and by using Ucinet and ArcGIS tools, we analyzed the intra- and inter-regional innovation network structure and measured the innovation network status based on a unique co-patent dataset issued by the State Intellectual Property Office of China in 2014. The main findings of this study are as follows. (1) Among the firms within the network, State Grid, Jiangsu Electric Power, Zhejiang Electric Power, Shanghai Electric Power, NARI Group, and Sinopec are found to possess the highest rates of centrality. Among the universities, those actors at the center of the network are Zhejiang University, Southeast University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Donghua University, and East China University of Science and Technology. Prestigious science and engineering universities, large state-owned enterprises, and sino-foreign joint venture enterprises are clearly the most influential actors within the innovation network of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Through their structurally central positions they act as the most important bridging and connecting agents in the process of building innovation networks. (2) Recognition of the importance of external sources of knowledge creates an incentive for cities in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration to maintain tight external links. Inter-city level is the main geographical scale of innovation linkages in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, while geographical proximity is no longer crucial for the formation of collaboration innovation network. (3) The types of network existing within and across regions and the knowledge flow through these networks will impact on regional innovation patterns. From the perspective of intra- and inter-regional innovation networks, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration presents four different types of regional innovation patterns. The successful innovative cities, such as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, are characterized by a dense local network and involved in external links. Weaker innovation lagging regions are likely to possess poor network connections, be it of a local or trans-local nature. Our empirical work suggests that a key driver of regional innovation consists of the capability of actors in a region to access and subsequently utilize both local and trans-local beneficial knowledge. The findings of this study may provide a reference for the optimization and upgrading of intra- and inter-regional innovation networks.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of the "Five Modernizations" coordinated development of prefecture level and above cities in China
    Xiaojun JIANG, Qingshan YANG, Jian LIU
    2017, 36 (7):  806-819.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.003
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    Accelerating the coordinated development of greenization, industrialization, urbanization, agricultural modernization, and informationization is a key requirement for building a comprehensive well-off society and realizing the sustainable development of the economy and society. Based on data of the 342 prefecture level and above administrative units in China, this study constructed an index system for evaluating the coordination level and efficiency of the "Five Modernizations" coordinated development, and used the coupled coordination model, data envelopment model, and panel data regression analysis model to analyze the coordination level, development efficiency, spatial distribution, and influencing factors of the "Five Modernizations" coordinated development of each administrative unit in 2008 and 2013.The results show that: (1) Between 2008 and 2013, the comprehensiveness degree, coupling degree, and coordination degree of the "Five Modernizations" coordinated development increased and the regional differences gradually reduced, but the level of development of the Circum-Bohai-Sea Region, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and other eastern China regions was still higher than that in central and western China. (2) The spatial distribution of the coordinated development of the "Five Modernizations" showed "clustering," "hierarchical," and "stepped" characteristics, with an eastern > central > western development pattern. (3) The comprehensive efficiency and scale efficiency of the coordinated development of the "Five Modernizations" was low and the regional difference was significant; the technical efficiency was high and the regional differences was small. The coordinated development efficiency of the "Five Modernizations" showed "hierarchical" and "stepped" characteristics, with efficiencies corresponding to cities' administrative level and decreasing from the eastern to the central and western regions. (4) The low scale efficiency was the key factor that led to low comprehensive efficiency of the "Five Modernizations" coordinated development. The spatial pattern of the "Five Modernizations" coordination degree was the result of the differences and interactions between complex geographical environment, economic, and social development factors.

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    Change in spatial distribution of population and economy and influencing factors in the Yangtze River Delta
    Dongsheng YAN, Jin YANG
    2017, 36 (7):  820-831.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.004
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    Population and economic activities are the two main indicators of regional difference, and their spatial distribution is closely related to the formation of regional disparities. Industry is the basic carrier of economic development, and industrial structure is an important factor affecting the coordination of spatial distribution of population and economy. In the context of accelerating industrial transfer in the Yangtze River Delta, the spatial distribution patterns of population and economic activities are changing, and thus it is of great practical significance to examine the spatial coordination of change. Using the methods of gravity center analysis, inconsistency index, and imbalance index, this study analyzed the characteristics of change in the spatial distributions of population and economic activities in the Yangtze River Delta during 2000-2013, as well as the influencing factors of population and economic activity inconsistency index. The results show that with the deepening of industry transfer, the economic growth of the core area is slowing down but that of the periphery is accelerating, despite that the trend of concentration of population to the core area persists. The analysis based on the inconsistency index and the imbalance index shows that unlike the significant change in the spatial distribution of GDP with rapid growth at the periphery, population growth of the periphery is not significant and concentrated in some cities. Despite the relatively stable core-periphery pattern of the population and economic distribution inconsistency index, the incongruity of population and economic growth has promoted the overall coordination of population and economy in the Yangtze River Delta. This article attempts to explain the change of population and economic distributions from the perspective of the market, the government, and per capita GDP of the Yangtze River Delta. The results may provide a scientific basis for related strategic decision making.

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    Urban livability and influencing factors in Northeast China: An empirical study based on panel data, 2007-2014
    Zhanhua JIA, Guofeng GU
    2017, 36 (7):  832-842. 
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    Under the background of new urbanization, urban livability has become a focus of academic research. This study established an evaluation index of urban livability from six aspects, including resources, environment, economy, society, living condition, and safety. Based on entropy analysis method and ArcGIS spatial analysis method, this study explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of livability levels of 37 cities in Northeast China from 2007 to 2014. The results show that: (1) In 2007-2014, overall urban livability level was relatively low and the speed of improvement was relatively small, but the differences between cities were narrowing. (2) The spatial pattern of urban livability presents a "dual core" distribution with two high value centers at Shenyang and Dalian, as well as a "fan blade" shaped distribution centered around Changchun, Harbin, and Daqing. (3) There was a weak spatial correlation in the livability of cities, but the correlation is increasing year by year. (4) There were differences in the overall urban livability and the individual index values. Cities have different advantages and disadvantages in different indicators. (5) When discussing the impact of socioeconomic factors on urban livability, this study established a panel data model and found that the balance of household savings, investment of urban facilities, real estate development, community-level service facilities, and population density have positive effect on livability, while the impact of SO2 emissions was negative.

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    Location choice behaviors and hierarchical differences of star warehouses in China
    Sijing LIU, Guoqi LI, Fengjun JIN
    2017, 36 (7):  843-852.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.006
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    Locational characteristics of star warehouses are of key importance to optimizing urban warehouse spatial configuration and allocating storage land resources. Using data of 237 sample star warehouses in China from 2008 to 2014 and location relationship identification, distance measurement, and representative case study methods, this study examined the relationship between the location choice behaviors of star warehouses and regions and service objects and functions. Through the analysis of differences between the scope of warehouse space, logistics functions, traffic networks, and location of star warehouses in cities of different levels and scales, the statistical result and internal mechanism are revealed. The results show that: (1) The selected warehouses are distributed in 4 municipalities, 22 provincial-level cities and sub-provincial-level cities, 37 prefecture-level cities, and 24 counties with a ratio of 16.5: 4.77: 1.84: 1.67, which formed a distribution pattern of upside-down triangle compared to the city size hierarchy. Star warehouses for general uses were scattered, and specialized warehouses showed concentrated distribution, with both co-agglomeration and spatial separation characteristics. (2) The location choice behaviors of star warehouses are driven by supply and demand side factors. Star warehouses of provincial capital and above cities with public service functions are often located in the suburbs and the exurb areas. Star warehouses of prefectural-level cities with self-serving functions are often located in central and peripheral areas. (3) Distance of star warehouses shows a positive correlation with the level of cities. Constrained by the location of parent companies, suburbanization of warehouses with joint public-private ownership and proprietary lagged behind real estate leasing and public warehouses.

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    Influencing factors of middle school students' spatial thinking ability:A case study on senior one students of Baiyin No. 1 Middle School in Gansu Province
    Jingyi WAN, Xiaoxu LU, Yuqi LU, Fengzhen DU, Jun WANG, Beini JU
    2017, 36 (7):  853-863.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.007
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    Spatial thinking ability is the basic ability of understanding geographical environment and a key geographic competence of students. Its influencing factors and mechanism need urgent attention for advancing spatial thinking theory. This study hypothesized that seven factors affect spatial thinking ability, including general intelligence level, living environment, interest in geography study, habit of using maps, interest in geographical problems, sensitivity about directions, and specialized geography knowledge. The level of spatial thinking ability and the seven hypothesized influencing factors of 126 samples from the Baiyin No.1 Middle School were measured by the spatial thinking ability test (STAT) measurement scales and factors’ measurement scales. The SPSS 23.0 software was used to analyze the related data. The samples were first divided into high, medium, and low score groups according to the level of spatial thinking ability, and general intelligence level, habit of using maps, and geography knowledge showed significant differences between the high and low score groups using independent sample T test. Then the samples were divided into high, medium, and low factor score groups, and general intelligence level, habit of using maps, specialized geography knowledge, and interest in geography study showed significant differences between the high and low factor score groups. The results indicate that general intelligence level, habit of using maps, and geography knowledge were necessary conditions of sample students’ high spatial thinking ability, and interest in geography study was also an important condition. The four factors were proven to be the main influencing factors of spatial thinking ability, and the level of influence from high to low was general intelligence, specialized geography knowledge, habit of using maps, and interest in geography study based on the result of the single factor linear regression analysis. The stepwise regression analysis result showed that general intelligence level and specialized geography knowledge had stronger influence on spatial thinking ability

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    Comparative study on two automatic baseflow separation methods in the arid and semi-arid regions
    Rui LI, Shifeng ZHANG
    2017, 36 (7):  864-872.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.008
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    Baseflow is a crucial component of streamflow. In the arid and semi-arid region, baseflow plays an important role in maintaining the stability and sustainability of the river flow and determining the ecological water requirement. Therefore, the results of baseflow separation are of great importance. In our research, a typical drainage basin located in the upstream of the Yellow River region was taken as the study area. Considering runoff in several typical years, we used smoothed minima and determined the parameters of digital filtering. Then we used digital filtering for baseflow separation using the data from 1980-2014 and analyzed the trend of baseflow. The results show that digital filtering performed better in the arid and semi-arid region and the results gained from smoothed minima indicate lower baseflow values. In areas where the parameters are difficult to determine, baseflow estimation should take advantage of both methods. The average BFI of the study area from 1980 to 2014 was 0.69, which was greater than the national average (0.26), BFI of the rivers in northwestern China (0.57), and BFI of the Yellow River region (0.43). Trend analysis shows that the increase of annual flow, baseflow, and BFI was 0.086 (m3/s)/10a, 0.169 (m3/s)/10a, and 0.038/10a. MK trend test results show that the growth of annual flow was not obvious because it did not pass the significance test of 90%; baseflow and BFI showed significant positive trends for they had passed the significance test of 97.5% and 99% respectively.

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    Simulation of runoff, soil erosion, and sediment yield using the TETIS model in the Wuyuer River Basin of the black soil region, Northeast China
    Zhiying LI, Haiyan FANG
    2017, 36 (7):  873-885.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.009
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    In order to understand the characteristics of soil erosion in a basin and explore the applicability of the TETIS model for simulating runoff and sediment yield in the black soil region of Northeast China, the Wuyuer River Basin was taken as an example in this study. Daily runoff and sediment discharge data series from 1971 to 1987 were used to calibrate and validate the TETIS model. On this basis, characteristics of soil erosion intensity and their relationships with slope and land use types in the basin were analyzed. The results show that the TETIS model has good applicability in the Wuyuer River Basin. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients of daily discharge and sediment ranged from 0.52 to 0.70, coefficients of determination ranged from 0.60 to 0.71, and volume errors were no more than 15%. Average soil erosion intensity was 397.2 t/(km2·a) in the basin. Slight erosion and light erosion were the dominant soil erosion types and about 90% of sediment yield was from hillslope. Average erosion intensity increased with increasing slope gradients. Slopes of 0°~5° were the main erosion area in the basin. Different land use types have different soil erosion intensities and arable land has the highest value (556.3 t/(km2·a)). Priority of erosion control should focus on the arable lands with steep slopes and low vegetation covered regions. Comparison of these simulation results with other study results in the black soil region of Northeast China demonstrates a promising future of the TETIS model for simulating runoff and sediment yields in the region. This study may provide a scientific basis for the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the study area.

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    Research progress of criminal behavior from the perspective of geography
    Dongping LONG, Lin LIU, Suhong ZHOU, Fangye DU, Guangwen SONG, Luzi XIAO
    2017, 36 (7):  886-902.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.010
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    With widening income gaps and excessive concentration of wealth, China faces serious challenges in developing comprehensive measures to maintain law and order and create a social environment with a desirable level of public safety and social stability. Geography of crime is oriented to social problems—it pays attention to the patterns, processes, and mechanisms of crime phenomenon and aims to contribute to the improvement of public safety and crime prevention. Based on the geographical perspective, this article reviews the progress of research in China and internationally on criminal behavior with regard to crime travel, offender spatial decision, and repeated crime, and makes some recommendations for future research. The review shows that the study of criminal behavior has been developed for many years and has obtained a large amount of results, but there are still some research gaps. (1) With regard to journeys to crime, previous studies have mainly considered individual characteristics of offenders, geographical features, and influencing factors such as the proceeds of crime, without considering the dynamic effects of the environmental factors. Therefore, future studies need to adopt a comprehensive perspective by taking into account the social environment, the built environment, and the ambient population (such as regional flow, commuter population, daily activities, and so on) comprehensively to examine whether a crime is affected by these factors under different spatial and temporal scenarios. (2) With regard to criminal spatial decision, international research examines separately the spatial and temporal aspects of decision making of various types of criminals. Therefore, future research in China on geography of crime should not only consider spatial factors, but also integrate the temporal aspect of crime to improve our understanding of the mechanism of the crime phenomenon. (3) The impact of past activities and experiences on sequential crimes by repeat offenders is largely overlooked. Hence, systematic analysis of repeat offenders should be strengthened. Future research should focus on, but not limited to (1) comprehensive empirical analysis of crimes; (2) research on co-offending groups; (3) the use of big data to analyze the patterns of offenders’ behavior and processes and mechanisms of crimes to provide a solid foundation for crime prediction. Meanwhile, deficiencies of big data should not be underestimated; (4) theoretical research and technological development to meet the need of social security in China, and to provide recommendations for the modernization of the governance system and governance capacity, while enhance the value of research of geography of crime.

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    Human-oriented space making of institutional elderly care communities in the United States and implications
    Jing LIN, Jianming CAI, Zhe CHENG
    2017, 36 (7):  903-911.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.07.011
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    With the rapid aging of population, China faces a series of challenges, particularly in the development of human-oriented institutional elderly care communities. Based on a systematic review and analysis of some cases and best practices in the United States, this article identifies four dynamic trends in developing institutional elderly care communities that these communities tend to: (1) be located in places with high climate amenities and attractive landscape; (2) be embedded in larger and comprehensive elderly care communities with high urbanity; (3) be endowed with more flexible functional zoning and senior-friendly design in inner-space planning; and (4) involve multiple investors with an emphasis on public-private partnership (PPP) in financing. Learning from the advanced experiences from the United States, this article then puts forward some policy suggestions and discusses their implications for China, for inspiring new thinking for China's development of institutional elderly care communities.

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