Industrialization, urbanization, agricultural modernization, informationization, and greenization (the so-called "Five Modernizations") are an important support for the modernization of the Chinese society, and therefore many scholars have conducted quantitative evaluation of the coordinated development of the "Five Modernizations". By examining the Chinese research on quantitative evaluation of the "Five Modernizations", this review obtained the following findings. First, whether using single indicators or comprehensive index, existing research differs on how to construct the index system due to different interpretations of the "Five Modernizations". Second, most studies choose the entropy method when calculating the indicator weights; fewer choose the subjective method such as the AHP; and very few choose the combination of subjective and objective methods. Third, the coordinated development evaluation methods focus primarily on coupling and coordinated coupling models, relation and forecasting methods, synchronization models based on deviating from the ideal spatial position, DEA dynamic efficiency and HR models, "development-difference-interaction level" models, and split models. Recently, systematic and mixed research methods are emerging and sophistication of these methods are improving. Fourth, spatial analysis methods of spatial pattern and spatial correlation are widely used in many studies. Methods such as track shift of spatial gravity, dynamic evolution of spatial pattern, and spatial trend analysis are gradually appeared in some recent articles. Fifth, most studies choose the methods of interpreting the main impacting factors and multiple linear regression models to analyze the influencing mechanisms of spatiotemporal patterns. Some recent studies use spatial regression models such as SLM, SEM, and GWR. Based on the literature review, we make some reflections on the research paradigm, index system, weight derivation, evaluation methods of coordination level, spatial analysis, and influencing mechanism interpretation. We recommend to strengthen the analysis of the internal driving mechanism and perspectives of evaluation, improve research on the evaluation index system and weighing method, adopt multiple evaluation methods of coordination degree, and promote the comprehensive application of spatial analysis technologies and integration of qualitative and quantitative interpretations.