Table of Content

    25 August 2012, Volume 31 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Spatial Evolution and Influencing Factors of R&D Industry in the Yangtze River Delta Region
    WANG Chengyun, ZHANG Tingting
    2012, 31 (8):  989-996.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (799KB) ( )   Save
    The Yangtze River Delta, with the city of Shanghai as the center, is one of the regions with the most concentrated R&D investment in China. This article analyzes the spatial evolution and influencing factors of the R&D industry of 16 cities located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. The research was performed through factor analysis, cluster analysis and GIS mapping, combined with theories of spatial structure and urban system. The results indicate that there are six major factors dominating the spatial structure of the R&D industry: overall strength of industrial development, industrial structure, industrial competition force, supporting economic structure, economic development level and R&D activity level. In addition, through the comparison of the level of spatial structure of the R&D industry in the Yangtze River Delta Region in 2000 and 2007, we discovered that the R&D industry in this region in 2000 was characterized by a monopole structure with its conspicuous geographic concentration in Shanghai. On the other hand, the development of other cities in the region including Nanjing, Hangzhou and Suzhou has created a shift in the industry and transformed the industrial structure into a multi-pole one in 2007. As such, the spatial structure of the R&D industry sector in the Yangtze River Delta Region is expected to develop into a triangular pattern in the future with Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou as its three vertexes.
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    Analyzing Provincial Border-Regional Economic Disparities Based on ESDA and GIS: A Case Study of Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Economic Zone
    YU Fengming, ZHANG Yangsheng, ZHOU Duhui, DU Zhongchao
    2012, 31 (8):  997-1004.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (926KB) ( )   Save
    Provincial border-regions are a new research field of economic divergence. This paper used counties as the basic study unit and analyzed the spatial differences of 14 economic indexes by using factor analysis methods and ESDA-GIS to reveal the spatial characteristics of economic differences in Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos- Yulin Economic Zone. The following conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) A non-balanced development pattern of quantity has been presented, which indicates that the strong ones take the trend of polarization, and the weak ones become weaker. (2) The regional spatial structure presents that the county-level economic power increases from east to west and decreases from south to north. (3) County-level economic strength scores of Global Moran's I is 0.3215, presenting a strong characteristic of“convergence clubs”. (4) Diffuse pattern, polarization pattern,“sinking”pattern and“infection”pattern present a core-periphery sphere structure; but it is not an obvious one. It is found that four factors including economic investment, economic benefits, human resources and economic structure are quite distinct from each other in terms of spatial concentration.
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    Research on Spatial Patterns and Input-output Analysis of Industrial Competitiveness of Economic Regions in China
    ZENG Chunshui, LIN Xueqin, WANG Kaiyong, LIU Kun, WANG Ting
    2012, 31 (8):  1005-1012.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (776KB) ( )   Save
    This paper established an evaluation index system of industrial competitiveness and examined the industrial competitiveness of 286 cities by using principal component analysis. We also studied the level of industrial competitiveness and the characteristics of spatial patterns in eight economic regions of China. Bringing agglomeration and external linkage which are the spatial elements into Cobb-Douglas production function, this paper analyzed the contribution degrees of technology, capital, labor and spatial elements at different levels of industrial development. The results are shown as follows. (1) The development level of industrial competitiveness in eastern coastal economic region is the highest among the eight regions, followed by south coastal economic region, north coastal economic region, northeast economic region, middle Yangtze River economic region, middle Yellow River economic region, northwest economic region and southwest economic region. Each economic region has its own spatial characteristics. (2) It is feasible to bring space elements into the production function model, which confirms that spatial elements have an important effect on the output though the contribution rates are different at different levels of industrial development. (3) With the advancement of industrial level, there are some trends as follows: the comprehensive technology first increases but then decreases; the labor force continues reducing, the capital increases steadily, and the space elements first decrease but then increase. Finally, the strong- and weak-level cities at the existing technical level have obvious increasing return to scale, while relatively strong- and relatively weak-level cities do not. The key point to promote the industrial development of the strong- and the weak-level cities is to strengthen the input of each element, yet for relatively strong- and relatively weak-level cities it is to change the structure of factor inputs and raise the contribution rates of capital and space elements.
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    The Identification of Creative Spaces in Shanghai: Based on the Space Relation of Creative Enterprise
    MA Renfeng
    2012, 31 (8):  1013-1023.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.004
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    The creative industries (CI), as a newly-flourished set of industries, have triggered worldwide discussion with a consensus that its contribution to the development of economy is evident. As a result, to cultivate CI becomes a critical strategy for industrial upgrading and spatial restructuring in metropolitans or medium-scale cities. Consequently, new characters of urban spatial structure (USS) are emerging due to the distinctiveness of CI themselves. So to explore these new characters in a systematical way at city level from a spatial respect is significant for the academy, as well as for the local government. The inner city has been becoming the dominant area of the development of CI, which then forms new economic space—the creative spaces (CS) emergences. What are CS? There are no unambiguous concepts. With the primary purpose of examining whether or not it exists in metropolises in developing countries like China, and the stage of its growth, the authors took the CI of Shanghai as an example, collected data from yearbooks of the first and second Shanghai economic censuses, and used the method of combining global and local Moran's Index by GeoDA 0.9.5.i, monocentricity & polycentricity autoregressive model of Creative Enterprises (CE), and creative industrial agglomeration forms. The results show that: (1) the route and its methods of Identification of CS is feasible; (2) the spatial correlation of CE in Shanghai in 2004 and 2008 is positive, whereas the correlation coefficient is small, CE spatial distribution is not entirely random, but spatial clustering of the similar values is obvious; (3) the CE are highly concentrated in central Shanghai and two centers Jing'an and Luwan have been formed, but the CBD in Shanghai which include the Bund and the NanjingWest Road is different from that of foreign metropolises.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity Analysis of Household Residential Location Choice: A Case Study in Orange County, Florida, USA
    YU Linjun, Sun Danfeng, PENG Zhongren, ZHANG Jian
    2012, 31 (8):  1024-1031.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (818KB) ( )   Save
    Households’behaviors of choosing residential locations are spatial in nature. Therefore, spatial effects cannot be disregarded when molding household residential location choice. Spatial correlation and spatial heterogeneity are two aspects of spatial effect. Several studies regarding spatial effect in household location choice modeling have been conducted. However, the existing studies mainly focused on spatial autocorrelation effect in household location choices, where the spatial heterogeneity effect was ignored. Conventional residential location choice models are typically based on the assumption of spatial homogeneity, assuming that the impacts of an influencing factor are constant across space. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity effect is ignored in traditional residential location choice models. In this study, Orange County, FL, USA was used as a case study. Census Block Groups (CBG) in the study area were grouped into five sets, where hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) in ArcGIS was employed for location alternatives grouping because it enables spatial locations to be geographically grouped based on one non-spatial attribute. Finally, we used seven multinomial logit model based residential location choices models in the five sub-regions of the study area and at two spatial scales (CBG scale and CBG set scale), respectively. The estimation results provided evidences that both location-dependent and scale-dependent variations exist in the impacts of the influencing factors on household residential location choice. At the higher scale (CBG set scale), zonal attributes are the main influencing factors. At the lower scale (CBG scale), however, the interaction variables between household characters and zonal attributes play a leading role. Variable effects vary significantly across regions at the CBG scale. For example, the interactive variable between zonal Black population density and the Black ethnicity dummy variable of a household is only significant in two regions out of all the five regions. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity is a significant characteristic of the impacts of influencing factors on household residential location choice. Although the study area is located in USA, the conclusion is meaningful for future studies which use regions in China as cases.
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    Study on the Non-conformity of Urban Spatial Expansion in China
    SUN Pingjun, XIU Chunliang, WANG Qi, DING Sibao
    2012, 31 (8):  1032-1041.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1433KB) ( )   Save
    Faced with the national conditions that China has a large population with a small amount of land, the economic development remains at a low level, the urbanization is still in the accelerated development stage and the construction land input is close to its growth limitation, thus how to allocate the land resource reasonably and effectively makes it to be an important composite for scholars in the development research. Thus urban spatial expansion has become a hot topic in recent research. However, there exist some shortcomings which include some research lacking a reasonable assessment, emphasizing large and developed cities while neglecting studies on theory and ordinary cities. Therefore, this article, starting from the basic theory on the non-conformity of urban spatial expansion, analyzed its concept and content; and built a non-coordination evaluation system, and took 246 prefecture-level cities as research units to judge non-coordination of China's urban spatial expansion; and then, from the micro-level perspective of the behavior of game, flow elements concentration and diffusion and feedback of institutional arrangements, discussed its internal mechanism; finally, from the sustainable development perspective, this article put forward some policy proposals. The result shows that: the efficiency of China urban spatial expansion is low: poor inter-regional function matching, low-level of overall urbanization—intrinsic“ population-economy-space”urbanization’s coupled coordination being low, almost all the cities remaining at a low-coupled phase, the average land growth elasticity being 1.192, cities with land growth elasticity > 1 accounting for about 26.42% of the country, therefore, it can be said that there exists serious waste of land resources; the spatial distribution of China urban spatial expansion non-conformity shows a geographical pattern of decreasing from east to west; the city functional status and the main rail lines have an important impact on China's urban spatial expansion non-conformity, the non-conformity degrees shows a trend that cities above prefecture- level city > cities of prefecture-level city, cities on the main rail line > cities that are not on the main rail lines; urban spatial expansion internal mechanism analysis reveals that, from the“ property right regional”perspective, under the current institution framework, the local governments, in order to maximize and realize their own objective function (government performance and the maximization of the disposable income of local finance), acts on the flow elements to show the affection of institution feedback; existing institution arrangements strengthen the local government’s“diffusion impulse”on the urban construction land input; finally, this article proposed some amendments to improve the current institution system on the basis of local government objective function.
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    Review of Research on Land Urbanization and Related Studies
    LI Xin, WEN Jing, LIN Jian
    2012, 31 (8):  1042-1049.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (498KB) ( )   Save
    In the rapid urbanization process of China, urbanized land expands quickly at the same pace as urbanized population grows. Recent researches have been focused on land urbanization which considers the urbanization of land in current China as a reckless rash which is incompatibly faster than the urbanization of population and moreover, results in understandable inefficiency. To clarify the definition, the implication and the measurement of land urbanization, the authors have reviewed related literatures on urban expansion, urban sprawl, land use conversion, especially those in China; analyzed the reality and background of urbanization of land under the rural-urban dual land system in China; then developed the definition of land urbanization as the transition of land to construction land with urban attributes. The definition includes not only the commonly agreed transition of rural farmland to urban construction land, but also the transition of rural construction land to urban construction land, and the latter has been found to be increasingly significant for efficient land use. The definition describes the unique dual process under the dual land system more accurately and is measurably consistent with the implication of population urbanization in the similar dual population management system in China. Furthermore, the authors proposed the measurement of land urbanization as the ratio between urban construction land and the summation of rural and urban construction land, namely the so-called“rural-urban construction land”. Based on this proposal, further researches could be conducted on the comparison between land and population changes in urbanization process, and other elements such as economic and social factors and transition of land use efficiency.
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    Construction Land Area Changes and Their Influencing Factors of China
    CHEN Yufu, XIE Qingheng, LIU Yansui
    2012, 31 (8):  1050-1054.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.008
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    Construction Land is an important foundation of socio-economic activities. Construction land area and its changes are closely related to socio-economic development. It is of far-reaching significance to reveal construction land area changes and indluencing factors for tackling land use problems and future reform in land management of China. Based on land use data and socio-economic statistical data of China of the years 1996 and 2007, the relationship between the construction land area (CLA) of China and the socio-economic factors in 1996 and 2007 respectively, as well as the relationship between CLA changes and socio-economic factors during 1996-2007, was studied by stepwise linear regression analysis method. It is found that the relationships between CLA and socio-economic factors are different in 1996 and 2007. CLA has significant positive relationships with non-agricultural industrial production and the total population, whereas it has significant negative relationships with income per capita of urban residents in 1996. CLA has significant positive relationships only with the total population in 2007. The CLA change during 1996-2007 shows significant positive relationships with financial revenue change and urban population, whereas no significant relationship between CLA and other socio-economic factors was found. Moreover, the influence of financial revenue change on CLA change is larger than that of urban population on CLA change. The results reveal that CLA fitted relatively well for socio-economic activities in 1996 compared with 2007. The CLA change during 1996-2007 is driven more by the local government's land expropriation to increase local financial revenue and promote urbanization than the internal demand of local economic development. The results reveal that Chinese construction land area increase in the past decade is disadvantageous to the long-term socio-economic sustainable development of China. Chinese government should reform irrational financial regime and land expropriation institution to promote a harmonious relationship between construction land area expansion and socio-economic development.
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    Research Progress and Tendency of Chinese Rural Settlements Geography
    HE Renwei, CHEN Guojie, LIU Shaoquan, GUO Shili, LIU Yunwei
    2012, 31 (8):  1055-1062.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (503KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, with the continued advancement of Chinese new countryside construction, rural development has attracted increasing academic attention. Rural settlement geography, as an important branch of settlement geography, has been attached importance again. Understanding the research progress of rural settlement geography and examining its trends can not only promote the academic development of human geography, but also promote the coordinated development of urban and rural areas and the construction of a new socialist countryside. Based on consulting extensive related literature, this paper firstly briefly describes foreign research progress of rural settlements geography, and believes that the relevant foreign research is very worth learning. Then, the research progress of Chinese rural settlements is sketched out. Subsequently, this paper summarizes and elaborates the recent research in the following four aspects: (1) research on rural settlement ecology, (2) research on spatial characteristics and evolution of rural settlements, (3) research on problems of rural settlements development, and (4) comprehensive research. Finally, on the basis of analyzing domestic and overseas research progress of rural settlements mentioned above, this paper argues that the main trends of Chinese future research on rural settlement geography should be listed as follows: (1) research on the evolutional trend prediction of rural settlements in the process of Chinese industrialization and urbanization, (2) research on the modes of Chinese rural settlements in regions at different development levels, (3) research on Chinese rural settlements in regions with different landforms; (4) research on the reconstruction of new settlements, and (5) research on the interdisciplinary and comprehensive field of rural settlements.
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    Geographical Agglomeration and Specialized Pattern of Planting in China Based on the Different Classifications
    LI Erling, ZHU Jiguang, LI Xiaojian
    2012, 31 (8):  1063-1070.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1562KB) ( )   Save
    There has been less current literature on the pattern of Chinese agricultural geographic concentration and specialization. This paper discusses the geographic concentration pattern of China's planting in 2008. Through calculating the average Gini coefficient (0.46,0.66 and 0.68, respectively), the average Moran’s I index (0.11,0.18 and 0.20, respectively ) and the Location quotient (LQ ) in the three scale classifications at the provincial level, it is found that the planting in China presents certain geographic concentration and exposes different agglomeration degree at different levels of industrial classification. And the finer division of planting industry, the more obvious the trend of spatial concentration and specialization of production. At the macro-planting level, the distribution of crop production is relatively dispersed, while at the micro-planting level, the distribution of crop production shows the trend of more agglomeration and specialization. The regional specialized production pattern in Chinese planting has emerged. The regional specialized degree of the staple crops is low, and that of the commercial crops is relatively high. Although the specific pattern of spatial concentration is determined by the matching between the natural conditions and production conditions of various crops, the government decision-making, institutional changes and other social factors plays an important role in regional specialized production functioning as the optimization and adjustment to the natural gathering. So, by calculating the spatial autocorrelation and the Gini coefficient, specialized index in various types of crops grown in contiguous spatial patterns, the potential location of the agricultural regional specialization and large-scale production can be identified, which can help the government make specific agricultural policies in different regions.
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    The Process and Enlightenment of Urban-rural Integration in Beijing since 1988
    SONG Zhijun, Liu Liming
    2012, 31 (8):  1071-1079.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.011
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    Agricultural areas of Beijing's suburbs bear the differenct development goals in different periods of industrialization and urbanization due to the urban-rural functional differences, and there are also some differences in its urban-rural integration process and spatial patterns. History evolution method and the corresponding mathematical analysis method are used in this paper to study the urban-rural integration. Results show that, the industrialization, and urbanization areas presented a spatial development pattern with radiation type→enclaves type, level transfer type→massive type+ fanlike type +radiation type in the Beijing main suburbs from inner suburban to exurban areas (23-57 km) since 1988; the combination and realization of economy, ecology and social functions varied during different periods, and its multi-function evaluation value changed between "W"-shaped and " M"-shaped pattern. General speaking, urban and rural functions and their comprehensive benefits of Beijing's suburbs are enhanced, economic function has relatively declined, its ecological and landscape functions have relatively risen, and social functions appears to be fluctuating but the overall trend tends to be strong. The urban-rural funtctional space planning will become more complicated. This development situation directly affects the realization of multi-level and multi-center urban-rural integration during the 12 Five-year Plan period (2011-2015).
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    The Research on Residents' Perception and Identity to Calligraphic Landscape in Zunyi Red Tourism Commercial Street
    XIAO Xiao, ZHANG Jie, LU Junyu
    2012, 31 (8):  1080-1086.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (562KB) ( )   Save
    As an important part of human geography, the cultural geography has been concerned by scholars, while the researches about residents ' perception and identity to cultural landscape is relatively scarce. This paper selected the symbol of Chinese traditional culture—calligraphic landscape as the study object, according to the "sense of place" theory, to build a hypothetical model and made 17 assumption paths. Based on the 421 questionnaires distributed to people in the Zunyi Conference scenic spots and red tourism commercial street, we constructed a structural equation model of residents’perception to calligraphic landscape. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. 1) The residents' perceptive attitudes could enhance the cultural identity, which is contradictory some parts of the research hypothesis. Through the perceptions to calligraphic landscape’s functions, the residents’attitude could form and reinforce the level of residents’cultural identity in the end. Authenticity had the significant effect on residents’perceptive attitude and cultural identity. 2) Meanwhile, among the five dimensions of calligraphic landscape perception which are economic benefit, environmental aesthetics, place identification, landscape authenticity and behavior guidance, economic benefits and authenticity are the decisive factors of residents’cultural identity. Cultural landscape could raise residents’economic benefits. This result is different from tourists’perception to culture landscape which puts emphasis on the environmental aesthetic experience. The results reflected the core status of authenticity in the urban cultural landscape and positive economic effects of urban cultural landscape. Finally, we proposed that the protection and variance of traditional culture in modern city was an important subject for future cultural geographic research. The research serves as an important guide and can provide reference for the protection and planning management of urban cultural landscape.
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    Urban Tourism to Urban Agglomeration Tourism: A Deepening Systematic Research
    YU Hu, LU Lin, ZHU Dongfang, ZENG Qijie
    2012, 31 (8):  1087-1096.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.013
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    Urban tourism is one of the most important contents of tourism research. Urban agglomeration is becoming a basic unit which is playing a significant role in global economic competition, but the research on urban agglomeration tourism is in the initial stage. This article, by using the literature analysis method, firstly summarizes the main research content of urban tourism and urban agglomeration tourism. Then it analyzes the research trend path from urban tourism to urban agglomeration tourism. Finally the influencing factors of urban agglomeration tourism research are discussed. The results show that, tourism promotes urban development in six aspects, which are the development of urban trade district and urban waterfront space, economic increase and employment growth, supplement to urban planning, the improvement of the city image, and guiding or accelerating the improvement of the urban environmental quality. The synergy development between tourism and city emphasizes the characteristics of mutual benefits and dynamic trends. Urban agglomeration tourism drives the industrial cluster of tourism in urban agglomeration, improves traffic condition, optimizes the tourism spatial structure, and facilitates tourism cooperation among cities. Globalization and localization trend are the important power to urban agglomeration tourism formation, and urban system is the material basis of spatial construction. Diverse and different demands for tourism products and markets is the thrust. Represented by communication among cities, the fast traffic belongs to science and technology support. And the government plays a leading and coordinative part in urban agglomeration tourism development. All these five factors have driven the change from urban tourism to urban agglomeration tourism. Urban agglomeration tourism emphasizes dynamic mutual effects under the regulation and control of government and market from multitude systems and elements in the hands of different subject interests. Urban agglomeration tourism research is at the deepening stage based on the research of urban tourism. Against the background of transformation and upgrading strategies in Chinese tourism, the city is the frontier battlefield of the development of the tourism industry. There are different influencing factors in different urban development stages, different development evolution mechanism in different functions and types of urban tourism. Urban agglomeration is becoming a vital force for cities to participate in regional competition. Tourism would provide a good stimulation effect in the element and the whole construction for city and urban agglomeration. Research on the content of urban tourism and urban agglomeration. Systematic research can be conducted to lay the foundation for future research and broaden the scope of tourism geography.
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    The Influence of Tourist Activities on Soil Environment: An Overview of Research Progress in China
    LI Peng, PU Lijie, ZHANG Jinhe
    2012, 31 (8):  1097-1105.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.014
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    As a large-scale prosperous industry, tourism has become more and more important in the world. At the same time, the problem of pollution and environment-wrecking have emerged with its development. As the most sensitive factor to disturbance, the soil, one of the significant parts of ecosystem, has a great impact on the stability of ecosystem and the health of environment. As mentioned above, the literature review is used in this paper. Firstly, the author illustrated three phases of researching process about the impact of tourist activity on soil environment, namely, the beginning stage, fast development stage and maturity stage. Secondly, the writer represented the different impacts of all tourist activities on the soil environment and summarized the characteristics of those literatures which have been published so far. Finally, the authors put forward some limitations as follows. (1) The rationality of the frame of reference in the papers that had been published should be reconsidered. (2) The content of research in this field should be extended; the researches about the impact of tourist waste on soil environment are still insufficient. (3) The limitation of these researches is that they are confined to locations in single beauty spot, while there are fewer studies of the impact of inter-regional tourism on soil environment, which make research lacking systematization. (4) The methods used in this field are relatively simple. The researches about spatio-temporal evolvements of soil environment under the influence of tourist activity are deficient. (5) The subject investigated is lack of diversity. The researches on ecological vulnerable areas such as wetland and tundra are insufficient. Considering the limitations above, the author put forward some prospects and development trends about this area so that it can help the research in future.
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    Residents’Behavior Adjustment to Environmental Pollution in a Coal Mine: A Case Study of Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province
    SHI Xingmin
    2012, 31 (8):  1106-1113.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.015
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    Located at the juncture of Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, the transportation network has been developed in the Hancheng coal mine area. There are many heavy industries in this area because it has abundant natrual resources. Enviormnetal pollution is serious and typical in this area, and the residents is anxious about their health. The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental perception and adjustment of residents livng in the coal mine by interviews and 454 valid questionnaires. The influencing factors of environmental perception and adjustment are analyzed through Chi-Square tests, rank sum test and path analysis. The results are obtained as follows: (1) Most of residents rarely take action to protect their rights. Residents preferred to make a call to request improving environment. Some 90.1% of the residents hope that their children can get away from this area due to the environmental pollution. (2) The air pollution adjustments do not vary sigificantly with gender. It is the same with water pollution and noise pollution adjustment. The water pollution and noise pollution adjustments are sigificantly different among age groups. (3) The relation between perception and adjustment:“tolerating the extent of pollution for economic or employment reasons”has negtive effects on“moving attitude”and “appeal attitude”.“Assessment of environmental pollution”has positive effects on“appeal attitude”,“complaint to colleagues”and“avoiding being at home”.“Appeal attitude”and“complaint to colleagues”have positive effects on“protecting resident’s rights activity”.“Satisfaction of environmental protection to the local government” has negtive effects on“protecting residents’rights activity”.
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