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Table of Content

    25 July 2012, Volume 31 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Progress on Urban Stream Transformation of Critical Forms and Stability Relationships
    YIN Xiaoling, LI Guicai, LIU Kun, ZHONG Yujia
    2012, 31 (7):  837-845.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.001
    Abstract ( 838 )   PDF (659KB) ( 1044 )   Save
    Urban river degradation under human impacts has aroused wide attention in the areas of geography science and hydrology. But in domestic academic field there is still a lack of systematic theory study on fluvial geomorphology and process which is the important work in river restoration design. Based on the study of river geomorphology and stabilization for nearly half a century, this paper reviews the research results from the content and method, summarizes the features and reasons about river changes in the process of urbanization, and analyzes the advantages and limitations of river classification. In conclusion, urbanization has transformed river landscapes across the Earth’s surface, caused great damage to fluvial equilibrium, and highly altered river natural progress. The main parameters include river enlargement, reductions in sinuosity, an overall increase in drainage densities, and a tendency for bed material to coarsen. The root cause of these changes is the change of hydrologic suystem and sediment discharge regiments in that urban construction can induce river aggradation due to soil erosion at the beginning of urbanization; and accompanied by the gradual completion of the construction, channel erosion has been the main source of river sediment; and that hydrological system is upset by a decrease in the perviousness of the catchment, driven by land-use changes. Therefore, scholars have been studying the classification of river evolution on form and stability. In this paper, a summary of existing urban stream classification systems can be classified primarily into three broad types by synthesizing literature methods: form-based method, process-based method and synthesis method. Form-based method is appropriate for concluding river morphological characteristics, but the classification scheme lacks significant explanation and has a limited basis in channel processes and stability. Process-based method can provide important information at the stage of evolution and the dominant channel processes that can help predict the future response to changing sediments and discharge inputs. However, it ignores the correlation between river degradation, adjustment time and different stages of urbanization. The synthesis method with form and process-based feature, which is currently widely used, avoids the lack in application of above two methods and emphasizes the theory period of river adjustment which include three phases“the onset of a morphological response-significant morphology change-a new equilibrium”, but still needs future quantitative research. Combing the existing experiences is beneficial to provide a scientific basis and practical references for watershed restoration and management in China.
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    Impacts of Climate Change on the Summer Flow and Estimates of the Future Trends in the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River
    LIU Caihong, YANGYanhua, WANG Zhenyu
    2012, 31 (7):  846-852.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.002
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (646KB) ( 539 )   Save
    In this paper, characteristics of surface water resources and climate above the Longyangxia Reservoir areas, lying in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, were analyzed through summer meteorological and flow observations, with the examination of the feedbacks and interactions between water resources and climate. On the basis of analyses, a prediction model of the flow into the reservoir was established. And in terms of future climate scenarios provided by means of the down-scaling climate model, the flow under different emission scenarios was predicted. After the study, some significant conclusions were drawn in the paper. Firstly, the results indicate that variations of temperatures have been oscillating with a rising trend in the upper reaches of the Yellow River from 1976 to 2010, with a rising rate of 0.48℃ in every 10 years. Annual precipitation shows a faint reducing trend, and presents an obvious inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillation. There is a significant increase in evaporation, and this trend has a higher general relationship with temperatures. Secondly, the summer flow of Longyangxia Reservoir decreases from 1988 to 2010 with a rate of -33.0 m3/s every 10 years. Since Longyangxia Reservoir was established, in most years the flow is less than the average, and with growing climate anomalies, the proportion of extreme changes in flow rate increases. Thirdly, it is found that precipitation, mean maximum temperature and minimum temperature have a great influence on the summer flows into the reservoir. Meanwhile, it was indicated that climate change is the primary factor affecting the flows into the reservoir. In addition, parameters of the model were tuned satisfactorily in order to reliably estimate the summer flows into the reservoir. Through calculation, in future, under the A2 scenario, summer mean maximum temperature has risen by 3.0 and 2.9℃ compared with the period 1988-2010, minimum temperature has increased by 2.6 and 2.5℃ and precipitation decreased by 40.9% and 38.4% in the 2020s and 2050 respectively, and under the B2 scenarios, summer mean maximum temperature has risen by 2.7 and 3.2℃, minimum temperatures has increased by 2.4 and 2.7℃ and precipitation decreased by 34.5% and 35.7% in the 2020s and 2050 respectively. In summary, it is observed that temperature will continue to rise and precipitation will decrease obviously in future in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. So the predicted results show that the summer flows into the Longyangxia Reservoir will decrease in the 2020s and 2030s compared with the baseline specified data from 1988 to 2010. Under different emission scenarios, the flows show obvious differences due to the combined effect of changes in temperature and precipitation. The summer flows would decrease by 23.9% and 19.8% in the 2020s and 2030s respectively, under the A2 scenario; and decrease by 14.4% and 17.3% in the 2020s and 2030s under the B2 scenario. Therefore, damages of the effects of climate change on the summer flows in the upper reaches of the Yellow River generally outweigh potential benefits, but with great uncertainty in the predictions.
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    Soil Moisture Distribution and Moisture Restoration in Dried Soil Layer in Northern Qinghai Lake
    ZHAO Jingbo, QI Ziyun, WEI Junping, XING Shan
    2012, 31 (7):  853-858.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.003
    Abstract ( 543 )   PDF (835KB) ( 617 )   Save
    According to the determination of soil moisture content at Shaliuhe town in the northern Qinghai lake, this paper researches problems of the soil moisture content and the recovery of dried soil layer. Results show that with the increase of depth, the content of soil water decreases in Shaliuhe town, when the annual precipitation was slightly more than 400 mm, the moisture content of most dried soil layers recovered, dried soil layers disappeared, but there still existed few dried soil layers. After 2009, the year of the precipitation increase, the recovery of soil moisture reached 1.3 m depth in 2011. In 2011 the content of soil water was significantly higher than that in 2009. When the annual precipitation was about 410 mm, the recovery of soil moisture that reached 1.3 m depth needs about two years. The water movement is slow in this area, so the recovery of dried soil layer needs significantly longer time than that on the Loess Plateau, and the depth of soil moisture recovery is smaller, which is mainly determined by the longer soil freezing period. The recovery of soil moisture shows that the output of water was slightly less than the input from 2009 till now in this area.
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    Connotation of Multifunctional Cultivated Land and Its Implications for Cultivated Land Protection
    SONG Xiaoqing, OUYANG Zhu
    2012, 31 (7):  859-868.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.004
    Abstract ( 766 )   PDF (603KB) ( 782 )   Save
    Recently, multifunctional cultivated land (MCL) management has been a hot topic in the world. To get a deep understanding of the challenges such as the disorderly competition of cultivated land demand, marginalization of cultivated land and degradation of cultivated ecosystem, a comprehensive analytical framework was established based on the crux of mono-functional land use. From this point of view, it is vital to promote the transition of cultivated land protection towards the MCL management. However, there is no explanation framework of the connotation of the MCL. From the standpoints of positive and normative meanings, supply and demand meanings and the relationships among them, this paper established a comprehensive explanation framework through literature review. Finally, suggestions on promoting the transition such as establishing the spatial integration mode of the MCL based on main function differentiations, expanding the channels of cultivated land value enhancement and establishing the safeguard mechanism of integrated use of the MCL were proposed.
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    Research on Urban Construction Land Changes and Using Benefit in Eastern China
    CAO Yingui, ZHOUWei, QIAO Luyin, XU Duo
    2012, 31 (7):  869-877.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.005
    Abstract ( 718 )   PDF (1412KB) ( 608 )   Save
    This research takes urban construction land of 87 urban areas in eastern China as objectives, and aims at analyzing rules of urban construction land changes and the influential factors. At the same time, appraisal indicator style was designed to appraise the using benefits of construction land and the using benefits were then classified and discriminated. In the process of researching, some statistical methods were adopted, such as cluster analysis that classified urban construction land using benefits into 5 kinds: Bayesian discrimination analysis that obtained 5 discrimination relations. Besides, ArcGIS 9.0 was used to display the dynamic degree and some influencing factors. The results are shown as follows. (1) Total areas of urban construction land increase largely, and the increasing speed is fast. (2) The trend of increasing speed drops slowly, and takes on differences in different stages. (3) Differences are obvious among provinces and economic development circles. (4) The biggest correlation coefficients are shown between urban construction land area, gross domestic production and fixed asset investment, both being 0.90. The increase of economic investment and the growth of population are the important driving forces to the changes of urban construction land. (5) Using benefits of urban construction land are divided into 5 kinds, and the number of the third kind is the most, which is 488 and up to 62.32%. And it is the second production per urban construction land area that is the most important factor to the cluster result. (6) discrimination relations are determined and the accuracy can meet the requirement.
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    Land Use Change of Slope Land in Karst Mountainous Regions, Guizhou Province during 1960-2010
    ZHANG Yuehong, AN Yulun, MA Liangrui, LI Xue
    2012, 31 (7):  878-884.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.006
    Abstract ( 717 )   PDF (2403KB) ( 885 )   Save
    Land use change has intensively been studied in different ways across the world and it has greatly been influenced by human activity such as land degradation and soil erosion, land acquisition and expansion during the process of urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the process of land use/cover change for policy making, evaluation of potential environmental problems and man-land relationship. The environment pressure has continuously increased with constant population pressure since the 1960s. Serious environment problems have resulted from livelihood, insufficient awareness of environmental protection as well as a lack of laws and regulations concerned. And then a strategy of sustainable development has been implemented to protect environment. The policy of returning cultivated land to forest and grassland was issued in the 1990s. The exposed area of carbonate rocks has 73% and the mountainous and hilly areas account for 92.5% of the total provincial area. Therefore, the slope land is the main part of cultivated land resource in Guizhou Province. This kind of land use pattern leads to ecological issues of serious soil erosion and rock desertification. So it is important to study the land use change of the slope land in karst mountainous regions in Guizhou over the past 50 years. Based on GIS and RS technologies, this paper conducts studies on the regions with the slope greater than 25 gradients of karst mountainous regions in Guizhou Province. With the topographical maps at the scale of 1: 50000 in 1960 and Landsat TM and HJ-1A/1B RS images obtained in 1990 and 2010, the land use data in 1960, 1990 and 2010 was interpreted. Combined with the hydrogeological map and slope map of Guizhou, the land use variations in slope land are analyzed. The results are shown in the following aspects. (1) From 1960 to 1990, forest land, shrub land and water were decreasing, in which shrub land decreased the most and secondly forest land; while grassland, construction land, bare rock and cultivation land were increasing, in which grassland increased most, followed by the cultivation land. (2) From 1990 to 2010, shrub land, bare rock and cultivation land were decreasing in which cultivation land reduced the most; while forest land, open forest land, grassland and water were increasing in which open forest land increased the most. (3) The land use types which were distributed in an inversely proportional to slope were forest land, open forest land, water, construction land and cultivation land; while those which were proportional to slope were shrub land, grassland and bare rock. The development of this area before 1990 was mainly focused on agriculture, but after 1990 it changed and guided by urbanized development. It is indicated primarily that the cultivated land increased drastically from 1960 to 1990 as a result of reclamation under the increasing population pressure and the total area of cultivated land in China dropped in a continuous way, while the total area of city grew in a continuous way because the policy of returning cultivated land to forest and grassland had been implemented since 1990 and urban expansion had grown rapidly.
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    The Progress of Remote Sensing Monitoring for Grassland Vegetation Growth
    YU Haida, YANG Xiuchun, XU Bin, JIN Yunxiang, GAO Tian, LI Jinya
    2012, 31 (7):  885-894.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.007
    Abstract ( 914 )   PDF (527KB) ( 847 )   Save
    Grassland vegetation growth monitoring is an important field of grassland monitoring, which macroscopically reveals growth status and dynamic changes of grassland, providing instantaneous and accurate references to scientific grassland management. At present, remote sensing is widely applied in growth monitoring, which means choosing NDVI as the index to reflect vegetation growth condition. This method includes periodical comparative, vegetation growth process curve and direct monitoring. Direct monitoring is more complex in using because it needs build relationships to plant physiology and ecology parameters; vegetation growth process curve and direct monitoring is simple, but they cannot classify the growth of vegetation; periodical comparative not only reflects the space of growth, it also reflects growth change in time series, facilitates contrast in many years. This paper summaries the methods and progress of grassland growth monitoring at home and abroad. The main remote sensing data includes AVHRR, MODIS, microwave data and ultrasonic data, and foreign growth monitoring focuses on the production forecast and against disaster warning. Domestic growth monitoring pays more attention to periodical comparative and phenophase monitoring and does few studies on real time monitoring. Then the paper points out the existing problems of growth monitoring, such as over-dependence on NDVI and applying the same monitoring method without consideration about the grass types. The prospects come in the end that by choosing the appropriate vegetation index, monitoring methods and monitoring growth in different zones and types to improve the precision of monitoring, as well as combining growth monitoring with grassland plant yield and grassland productivity will hopefully provide nomadic production with scientific guidance. Besides, this paper introduces three key fields in vegetation growth, which are vegetation growth hierarchies, determination of key vegetation growth period and main influencing factors of growth. Temperature and precipitation are the main factors driving the growth of vegetation, and the role of precipitation is the most important one.
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    NDVI Change Analysis in the Mount Qomolangma (Everest) National Nature Preserve during 1982-2009
    NIE Yong, LIU Linshan, ZHANG Yili, DING Mingjun
    2012, 31 (7):  895-903.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.008
    Abstract ( 742 )   PDF (8877KB) ( 956 )   Save
    NDVI is a good indicator for monitoring the vegetation change. NDVI time series data during 1982-2009, land cover data and field survey have been used to monitor the temporal-spatial change for vegetation and to analyze the effectiveness of protected area quantitatively in the vicinity of Mount Qomolangma by using the time series change trend detection and spatial analysis methods. This study reveals that the overall distribution of NDVI is with a higher value at the southern and northern and a lower value at the middle area in the vicinity of Mount Qomolangma. Inter-annual change trend and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI during 1982-2009 are completely obvious in the study area, with a distinct overall increase of NDVI during 1982-1997, and especially bigger increase in the northern area, and with an overall decrease during 1998-2009 (descending of 56.96%), including the distinct decrease in the central and northern parts of the study area and a partial increase of the NDVI of forests and scrublands in the core area of southern protected area. The long-term time series NDVI change trend and spatial difference concludes the ecological conservation engineering such as natural forest protection has made the effectiveness of protected area more outstanding since 1998.
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    Causes and Spatial-Temporal Changes of Soil Salinization in Weigan River Basin, Xinjiang
    QIAO Mu, ZHOU Shengbin, LU Lei, YAN Junjie, SONG Peng, XU Weiwei
    2012, 31 (7):  904-910.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.009
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (1476KB) ( 1048 )   Save
    Based on the soil data of the year 1985, Landsat TM images of 1998 and CBERS images of 2008, we reconstructed three-period distribution of soil salinization through interactive machine-artificial interpretation. Then the spatial-temporal changes over the past 23 years were analyzed with the support of GIS spatial analysis methods. The results are shown as follows. (1) With the expansion of arable land, salinization of arable land increased, too. Soil salinization land increased from 13.32×104 hm2 to 13.78×104 hm2. (2) Soil salinization is widespread, mainly in the lower edge of the oasis, the river downstream and the low-lying flat terrain areas. Salinized arable land presents a bar-shape distribution inside the oasis and a patch-shape distribution outside the oasis. (3) The expansion of soil salinization of Weigan River Basin was primarily caused by factors such as the increasingly drier climatic changing trend, river, canal and reservoir leakage, irrational farming, and the fact that the land is not flat. However, it has been alleviated by the implementation of ecological restoration and amendment of reclamation.
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    Simulation of Spatial-temporal Evolution of Soil Erosion Based on Optimized GeoCA: A Case Study in Changting County, Fujian Province
    LIN Chen, ZHOU Shenglu, WU Shaohua
    2012, 31 (7):  911-920.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.010
    Abstract ( 497 )   PDF (3977KB) ( 579 )   Save
    Monitoring the soil erosion dynamically is an important part in soil erosion research. The studies mainly reflected in two aspects: The first is the monitoring of erosion intensity, and the second is the simulation of soil erosion tendency. However, the studies are mainly based on neighborhood transition rules and the mathematical meaning is emphasized, while the transition possibility of the cell itself has been ignored to a certain degree, which cannot fully reflect the complexity of soil erosion evolution. These shortages not only reduce the simulation accuracy, but also decrease the integration of erosion intensity assessment and erosion tendency simulation, which are not conducive to the formation of a complete research system. This study suggested that the spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion is determined by its own status of soil erosion, natural conditions and neighborhood transformation rules, so the cellular algorithms of erosion intensity index, cellular erosion intensity functions and cellular neighborhood transition function were designed and the traditional GeoCA was optimized. Finally, the integration model of optimized GeoCA was designed and calculated with the support of GIS and remote sensing technologies, and the spatial and temporal soil erosion transition tendency was analyzed in Changting County, Fujian Province. The results showed that there are characteristics of concentration and contiguity in erosion distribution, and the highest erosion intensity is observed in central Changting, and the soil erosion has been mitigated in the past 30 years, especially in the 1990s, Soil erosion control has achieved remarkable results, and the improving tendency was clearly accelerating, but slow down since 2000. It is expected that by the year 2020, the proportion of soil erosion area would decrease from 40% to about 20%. By comparison, the accuracy of optimized integration model can reach 72.7%, higher than the erosion intensity assessment algorithm and traditional GeoCA model, which proves that the optimized model of GeoCA is not only an effective means to simulate soil erosion, but also provides reference for further study of GeoCA.
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    The Study on the Reflectance Spectral Characteristic of Salt-Affected Soil in Typical Oasis of the Middle Reaches of Tarim River
    ZHANG Fei, TASHPOLAT Tiyip, DING Jianli, MAMAT Sawut, HAN Guihong, GUI Dongwei, SUN Qian
    2012, 31 (7):  921-932.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.011
    Abstract ( 617 )   PDF (1830KB) ( 662 )   Save
    With the economic development and the population increase, unreasonable land development has caused ecological problems such as degradation, while soil salinization becomes a major concern in arid and semi-arid areas. It is a basic work to study the spectrum characteristics of soil salinization by using remote sensing technology to achieve the monitoring and evaluation of soil salinization at regional scale, and to establish the relationship between ground data and remote sensing data. In this paper, the author takes the delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located in the middle reaches of Tarim River as study areas by using spectroscopy technology and multivariate analysis technology method. This paper studies the correlations between salt-affected soil chemical properties and reflectance spectrum in the middle reaches of Tarim River. Firstly, ASD spectrometer was used to measure spectral data in surface features. The spectral data should be removed from the equipment itself and the external conditions such as noise. Aiming at this experimental application study, we chose appropriate methods from the existing spectral matching processing technologies such as spectral absorption index. Secondly, the paper focused on retrieving soil chemical characteristic parameters (including ions, electricity conductivity, salt content, pH, TDS) from the hyperspectral data. By using single-correlation analysis, the quantifying regression models between salinized soil reflectance and soil ions, electricity conductivity, salinity, pH, TDS were established. It is shown that the correlation coefficient of salt content is 0.746, of sulfate ion is 0.908, of total dissolved solid is 0.798 and of electricity conductivity is 0.933. The result achieved a good effect. To sum up, the result of this research will produce a significant meaning for the research on the saline-alkali soil in the arid area. Furthermore, since a large part of Xinjiang belongs to the arid area, taking the delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers as the study areas has realistic meanings to the environmental research in the arid area.
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    Evaluation for Regional Ecological Sustainability Based on PSR Model: Conceptual Framework
    PENG Jian, WU Jiansheng, PAN Yajing, HAN Yinan
    2012, 31 (7):  933-940.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.012
    Abstract ( 1207 )   PDF (630KB) ( 1028 )   Save
    The sustainability of regional development is an important basis of the paradigm of sustainable development, and ecological sustainability is the prerequisite and viable approach for the realization of regional sustainable development. However, it is still in great need of a widely accepted decomposition framework for the system targets of ecological sustainability. Meanwhile, along with global urbanization and industrialization, there is an accelerating human influence on natural ecosystems, and the researches on ecosystem health, ecological risk, ecological security and ecological sustainability have been the main hotspots of macro ecology, although most of the evaluation indexes are the same. Therefore, the research reported in this paper aimed to analyze the relationships among the concepts mentioned above. And then, based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model, a new evaluation framework for regional ecological sustainability was constructed through such three aspects as ecological risk, ecosystem health and capability for ecological sustainability, which was of obvious ecological implication. In the end, detailed discussion was conducted on the evaluation models, the thresholds and weights of evaluation indexes. The results show that comprehensive index evaluation was the primary method, and that there were no absolute evaluation standards. The ultimate target of evaluation for regional sustainable development was not to judge the sustainability of natural ecosystems in a certain period of time, but to measure the temporal change and spatial differentiation of the sustainability status.
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    Progress in the Research of Water Environmental Nonpoint Source Pollution Models
    XIA Jun, ZHAI Xiaoyan, ZHANG Yongyong
    2012, 31 (7):  941-952.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.013
    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (557KB) ( 1447 )   Save
    Water environmental nonpoint source pollution has caused serious eco-environment problems, and the quantitative identification of nonpoint source pollution is an international research focus, of which the most direct and effective means is mathematical simulation, and the establishment of a practically-aimed non-point source pollution mechanism model has become an effective means for nonpoint source pollution management and control. The development, functions and current problems of domestic and international nonpoint source pollution models, along with the construction approaches of nonpoint source pollution mechanism model, are briefly described, and the future studies are prospected in this paper.
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    Progress on Research Methods of Adaptation to Natural Disaster
    YIN Yanyu, WANG Jingai, LEI Yongdeng, YI Xiangsheng
    2012, 31 (7):  953-962.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.014
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (746KB) ( 805 )   Save
    Natural disasters are inevitable, but can be substantially reduced or mitigated by arranging human activities rationally to create the conditions for a harmonious coexistence of human and nature. Based on the studies of human’s adaptation to hazards, some quantitative and qualitative methods on the issue were reviewed. The quantitative methods mainly consist of multi-scale-subject adaptation analysis, adaptation of the common people at the bottom and the policy for adaptation to natural disaster. The qualitative methods mainly involved adaptation of the ecosystem, policies or strategies optimization and so on. The results are shown as follows. (1) Some physical and mathematical models or some joint evaluation patterns have become the mainstream of the qualitative methods. Studies on adaptation to natural disaster show a synthetical and detailed trend. Some system comprehensive analysis methods and local native knowledge become popular. (2) As regards to the starting points on the issue, there are two approaches, the top-down one and the bottom-up one, different from what they focused on, but there would be a new method to combine the bottom-up approach with the top-down one, which is the just point for comprehensive system analysis of social ecosystems adaptation to natural disaster. In the end, several research trends on adaptation to natural disasters in the future are discussed. These conclusions can provide reference for seeking for a comprehensive research method.
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    An Introduction to Framework of Assessment of the Value of Ecosystem Services
    DAI Junhu, WANG Huanjiong, WANG Hongli, CHEN Chunyang
    2012, 31 (7):  963-969.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.015
    Abstract ( 1194 )   PDF (508KB) ( 971 )   Save
    Ecosystem assessment is the foundation of ecosystem management and conservation. In recent years, many studies have assessed the ecosystem services for various types in multiple scales. These results enhance people’s understanding of ecosystem services. But some of the current assessment results are not reasonable so that they play a minor role in the practice of ecosystem compensation. So it is crucial to further study the framework of ecosystem services assessment so that we can better understand the actual value of ecosystem services. Based on the previous related theoretical framework for valuing ecosystem services, this study examines the advantages of each framework comprehensively, and summarizes an integrated framework for ecosystem services value assessment. In particular, this framework focuses on some key issues, including the economic theory for valuing ecosystem services, scales of ecosystem services and stakeholders. This framework aims to value the ecosystem services reasonably, to follow the wish to pay (WTP) rules and to combine the ecosystem services value with different stakeholders on multiple scales, which can enhance the applicability and maneuverability of assessment results and help determine the standard and objects of ecological compensation.
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    Changes of the Value of Ecosystem Services in the Sanjiangyuan Region Based on Land Use Data
    CHEN Chunyang, DAI Junhu, WANG Huanjiong, LIU Yachen
    2012, 31 (7):  970-977.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.016
    Abstract ( 663 )   PDF (1361KB) ( 653 )   Save
    Under the framework of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), by means of market value method, shadow project method, the opportunity cost method and some other methods, based on LUCC data, this paper carried out a dynamic valuation of ecosystem services in the Sanjiangyuan Region (Three-River Headwater Region), including food production, climate regulation, gas regulation, water conservation, soil retention, nutrient regulation, and waste degradation. The results showed that: the economic value of ecosystem services in the study area was 602.94×108 yuan, 601.58×108 yuan, 603.60×108 yuan and 669.90×108 yuan in 1985, 1996, 2000 and 2008, respectively, which showed a decreasing trend at first, and an increasing one in the subsequent period. In addition, the proportion of climate regulation and water conservation in the total value was high; the ecosystem services of grassland and forests played a significant part in maintaining ecosystem balance and ensuring regional sustainable development.
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    Ecosystem Service Assessment of Grasslands in the Sanjiangyuan Region
    CHEN Chunyang, TAO Zexing, WANG Huanjiong, DAI Junhu
    2012, 31 (7):  978-984.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.017
    Abstract ( 757 )   PDF (1034KB) ( 816 )   Save
    Grassland ecosystem in the Sanjiangyuan Region (Three-River Headwater Region) plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance and guaranteeing sustainable development of social-economic system. By using multiple methods, we assessed the value of nine types of ecosystem services in the Sanjiangyuan region based on the ecosystem services classification system of MA. The results showed that the total value of grassland ecosystem in the Sanjiangyuan Region was 56.26 billion RMB yuan in 2000. The top two values of ecosystem services were climate regulation and food production, which were 11.17 billion RMB yuan and 2.59 billion RMB yuan, with the contribution rate of 46.05% and 19.85% respectively. With respect to different grassland types, alpine meadow and alpine grassland have the values of 49.10 billion RMB yuan and 6.47 billion RMB yuan, contributing 87.42% and 11.52% to the whole value. Swamp has the highest value of 4230.77 RMB yuan per hm2, but its area is small, thus a relatively low value in total. The results of this study provide the scientific support for policy making in ecosystem protection and the practice of ecological compensation.
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