Table of Content

    25 July 2005, Volume 24 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Design of Participatory Scheme of Action of Local Sustainable Development Planning
    ZHANG Wenzhong, QI Xiaoming, LI Yejin,MA Li
    2005, 24 (4):  1-10.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1349KB) ( )   Save

    In the past, the local sustainable development schemes were mainly drawn up by the government, and designed according to the top-to-bottom mode, lacking the participation of the public, enterprises and non-government organizations (NGO). In this paper, the authors introduces how to work out a comparatively practical and perfect scheme of action of local sustainable development plan, in which distinct parts of action in the society can participate. The paper is consisted of three parts: first, introducing the basic structure of the action scheme of local sustainable development, which includes the aim design of specific plan of action, determination of the parts of action and specific content of actualization; second, in accordance with the aim of action, analyzing the responsibility and obligation of the parts of action, including individuals and groups, like the public, enterprises, non-government organizations, in the process of working and actualizing the plan; in addition, putting forward the tasks that each part of action should do in view of particular matters; and third, discussing how to create a guarantee system in order to ensure the perfect actualization of the plan and how to improve the ability of sustainable development.

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    A Geography Study on Reconstruction of Urban Statistical Area in China
    YUAN Jiadong, SUN Zhenjie
    2005, 24 (4):  11-18.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.002
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    This paper starts from the analysis of regional characteristics of the actual urban statistical area in China and points out the existing problems and the necessity of reconstruction of the actual urban statistical area in China through the comparative study on the construction theory and method about the urban statistical area at home and abroad such as MSA in America and DID in Japan. Then, the paper reviews the literatures of reconstruction research of the urban statistical area in China, and points out that construction of index system and method of demarcating the city scale of urban statistical area are lack of operability. From the point of view of substantiality and comparison, the paper puts forward the idea of reconstruction of urban statistical area in China based on the daily life circle, and discusses the basic structure, constructing method and feasibility of urban statistical area in China based on the daily life circle.

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    Progress in Financial Geography in Western Countries and Its Implications for Chinese Geographers
    WU Wei, LIU Weidong, LIU Yi
    2005, 24 (4):  19-27.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1239KB) ( )   Save

    Encouraged by David Harvey’s search, Western economic geographers took money and finance seriously for the first time in the 1970s. They focused on the role played by financial institutions in channeling capital to and from particular places. In the 1980s, Western geographers turned their attention to understanding the impacts of finance, spatial organization and operation of financial institutions, development of financial centers, and the relationship between financial flows and the industry’s development. Since the 1990s, based on the “cultural and institutional turn” in economic geography, studies in financial geography have been reshaped by three increasing challenges; which are deregulation, technological innovation and economic globalization. At present, there are three major research themes in the field, i.e., the study of financial centers, financial exclusion and its impacts on society, and the study of money and space. Compared to the progress in financial geography made by Western geographers, as discussed in this paper, studies in the field of financial geography in China are just starting up. Economic geographers in China are suggested to focus their current research in the field on analysis of financial service network, spatial differences of money flow, and financial exclusion.

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    Review on Spatial Variability and Scale Effects of Land Quality
    WANG Jun, QIU Yang
    2005, 24 (4):  28-35.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (865KB) ( )   Save

    Land quality indicating the effects of natural factors and human activities on land resource plays an important role in environment improvement and sustainable land use. Population increasing and economic development have brought greater pressures on land resource since 1980’s, which resulted in different land degradation. More and more governments, international organizations and scientists have paid attention to the improvement and management of land quality, and it is important to deeply understand the spatial variability of land quality in different scales. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of land quality and scale, methdology of spatial variability are first intruduced, then spatial variability and scale effects of land quality is streesed. At the same time, the development trends of land quality spatial variability and its relative researches are discussed, aiming to provide insights into further study of land quality and sustainable land use in China. Future study concerned includes: close relationship between land quality indexes and practical applications; more research on related mechanism and effects; and more focus on land use patterns and ecological processes.

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    Changes in Wetland Landscape Patterns:a Review
    BAI Junhong, OUYANG Hua, YANG Zhifeng, CUI Baoshan, CUI Lijuan,WANG Qinggai
    2005, 24 (4):  36-45.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1272KB) ( )   Save

    wetlands are ecological landscapes with abundant biodiversity and serve as one of living environments of human beings, playing important ecological functions in regulating floods, purifying water quality and modulating climate, which have significant effects on climate change, economic development at the local, regional or global levels. Wetlands have been compartmentalized one type of land covers in global change conference. Land use structures and processes of wetland landscape have also been one of key research fields of landscape ecology and wetland ecology, since land use researches are important contents of landscape ecology. Generally, wetland landscape means wetland cells with spatial heterogeneity at the different scales. And wetland landscape patterns mean spatial arrangement of wetland landscape patches with different sizes and shapes, and have higher spatial heterogeneity, which are caused by comprehensions of all ecological processes at the different levels and have great impacts on ecological functions and processes of landscapes. Therefore, spatial structure of wetland landscapes has become one of core contents. Changes in wetland landscape patterns are closely linked to climate changes, land use/land cover changes and biodiversity at the regional or global scales. Wetland ecosystems have been proved to be one of ecosystems which are seriously endangered, and most wetlands have been transformed or lost because of natural processes and human activities. In this paper, dynamic changes in wetland landscape patterns, research methods, wetland landscape pattern indexes, driving factors and model simulating of wetland landscape changes, and relationships between changes in wetland landscape patterns and climate changes are reviewed, and key research fields in the future such as changes of wetland landscape patterns and their ecological effects, and relationships between changes of alpine wetland landscape patterns and climate changes are finally pointed out.

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    Simulation of Water-salt Movement Law Under the Freeze –thawing Condition
    ZHANG Dainfa, ZHENG Qihong
    2005, 24 (4):  46-55.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1123KB) ( )   Save

    The freeze-thaw action is a particular formation mechanism of the soil salinization. It exhibits special travel law of moisture and salinity that moisture and salinity moved two times in the soil freeze-thaw process, and the structure of soil profile turn into three layers: freeze layer, similar freeze layer and non-freeze layer. In the freeze process, salinity moves up with moisture in-phase, it make salt content increase obviously in the freeze-layer soil. In the thaw process, salinity and moisture cumulated in the freeze-layer soil move up again with evaporation, it makes salinity of the surface layer increase sharply. The result of simulated experiment not only proved the formation process of the soil salinization, but also provided theory for prevention and cure of soil salinization in the freeze-thaw area of north China.   In the soil freezing process, salinity accumulates in the frozen frcntal surface along with moisture removing; ice crystal forming and salt separating out. Salinity transfers up into frozen layer by means of film water, which increases rate and quantity of salinity in the frozen top layer. Coming from no freeze layer with capillary water moving up, the salinity accumulate in the frozen layer with moisture freezing mostly. Salinity transfer along with the moisture is pumped into frozen layer, the concentration gradient of salt form in the frozen frcntal surface, which result in freezing point grads. The frozen frcntal surface can jump over the rich salt belt for the descending speed of freezing point is lower than temperature. The alternate layer of frozen layer and no freeze layer appears in the same groundmass. The salinity in the frozen layer still moves up in the freezing process. In the thawing process, soil moisture remove towards top layer and vaporize with top frozen layer thawing, the salinity accumulating in the frozen layer transfer up and cumulate in the top soil layer, which make salinity cumulate in the top soil layer by explosive mode.

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    Resource Scarcity and China Resource Saving Direction
    JIANG Wei, ZHANG Lei
    2005, 24 (4):  56-64.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1284KB) ( )   Save

    With the rapid economic development of China, the restriction of resource scarcity is becoming more and more apparent. As one of the biggest developing countries, China faces severe challenge from resources and environment. As a whole, the resources condition of China have following characteristics: (a) resource quantity of China is large but scarce per capita; (b) resource structure is unbalanced between different elements, water resource and forest resource and environment is in the inferior position in the world; and (c) a great deal of resource and environment input in these years has not only havocked the resource base but also aggravated the environment. Even worse, there are a lot of problems existing in the resource exploitation and consumption; For example, lower resource utility efficiency causes a great deal of resource consumption, inferior quality shortens the life span of product, insufficiency of manufacture intensifies waste abundance of resources, unbalance between production and consumption makes severe overstock, disagreement between resource distribution and production consumes lots of freight cost, bad resource management chucks away resource, etc. In order to keep safe and steady resource supply of China in future, it is important to regulate and control during all processes from resource production to consumption, so the basic model of China′s resource saving economy should be saving during resource consumption, intension during production, governmental intervention and market regulation during circulation, and science and technology input during education. Based on the points mentioned above, the way to China′s resource saving economy should be focus on following aspects:(1) Build up recycle economic society to promote sustainable development; (2) Advance national resource machining degree to increase the technology extent of product; (3) Establish resource management system to suit to socialist market economy; and (4) Boost up environmental consciousness.

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    A Review on Research into Ecological Environment Impacts of Engineering Construction in Permafrost Areas
    CHANG Dunhu, NING Miao,Gulixian · ANNIWAER,CHEN Jiding, YE Wenhu
    2005, 24 (4):  65-74.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1423KB) ( )   Save

    Researches on engineering construction in permafrost areas have been carried on from early time, while the focus on the resulted ecological environmental impacts took place relatively late. From a viewpoint of impacts on ecological environmental elements, concerned studies mainly focus on the impacts on permafrost, vegetations, wetlands, desertification, wild animals and natural reserves. The researches on impacts on permafrost are relatively more mature, which lies on the fact that different impact assessment models based on thermal stability parameters have been set up. Further from a viewpoint of ecological environmental impact prediction and assessment, concerned studies mainly focus on prediction and assessment of permafrost and erosion impacts. It can be concluded from existing references that, there are problems as regard to researches on ecological environmental impacts of engineering construction projects in permafrost areas, as follows: (1) the connection between ecological environmental deterioration and permafrost degradation is not effectively embodied; (2) impacts of engineering projects on ecological elements are mainly analyzed qualitatively but not quantitatively; (3) researches on corresponding impact assessment and prediction are not undertaken in a systematic way, especially for the lack of comprehensive assessment indicator systems and shortage of full reflection on characteristics of different stages of engineering projects; (4) impact assessment procedures are often not integrated. To solve the above problems, it is necessary to realize systematism, quantification and integration for concerned researches. The specific scheme contains: designation of key ecological factor identification method; establishment of ecological environmental impact assessment indicator system; creation of comprehensive ecological environmental impact assessment method for certain engineering projects; and perfection of impact assessment procedure.

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    The Progress and Prospects of Research on Wind Erosion Induced Soil Nutrient and Carbon Cycling
    LUO Wanyin, DONG Zhibao
    2005, 24 (4):  75-83.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1317KB) ( )   Save

    Wind erosion is a progress that soil particles are disrupted, transported and deposited by wind, which causes much nutrient material’s lose as well as soil nutrient and land productivity’s decline. It also promotes the redistribution of surface soil nutrient and carbon cycling in dry lands. The erodibility of soil by wind is dependent on the state and stability of the soil aggregate, different land use types and human’s activities, which farther influences the nutrient and carbon cycling and redistribution among soil, atmosphere and bio-sphere. Based on deficiency of research on wind erosion induced soil nutrient and carbon cycling in the past , we summarize the research progress and analyze the existing problem of wind erosion; furthermore, we point out that the key research work that must be done in future should be focused on:(1) the environmental problem which causes by wind erosion, (2) soil's potential wind erosion micromechanism research, and(3) wind erosion induced fine particle feedback mechanism among the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system.

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    The Responses of Soil Respiration and Nitrogen Mineralization to Global Warming in Terrestrial Ecosystems
    TONG Xiaojuan, TAO Bo,CAO Mingkui
    2005, 24 (4):  84-96.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1407KB) ( )   Save

    Study on the responses of soil respiration and nitrogen mineralization to global warming is very important to understand the balance of the terrestrial carbon budget. Soil respiration will increase as temperature increase in short-term. However, it would have no sensitivity to warming or acclimation in long-term. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is heterogeneous temporally and spatially since it is controlled by environmental factors such as soil water content, climate, vegetation, litters and so on. Therefore, many uncertainties will be unavoidable when a fixed Q10 is used to calculate the variations of soil respiration. The responses of terrestrial ecosystems to warming have complex acclimations besides direct reactions. Although the results of modeling suggest that soil respiration would increase due to global warming, big uncertainties still exists in modeling soil respiration due to lacking of measurements about acclimation of soil respiration to warming. Soil nitrogen mineralization rates are promoted by the global warming. The extents of effects are related to not only temperature, but also soil substrate quality and quantity, soil water, the duration time of increasing temperature and so on. Due to the integrated effects of these factors, many uncertainties appear. The problems above will be solved by use of uniform methods, distinguishing of the responses of different components of soil respiration to warming, and consideration of other factors such as both increases and decreases in the quantity and distribution of region precipitation, increased N deposition and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration.

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    Discussion on the Urgency and Ways of High-Efficient and Water Saving Agricultural Construction in the Yellow River Basin
    SHAO Xiaomei, YAN Changrong
    2005, 24 (4):  97-105.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1258KB) ( )   Save

    The Yellow River Basin is located in the arid and semi-arid region in the north of China, where less river runoff and precipitation is the basic source of water resources. The basin is with seriously scarce water resources in China, even less in the world. Because of water resource shortage, the imbalance between supply and demand is sharp day by day in the Yellow River Basin. On the basis of analyzing the general utilization of water resources and the urgency of high-efficient and water-saving agricultural construction in the Yellow River Basin, the potential of high-efficient and water-saving agricultural construction is estimated in this paper. Then, the ways of high-efficient and water-saving agricultural construction is discussed based on the characteristics of water resources and the agricultural situation in the region upwards, middle and catchment area of Yellow River Basin. As a result, it is a necessary choice to transform from traditional irrigated agriculture and rain fed farming to high-efficient and water-saving agricultural construction irrigation and modern dry farming in order to realize the sustainable utilization of water resource. The analytical results and conclusions of this paper will provide scientific basis for sustainable agricultural development in the Yellow River Basin.

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    The Present Situation and the Agricultural Structure Adjustment of Agricultural Production in the Huanghe River Basin
    CHEN Yinjun, WU Kai, LU Bu,YUAN Zhang, XU Yuexian
    2005, 24 (4):  106-113.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1071KB) ( )   Save

    The ratio of the item between the Huanghe River Basin and the country was 12.4% for cultivated area, 7.7% for grain yield, 3.4% for cotton yield, and 40.6% for apple yield in 2003. Though the ratios of the output of grain or cotton between the area and the country were not big, an important ecological protective screen is provided by the basin for the country both national ecological safety and regional food safety. There were some problems in agricultural production of the area, which included the lower productive level, single agricultural structure and the striking contradiction between social needs and the condition of resources and environment. According to the present situation of agricultural production and the comparative advantage analysis, the key of agricultural structure adjustment of the area is developing vigorously characteristic agriculture, which should be the characteristic plant industry, the herbivorous animal husbandry, the fruit industry for good quality and the characteristic biomedical industry. The annual increasing rate of the gross output value of agriculture will be 3.9%, and the ratios between the item and gross output value of agriculture will be decreased by 11.0% for agriculture value, and increased by 12.1% for animal husbandry value in 2000~2020 because of the development of characteristic agriculture.

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    Summarization on Study of Soil Surface Crust or Sealing and Its Effects on Erosion
    CHENG Qinjuan, CAI Qiangguo, LI Jiayong
    2005, 24 (4):  114-122.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1143KB) ( )   Save

    Soil surface crust/sealing is developed by the interaction of rainfall and soil; and it is a common phenomenon of many soils in many arid semi-arid areas. On the basis of collecting materials and studying many papers, the authors not only focus on reviewing the study of mechanism, process, key factors such as soil characteristics, and rainfall characteristics of soil surface crust or sealing, but also pay attention to summarizing the impacts of soil surface crust or sealing on infiltration, soil erosion that includes splash erosion, anti-erosion capability and rill erosion, crop yield and so on. Then the authors conclude there are also many uncertainties about soil surface or sealing. On the one hand, rainfall and soil factors vary very much, so the developing process of soil surface crust/sealing is very complex, making the conclusions of researchers different from each other. On the other hand, soil surface crust/sealing is a special interface, so it affects the process of slope surface erosion. The qualitative analysis on the effects of surface crust/sealing has achieved some progress; however, in order to clarify the mechanism and perfect the model of slope surface erosion and precisely predict the erosion, it needs further quantitative analysis such as the impact of soil surface crust or sealing on splash-erosion rate, differentiation of impact of soil surface crust or sealing by different intensity, and interactive impact between soil surface crust or sealing and rill erosion.

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    Designing the System of Precaution and Emergency Rescue Decision for Touring Safety Accidents of Coastal City
    REN Xuehui, WANG Yue
    2005, 24 (4):  123-128.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2005.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (859KB) ( )   Save

    According to the characteristic of coastal city's tourism, the system of precaution and emergency rescue decision for touring safety accidents of coastal city is set up by integrating 4s (GIS, GPS, CS, and ES) technique and TIS (Tourism Information System). The framework of the system is made up of system objective, platform construction, database and system structure. The function of the system consists of information function that includes data integration and renewal, thematic map design and human-computer interaction, precaution function that includes environmental pollution precaution, environmental capability precaution and unpredictability precaution, and emergency rescue function that includes emergency scheme and emergency decision. In addition to precaution to tourism environment and safety accident, it also makes the emergency decision and organizes rescue network. The system has realized the scientific, visual and intelligent administration, which provides scientific basis of administrative decision for government office and becomes a powerful implement tool for tourism administration department to actualize safety management.

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