Table of Content

    24 January 2009, Volume 28 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Global Statistics of Spatial Distribution: A Literature Review
    ZHAO Zuoquan
    2009, 28 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (507KB) ( )   Save

    The past five decades have witnessed increasing interest in the statistical analysis of spatial distribution, whose local and global characteristics are major concerns among geographers, statisticians, and spatial analysts. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the global statistics of spatial distribution, the methods that describe, estimate, and predict the overall characteristics of spatial distribution as an independent field of research. The global characteristics of a spatial distribution include its center (or centroid), range, intensity, orientation, and shape in 2- D space. About 20 spatial statistical indices are proposed and employed to identify those global characteristics and their changes (or spatiotemporal processes) for a variety of spatial distributions, socioeconomic or natural, and to examine the relationships between different spatial distributions. The fundamental issues of this field that are discussed include spatial independence assumption, spatial random sampling,spatiotemporal process, spatiotemporal stationary stochastic process, spatial descriptive statistics and spatial probabilistic functions.

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    Spatiotemporal Data Models and Their Extensions: A Review
    CHEN Xinbao, LI Songnian, ZHU Jianjun, CHEN Jianqun
    2009, 28 (1):  9-17.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1156KB) ( )   Save

    Comparing to the traditional GIS data models, research on spatiotemporal data modeling, although still in its early stage, has generated a large number of data models. In reviewing these spatiotemporal data models, many researchers focused more on pros and cons or applications of the models, but ignored their inherent differences, expansions and associations; thus losing tracks of their expansions, variations and development trends. This eventually results in non-optimized choices when selecting applications, practices and integration of the model. This paper further enhances and induces the existing models, mainly focusing on 1) describing the expansions and associations of the related spatiotemporal data models, 2) analyzing the inherent differences between models, and 3) presenting the model's evolvement. The results should provide guidelines for the applications of the models and theoretical bases for model expansions and the research of new data models.

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    Variations of Yunnan Climatic Zones in Recent 50 Years
    CHENG Jiangang, WANG Xuefeng, FAN Lizhang, YANG Xiaopeng, YANG Pengwu
    2009, 28 (1):  18-24.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.003
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    Using 1961-2006 daily average temperature from 115 meteorological observation stations in Yunnan Province, the accumulated temperature (≥10℃) was calculated. This paper built the small reckon model by the altitude, longitude and latitude difference with a decade, and revised into the 0.01°×0.01° grid points by GIS. We obtain the distribution of the small grid accumulated temperature in five decades. Then we divided Yunnan into seven climatic zones, and calculated their area. The study has been conducted on seven climatic zones in Yunnan during five periods since the 1960s, which shows increasing/decreasing trends in the size of tropical and subtropical/ temperate zones as a whole. It is distinct that North Tropical/South Temperate Zone experienced an increase of 90.2%/a decrease of 12.5%. As far as interdecadal variability is concerned, it shows a decreasing/an increasing trend in the size of tropical and subtropical/temperate zone during the 1960s-1970s. It has a significant increasing/decreasing trend in the size of tropical and subtropical/temperate zone after the 1970s, and especially marked change has happened since the 1990s.

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    Grey Analysis of the Urban Heat Island Effect Factors of the Medium-sized City of Chuxiong on Yunnan Plateau
    HE Ping, CHEN Hui, LI Hongbo, XI Wujun
    2009, 28 (1):  25-32.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.004
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    On the basis of the difference in temperature of the urban and the suburban areas from Nanhua Meteorological Station covering approximately 30 years, eight synthesized indexes were selected as the influencing factors of Chuxiong's urban heat-island effects. The contribution level of the factors influencing the urban heat island effect of Chuxiong was analyzed by the grey relativity analysis method. The results show that density of population and electric power consumption are the main artificial factors for the formation of the urban heat island effect of Chuxiong, while the wind velocity and hours of sunshine are the main meteorological factors affecting the urban heat island effect of Chuxiong. The prediction results of the systematic coordinate gray prediction model indicate that there is an increasing trend of the urban heat island effect in Chuxiong in the coming five years.

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    Progress in Remote Sensing Phenological Research
    CHEN Xiaoqiu, WANG Linhai
    2009, 28 (1):  33-40.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (461KB) ( )   Save

    Plant phenological phenomena are the most salient and sensitive bio-indicators of the environmental change at seasonal and interannual scales. Timings of plant phenological phenomena can indicate the rapid response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Since the remote sensed phenology observation is characterized by multi-temporal, broad coverage, spatial continuality, and relatively long time series, recently, it has been an important means for detecting responses and feedbacks of vegetation dynamics to global climate change. On the basis of introducing remote sensing data sets and processing methods for monitoring plant phenology, we systematically reviewed important progresses in remote sensing phenology during the last five years worldwide focusing on identification of the phenological growing season, plant phenology and climate change, plant phenology and net primary production, plant phenology and land cover, and plant phenology and crop yield estimate, and so on. Then, we pointed out some existing problems in the current research, and tried to propose some main research aspects in the near future as follows: (1) developing a kind of more general technique for identifying the phenological growing season using remote sensing data; (2) unifying surface observed and satellite derived spatial information by carrying out plant community phenology observations and selecting appropriate scale transition methods; (3) analyzing quantitatively response mechanisms of plant phenology to human activities; (4) implementing amalgamation of remote sensing data with different spatial resolutions using suitable mathematical methods and models; and (5) estimating possible responses of plant phenology to future climate change by dynamic simulations.

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    A Review on Development of Vulnerability Assessment of Floods
    SHI Yong, XU Shiyuan, SHI Chun, SUN Ali, WANG Jun
    2009, 28 (1):  41-46.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.006
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    Flood is one of the most serious natural disasters in the world. The evaluation on economic loss or risk from flood disasters is the basic task in the domain of flood prevention and disaster reduction, and the research on vulnerability is key to the evaluation. This paper briefly describes the methods of vulnerability assessment, emphasizing on stage-damage curves. The origin, the methods to structure them and the compositive application are discussed then. Compared to the rich research results overseas on the damage curves, the research on vulnerability is far from enough in China yet and the application at a lower level can neither satisfy the damands for decision- support, nor correspond to the high flood risks in China. At present, scientific research, insurance and government should cooperate in the vulnerability investigation in order to reduce the influence of floods.

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    Influence of Channel Networks on the Sediment Yield Under Variant Temporal and Spatial Scales:A Case Study of Chabagou Watershed
    LIAO Yishan, CAI Qiangguo, ZHUO Muning, ZHENG Mingguo, LUO Xuan
    2009, 28 (1):  47-54.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (733KB) ( )   Save

    Different threshold areas of catchments, expressed in 100, 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 1800, 2000, 4000 and 40000 pixels, were selected based on the DEM. The channel networks of six watersheds lying in Chabagou gully with different spatial scales and the deviation between them were extracted. Employing the long-term field observation data of Zizhou hydrological station within the Yellow River, the influence of different spatial scales channel networks and variant places of channel on sediment yield of watershed were analyzed. The results showed that no simple decreasing relationship existed between gully density and area of watershed and the spatial scale effects of gully density associated with the level of extraction. When the threshold areas of catchments equal to 4000 pixels, the gully density decreased gradually with the increase of areas of watersheds. The characteristics of rainfall event have impacts on the ratio of sediment yield during single rainfall events of the channel slopes to the total sediment yield of the watershed. The sediment yield of channel slopes composed the main source of the total sediment yield when the rainfall intensity was relatively low. But, the upslope makes a main contribution to the total sediment yield when the rainfall intensity was comparatively great. Mass movement developed frequently at the upriver and head of the gully, but the slopes of branch ditch and main ditch were fairly stable; furthermore, the mass movements of those places were inefficiency to the sediment yield of the watershed. The channel network extracted under threshold areas of 1500, 1800 and 2000 had the most significant contribution to the total sediment yield; meanwhile, the influence of channel network on the sediment yield of watershed associate with the time scales. The high-level channel was merely a transport passage of sediment under long-term time scale.

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    The Application of Remote Sensing Technology to Land Desertification Monitoring
    LI Yayun,YANG Xiuchun,ZHU Xiaohua, XU Bin
    2009, 28 (1):  55-62.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (475KB) ( )   Save

    Land desertification has been a worldwide environmental problem. It is also a serious eco-environmental problem in China. Because of the advantage of large amount of information, short cycle and broad scope of data, less restrictions on the human and material resources and so on, remote sensing has become an important technology to monitor land desertification in the past 30 years. Firstly, we summarize the research progress in monitoring land desertification using remote sensing data, including different satellite remote sensing imageries, how to choose the time and bands of the imageries and how to choose the vegetation indexes. Then, we discuss about the methods to extract information of land desertification from remote sensing imageries, which includes artificial visual interpretation, supervised classification, unsupervised classification, hierarchical decision tree classification and neural network classification. Also we comprehensively compare the strength and weaknesses of each method. Furthermore, we analyze the reasons why both computer automatic classification and artificial classification are widely used in monitoring land desertification. We identify the problems in the remote sensing technology application to land desertification monitoring. Finally, we put forward the development prospects in the application of remote sensing to monitoring land desertification, such as the integration of aggregative indicators and methods and so on.

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    Urbanization Process and Effects of Natural Resource and Environment in China: Research Trends and Future Directions
    LI Shuancheng,ZHAO Zhiqiang,WANG Yanglin
    2009, 28 (1):  63-70.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (454KB) ( )   Save

    The urbanization process in China is characterized by excessive development, significant regional difference, and obvious urban-rural dual structure, resulting in significant eco-environmental impacts on urban ecosystems. Those impacts include cultivated land loss,water scarcity, energy shortage, environmental pollutions, and increased ecological footprint in urban area, which are the main causes for retrogressive succession of ecosystem structures, processes and functions. Presently, related researches on urbanization process and corresponding eco-environmental effects focus on urban heat island,urban land use/land cover, urban hydrological effects, urban biodiversity, and urban water and soil resources, and show specific features and trends such as particular emphasis on single urbanization factor, single city case,and single scale descriptive analysis, especially those lacking of multi-scale researches on dynamical mechanisms of urban spatio-temporal development. Therefore,authors propose some perspective research issues on urban processes and their eco-environmental effects, and they can be concluded to three development directions: (1) analyzing multi-scale dynamical mechanisms of urbanization process in China and spatio-temporal patterns and characteristics; (2) explaining interactional mechanisms between physical and human process under urbanization effects; and (3) predicting future development trends and risk assessment of urbanization in China under different scenarios of the constraints imposed by natural resources and eco-environmental conditions.

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    The Dynamics of Land Use and Ecological Security in Urban Area of Xi’an
    GUO Bin, REN Zhiyuan
    2009, 28 (1):  71-75.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.010
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    This paper used remote sensing images of Xi'an in 2000 and 2007, had analyzed the process of Xi'an land use change during 2000-2007,then had constructed the ecological security evaluation indicator system of Xi'an basis on PSR model, and had determined the weight of indicator by the methods of AHP and Information Entropy, and then had implemented nondimensionalization by power function and had calculated the index of ecological security by integrated index model, At last,making an overlay analysis between land use chart and ecological security evolution map, has obtained the inner link between ecological security condition and land use pattern.

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    The Mechanism and Regulation Pathway of Urban Sprawl of Changchun
    HUANG Xiaojun, LI Chenggu, HUANG Xin
    2009, 28 (1):  76-84.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1978KB) ( )   Save

    Urban sprawl is the common problem faced by many cities in today's world. Since the 1990s, the features of urban sprawl have emerged and become more and more serious, leading to many negative effects in the fields of economy, society and ecology. The rapid development of urban economy, population growth and spatial diffusion, construction of development zone, motorization and construction of traffic facilities, residence diffusion and suburban real estate development, as well as macro urban planning, have contributed to the urban sprawl of Changchun. To control spatial expansion with circle-spread type and urban sprawl, based on the inter-external experiences of some ideas and strategies to control the urban sprawl, this paper put forward regulation pathways to control urban sprawl of Changchun from five aspects including the mode of urban growth, optimizing urban spatial layout, controlling and guiding of real estate development, construction of rapid transit system and protection of farmland and ecosystems.

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    The Effect of Karst Mountain Physiognomy on Spatial Process of Urbanization in Guiyang City
    LI Weihai, LI Yangbing, ZHOU Yan| Dan Wenli
    2009, 28 (1):  85-92.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.012
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    Taking Guiyang as an example, a thorough analysis was carried out to reveal the relations of the karst mountain physiognomy and the spatial-temporal distribution characteristic of the spatial process of urban expansion in Guiyang, based on the MSS image of Guiyang in 1976, Landsat images in 1986, 1996 and CBERS image in 2006, as well as geomorphologic characteristics, 1∶50,000 DEM. Some analytical indexes such as relief degree of land surface, concentration index of land expansion, urban spatial radial shape index, etc. were introduced to describe the spatial differentiation of urban land expansion. The results show that the karst mountain physiognomy has serious restrictions to urban expansion of Guiyang. Concentration index of land expansion shows that the topographic distribution has direct impact on the expansion of distribution of landscape of the city in different directions. The expansion of construction land was mainly generated in flat terrain of the area where relief degree of land surface was less than 30 m. Comparsion of all the expansion patches of Guiyang city indicated that the density of new patches was higher than the density of extended patches. The geometric centers of urban area in Guiyang city has been transforming from northwest to southeast. First, the expansion of the city mainly generated along the gentle slope around the basin, and then the expansion generated along the karst mountain pass, valley land and small intermountain flat out of the basin; the expansion of the city was dispersed in flat area; and the maximum expansion intensity of the city was in 5~15km buffer in various partitions.

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    A Review of the Urban Social Structure and Its Development in Western Countries
    XU Di, ZHU Xigang, LI Wei
    2009, 28 (1):  93-102.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.013
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    In this paper we review the nearly 60 years process of urban social areas structure research in Western countries with the eye of the factorial ecology. We straighten out the whole context of its development stages and characteristics, and think these valuable experiences are helpful to the contemporary China's urban geography studies. The nearly 60 years process of urban social areas structure research can be divided into four phases: the first stage is that social areas concept was advanced and its research paradigm developed in 1950~1960; the second is many empirical cases accumulation stage in the 1960s to the late 1970s; in the third phase from the 1980s to the late 1990s, the scholars paid attention to the comparison and summary from the kinds of cases; and the fourth is diversified development stage since the late 1990s. Urban socio-spatial structure in Western countries has been extensively analyzed since the 1950s. Shevky and Bell (1949) initiated social area analysis in the study of Los Angeles and San Francisco. In China, there have been many studies of the social structure of major cities using the Fifth National Population Census data at the subdistrict (jiedao) level recently. Chinese scholars carried out research in the cities of Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai, Nanchang and so on, but the research fruits of urban social areas on China's city are rather limited. Finally, this research puts forward some suggestions on the development and study of urban social geography in China. Compared with the numerous case studies based on factorial ecology in Western countries, our urban social structure research should focus more on urban social analysis case studies, fortunately the Fifth National Population Census data is a good available research material to be used. Many comparable Chinese urban case studies based on factorial ecology would be helpful to summing up the characteristics of Chinese urban internal structure and comparing with the Western classic models. At the same time, the spatiotemporal process analysis must be emphasized on these case studies, we could use some years of the National Population Census for instance the Third and the Fourth National Population Census data to rebuild the transformation of urban social areas after the reform and opening-up in the 1980s. Chinese urban social structure studies should be extended. The reason and mechanism of urban social structure and its process in China are needed to go further to excavate. The authors suggest that Chinese urban researchers should combine the qualitative analysis with the quantitative analysis, use the result of the urban factorial ecology, summarize the characteristics of Chinese urban social structure, compare with the urban social structure in the western countries, and analyse the differences and resemblances of each other.

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    A Study on Urban Spatial Multi-pattern Development in the Growth Region of the Metropolitan Area
    WU Yizhou, CHEN Qianhu, HAN Haoying, LUO Wenbin
    2009, 28 (1):  103-110.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3588KB) ( )   Save

    In the process of globalization, cities are drived into a pyramidal city system. The metropolises are the core of the global or regional economy, performing the management and control function. Against the background of globalization, urbans in the growth region of metropolitan area in China are facing not only many chances, but also some challenges. However, the urban development in the growth region of the metropolitan area is complicated and dynamic. Since the growth region is a part of the metropolitan area, its development should be coordinated with the metropolitan developing strategies, and make the best of its advantages, to define the direction of the industries, to position them correctly, and give the needed advices. Based on the international experience, this article classified the evolution of the spatial structure and functional system into four processes: urban independent development period, growth region incubating period, growth region developing and expanding period, and growth region innovative development period. This study selects the Yuhang Subarea as the case of study. It first analysed its regional background and its characteristics from scale and structure angles, and explored the development trend and trajectory of the growth region. Then, it put forward four spatial patterns of urban clusters: subcity model of metropolitan network, innovation core and anti-magnetic cluster model, cultural innovation and transportation cluster model, and ecological corridor and tourist cluster model. Consequently, it compared the characteristics and conditions of application of the four models. Finally, it concluded by summarizing five relationships in urban sptial development in the growth region of the metropolitan area: work division with core kernel metropolitan, correlations with the dynamic change of the metropolitan population, correlations with the network of metropolitan economic region, relationship between historical heritage protection and regional culture of the metropolitan area, and the coupling of ecological spatial network and regional ecological structure.

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    A Review of the Theories and Methods for Regional Economic Spatial Structure
    GUO Tengyun, XU Yong, MA Guoxia, WANG Zhiqiang
    2009, 28 (1):  111-118.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.015
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    The about 200 years' development history of regional economic spatial structure theories can be roughly divided into three periods, the classic location theories development period, the regional economic spatial structure evolvement theories, and the new economic geography theories. With the development of the regional economic spatial structure theories, the research foci have transferred from abstract theoretical explorations to comprehensive studies on the evolvement theories of regional economic spatial structure. And the corresponding research methods have transferred from the analyses based on geometry and calculus to computer simulation based on complicated mathematical and physical principles, and even complexity science. On one hand, the classic location theories and regional spatial structure theories are the basic theories, new economic geography theories provide new viewing angle for regional economic spatial structure, and all have special reference to the future studies of regional economic spatial structures; on the other hand, because these theories were deducted from the rigid hypotheses, theoretical spatial structure patterns inferred from the theories are not accordant with the realities. So, these should be kept in mind when using them to explain the nowadays concrete regional economic spatial structure phenomena. Accordingly, the leading research methods have shifted from the static simulations of regional development states to the dynamic simulations of regional development processes. New methods and computer technologies have exerted increasing effects on the studies of regional economic spatial structure, especially, the combination of complexity scientific methods with GIS and RS technologies has shown good prospects in the future studies of regional economic spatial structure.

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    Analysis on Correlation of the Increase of GDP and Energy Consumption in China Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition Method
    DU Jianli, LIN Zhenshan, ZHANG Zhenzhen, ZHANG Yanlong
    2009, 28 (1):  119-124.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.016
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    The energy is the important material foundation of a country's economic growth, and social development, economic development and energy use are closely related. EMD method is used for the first time to comparatively analyze the correlation of the increase of energy consumption and that of GDP in China. This paper tries to find out the correlation of the fluctuations between them in new ways. It reveals the relationship between energy consumption and GDP. Consequently, this will provide us some reference to the long -term socio -economic planning, energy development strategy and the formulation of relevant policies and regulations. The result shows that the increase of GDP reveals the time-scale fluctuations of about 4 years, 11 years, 18 years and 31 years. The increase of energy consumption reveals the time -scale fluctuations of about 4 years, 10 years, 18 years and 27 years, and the cycles of them match basically. We make a comparative analysis of their IMFs, and discover that energy consumption and GDP are interdependent. The conclusion shows that the theory of economics, energy consumption can advance economic growth, and energy development should take economic growth as the prerequisite. The shortage of energy will constraint on economic development. Therefore, using every means to increase energy supply and improve efficiency of energy use would be a major task to ensure China's sustainable and stable economic development.

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    Influencing Mechanism of Spatio-Temporal Variation of Grain Production in Jiangsu Province
    LI Yurui, LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou
    2009, 28 (1):  125-131.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.017
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    Food security is an extremely important factor which affects the regional and national socio-economic stability and development. By using county level statistic data from 1999 to 2006, this paper analyzes the influencing mechanism of spatio-temporal variation of grain production in Jiangsu Province based on panel data model. The results showed that: (1) grain planting area was a relatively active influencing factor on spatio-temporal variation of grain production in the study area; (2) urbanization and industrialization had a negative effect on grain production; and (3) agricultural policies which were devoted to promote grain production played an active role in the recovery phase. Moreover, the effects of these policies were different in southern, middle and northern Jiangsu and regions with different income levels of rural households. In detail, the effects on northern Jiangsu and regions with low income level were statistically significant but that on southern Jiangsu and regions with high income level were not the case. In view of the spatio-temporal variation of grain production and regional difference of policy effect, the development strategy of grain production and subsidy policy design should make a quick response. The macroscopic strategy of integrating urban-rural development and regional development provides an opportunity for improving the grain production and supply -demand balance of Jiangsu Province. Thus, for this purpose, the local government should protect the scarce farmland energetically, optimize the allocation of rural-urban land resources, strengthen agricultural infrastructure construction, and improve the subsidy policy of grain production.

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    Advancement of the Methods of Regional Leading Industry Selection
    QIN Yaochen, ZHANG Lijun
    2009, 28 (1):  132-138.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.018
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    The regional leading industry has become an interesting topic in economics and geography. Various kinds of selection methods are widely used to establish and train leading industry in different levels of district unit, from town, county, city to province. In the context of globalization and regional integration, the perspective on region has changed, preferring to study the interconnection between economic activities and territories instead of region itself. And regional leading industry shows a new feature, the selection methods appear fast and their approach system is forming. The article summarized the different development stages of regional leading industry, summed up 13 kinds of regional leading industry selection methods and described their functions and structures, including location quotient method, input-output method, shift-share method, date environment analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, BP neural network and so on. Then, the paper classified them into single-criterion model and multi-criteria model, and identified some typical models such as DEA model, Diamond Theory model, Gray Cluster model and AHP model with case analysis. It concluded that DEA model is more scientifically objective, Diamond Theory model is a breakthrough and a new direction in theory, ray Cluster model and AHP model are more accurate and reasonable methods in analyzing regional leading industry. But the regional leading industry selection theoretical studies and approach applications haven't been well formed until now. In the future, the theory research based on the plan and policy for development priority zones should be enhanced, and the application of GIS technology will be strengthened.

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    The Comprehensive Analysis of the Relationship Between Ecotourism and Regional Sustainable Development in China
    LI Renjie, LU Zi
    2009, 28 (1):  139-146.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.019
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    This paper focuses on the relationship between ecotourism and regional sustainable development, which attracts more attention from home and abroad. Because of the wide range of the definition and meaning about the ecotourism, the authors extended the scope of key words, sifted through the results carefully to separate the more relative articles from the others by four grade rules. The authors also tried some ways to verify the representativeness of the results, and got 65 samples of the articles. Through the comprehensive analysis the authors found that: There are more researches on the cases, which are centered on the eastern coastal region; the papers were mostly published on journals of economics, few were on the journals of geography or tourism; over the past five years, our scholars have been forming steady direction in the research on ecotourism and regional sustainable development. The authors summed up four main fields: Relationship on Ecotourism and Regional Sustainable Development; The Effect of Ecotourism on the Promotion of Regional Sustainable Development; The Effect of Ecotourism on the Equity of Regional Sustainable Development; The Effect of Ecotourism on the Quality of Regional Sustainable Development. From these areas we can discover that ecotourism has important influence not only on tourism itself, but also on the regional sustainable development. It is a strategy for sustainable development, especially in the contribution to regional economic growth and equity of regional development. The research also found some problems in domestic research and put forward some suggestions: there is no article about the effect of ecotourism on the quality of regional sustainable development; the papers are more descriptive and less quantitative, thus we should strengthen works on statistical and monitoring data; the researches on regional cooperation of ecotourism are limited, so specialists in geography and tourism should take part in the researches and play important roles; there are also few papers in microscopic view, thus we should conduct more case studies based on microscopic samples.

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    The Effects of Tourist Activity on Plant Species Diversity and Root System Biomass of Shrubs in Scenic Spots of Wuyi Mountain
    WEN Yaxiang, ZHONG Quanlin, XIA Jinlin, XIAO Haiyan, ZHANG Xiaofang
    2009, 28 (1):  147-152.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.020
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    By means of research method of the comparative sample investigations, the indexes of plant species diversity, species evenness, species richness, cover degree and root system biomass of shrubs in the four typical scenic spots (Wuyi palace, Dahongpao, Longchuan falls and Tianyou peak) of Wuyi Mountain were investigated and analyzed, and the effect mechanism of tourist activity on shrubs is also researched. The results showed that tourist activity has a significant effect on the plant species diversity index of the shrubs except Shannon-Weiner evenness index,while on the roots system the effect of biomass is insignificant. Moreover, the indexes of the plant species diversity, cover degree, total root and fine root system biomass in disturbed districts are all below non-disturbed ones. Furthermore, the disturbance rate of the shrubs in the four scenic spots is in the following orders. The order of the plant species diversity index is: Wuyi palace > Tianyou peak > Longchuan falls> Dahongpao; the cover degree is: Dahongpao > Wuyi palace > Tianyou peak > Longchuan falls; the total root system biomass is: Tianyou peak > Dahongpao> Longchuan falls > Wuyi palace; and the fine root system is: Tianyou peak > Longchuan falls > Wuyi palace> Dahongpao.

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    Chinese Tourism Research Related to the Subject of South Korea: A Content Analysis
    SEO Jin-Wook, LIU Li, WU Hui
    2009, 28 (1):  153-160.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.01.021
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    Tourism scholars of China have shown great interest in the subject related to South Korea due to the number of South Korean visitors to mainland China has been dramatically increased since the formal diplomatic relations was established between China and South Korea in 1992. Based on the comprehensive review of previous tourism literature related to South Korea published on the academic journals in mainland China from 1994 to 2008 by using a customized content analysis database, the present paper investigates the development and maturity of this research field to gain an understanding of its evolution and current status, and to provide insights into directions for future research. The analysis paints a picture of Chinese tourism research related to the subject of South Korea through an objective representation of the growing body of literature from multiple perspectives: research areas, keywords topics, research methodologies, data collection, to name a few. It concludes first that the main topics of current research in this field are: (1) to study on the research and development of South Korea tourism market from the point of view of China; (2) to analyze the successful experiences of South Korea in developing international tourism industry; and (3) to study the intercommunication and cooperation in tourism area between China and South Korea. And then the paper indicates the three characteristics of current research, which are (1) industry-driven research, (2) singleness of research method, and (3) superficiality of research content. Based on the above analysis the paper presents a conceptual framework of Chinese tourism research related to the subject of South Korea which seeks to map the directions and trends in future study. The paper suggests that, in the future, the levels of analysis should be transferred from macro level to meso and micro level, and academics should conduct more causal research, using correlational or experimental design and sophisticated statistical methods to study some new topics in this field, such as Korean tourist behavior research, spatial competition and regional cooperation between China and South Korea, rather than those that had been repeatedly studied by many scholars.

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