This article started with an analysis of the background of rural decline, and the content and logic of the national strategy of rural revitalization from the perspective of human-land relationship. We proposed that rural recession is the result of the adjustment of human-land relationship lagging behind the process of social and economic development. The ultimate purpose of rural revitalization is to adjust the relationship between human and land to adapt to the change of the value of production factors in the new stage of social and economic development. Then, the review of the literature on rural revitalization found that the existing research has paid more attention to the implementation of its strategic content, but not enough attention to rural settlements that have been the important carrier of rural population. There is a close relationship between rural settlement and rural revitalization. Rural settlements are the focus of human social and economic activities in rural areas, and are the core and starting point of rural human-land relationship adjustment. But in the existing literature on rural settlements, emphasis is placed on development cases and neglecting mechanisms, especially the mechanism of change of rural settlements, which is closely associated with rural revitalization. Therefore, bearing in mind the key role of rural settlements in rural revitalization, this article finally put forward five focus areas of future research: the theory of rural settlement evolution, changing trend of spatial structure in rural settlements, specialization transformation of rural settlements, optimization of rural settlements, and landscape of rural settlements.
Governance has become an important theoretical and practical issue of multi-disciplinary concern. In the context of rapid urbanization and wide rural-urban disparity, rural-urban governance is particularly important for China. Based on the Chinese and international governance theories, the key aspects of governance include: an open system, self-organization, and the interactive relationship between power and rights. Internationally the research frontier focuses on the governance of social-ecological systems, while urban governance has grown significantly, and rural governance has also risen in recent years. The research trend and policy evolution of governance in China indicate that China has undergone a comprehensive transformation from management to governance by top-level design, and rural-urban governance is becoming a key issue. The main path of China's rural-urban governance in the future lies in three aspects. First, it is necessary to shift from power-oriented to rights-oriented governance. Second, equal attention needs to be paid to both ecological environment and social governance instead of focusing only on social, single-dimensional, and urban governance systems, and form a rural-urban co-governance system with the participation of multiple subjects. Third, it should be launched to assist rural and urban vulnerable groups actively. Rural-urban co-governance will become a new growth point for theories, and multi-disciplinary, multi-subject, and multi-department collaboration is much needed.
The relationship between people and land provides an important perspective on urbanization paths. This study analyzed the development context and basic logic of the transformation of human-land relationship in China, and argued that the relationship between people and land has gone through three stages: localization, de-localization, and re-localization. In the stage of localization, the economic form of the country based on agriculture determined people's economic dependence and emotional attachment to the countryside, and the logic of localization is hard to shake. In the de-localization stage, the transformation of industrialization and urbanization in China pushed farmers to leave the agricultural fields and leave the countryside, and structural changes occurred to the value constraint that people cannot be separated from their lands. Under the influence of land use institutions and the household registration system, the passive landless farmers and those leaving the land behind at their own will jointly led the de-localization process of human-land relationship. In the stage of re-localization, the institutional reform led the farmers to become the main agent of urbanization. Nostalgia promotes the coexistence of urban and rural civilizations, which helps reshape the relationship between people and land. Finally, this article maintained that examining the historical context and basic logic of the transformation of human-land relationship can provide a theoretical reference for the institutional adjustment of human-land relationship in the new era and the smooth implementation of new urbanization.
Under the background of new urbanization, characteristic tourist towns, as an important carrier of rural-urban integration and rural revitalization, undertake multiple functions such as industrial development, cultural heritage preservation, community management, spatial integration, and ecological optimization. Currently, characteristic tourist towns face problems such as the lack of integration of industrial and urban activities, and the lack of distinctive characteristics. Therefore, from the perspective of industrial integration and landscape reconstruction, a two-wheel driven mechanism for the construction of characteristic tourist towns is discussed. The research results show that: 1) With regard to realizing the transformation and upgrading of characteristic tourist towns development through industrial integration: on the basis of recognizing shared features of industries and identifying their unique characteristics, industrial integration can be realized through the use of integration methods. In this way, the strong effects of industrial integration on population, industrial, consumption, service, spatial, and ecological agglomerations are stimulated to promote the economic, social, and ecological construction of characteristic tourist towns. 2) With regard to realizing genetic inheritance in characteristic tourist towns development through landscape reconstruction: through identifying landscape genes, extracting landscape nodes, combining landscape corridors, and constructing landscape forms, the blueprint for the construction of cultural landscape of characteristic tourist towns can be drawn. This path highlights the cultural genes of characteristic tourist towns. 3) Combining industrial integration and landscape reconstruction to form a two-wheel driven mechanism for the construction of characteristic tourist towns: Under the premise of identifying landscape genes and determining the identity of characteristic tourist towns, industrial integration can be carried out. At the same time, the integration results can be used to extract landscape nodes to form tourism channels. Thus, the social space functions are integrated and a harmonious landscape form is formed. It provides a highly integrated development path of industrialization and specialization for characteristic tourist towns.