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    Review on the urban network externalities
    CHENG Yuhong, SU Xiaomin
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2021, 40 (4): 713-720.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.04.015
    Abstract457)   HTML13)    PDF (722KB)(144)      

    Urban network research has become the frontier academic field of international urban research and has gradually become a hot spot. At present, the related literature on "urban network" mostly focuses on conceptual discussion, dimension analysis, and network structure analysis. Research on the influence of network on regional economic development is relatively weak. Externality, as an essential attribute of urban network, is of great significance to the evolution of urban network and the development of cities and regions. This article starts from a comparison of agglomeration externalities with urban network externalities, focusing on the review and evaluation of the formation mechanism, utility, and measurement methods of urban network externalities. The synergy effect, integration effect, and borrowing size are considered important reasons for the formation of urban network externalities. The research on the effectiveness of urban network externalities focuses on two aspects. The first is the role of factor flow in promoting knowledge diffusion and innovation, and the second is the impact of urban network on competitiveness and economic growth. Based on the existing literature, the research on the measurement of urban network externalities mainly involves identification and estimation, including three common methods: correlation analysis, regression analysis, and spatial econometric analysis. The existing empirical research on externalities is still mostly based on static analysis and lacks dynamic consideration. To a large extent, the existing research has insufficient theoretical framing and insufficient explanatory power, often resulting in the discovery of conditional associations, but not causal relationships. The Western research on urban network externalities is relatively early and mainly focuses on the global and regional dimensions, while Chinese scholars focus on the national and regional dimensions. In terms of empirical methods and objects, Chinese scholars have also made some innovations based on the study of world city network. The issues that need further attention in the future include theoretical understanding of urban network externalities, externality measurement methods, and empirical research.

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    Development of socioeconomic geography in Russia during the past three decades
    Alexander DRUZHININ, Yawen DONG, Lei ZHANG, Jinlong GAO
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2019, 38 (6): 941-950.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.06.014
    Abstract845)   HTML6)    PDF (729KB)(555)      

    The establishment of strategic partnership between China and Russia is an important measure for jointly contributing to the sustainability of social and economic development in both countries. Improving the understanding of the development of geography in China and Russia and further expanding the scope of cooperation are necessary for such development. Based on the literature on Russian socioeconomic geography and annual conference material of the Association of Russian Geographers in the past decades, this article briefly expounds contemporary progress of related work in Russia with the vision of inheritance and innovation. The development and major trends of the socioeconomic geography thoughts in Russia are discussed. On the basis of dividing the transformation of Russian economic geography into six stages, this article focuses on terms and phenomena of changes in national or regional geo-relationships, multi-scale regional spatial organization, the development of regional economic network structure, the construction of "big Europe and Asia", as well as the conception of "eastward development". We mainly discussed the inclusivity of socioeconomic geography, as well as the emergence of new sub-disciplines, new ideas, and new concepts along with the progress of globalization and national development. We thereafter listed major concerns of socioeconomic geographers in Russia, as well as the leading scholars and their masterpieces. We also pointed out the shortcomings in the areas of theory and methodology construction, development of less-developed regions, social equity, and poverty, among others. This study may have potential in deepening mutual understanding between Chinese and Russian geographers and promoting the innovative development of socioeconomic geography.

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    Analytical framework of sustainable poverty-reduction effect and mechanisms of anti-poverty models
    Yanhua LIU, Yong XU
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2018, 37 (4): 567-578.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.04.012
    Abstract1001)   HTML0)    PDF (4416KB)(1282)      

    The "targeted poverty alleviation policy" is one of the most important strategies in recent years for China to build a well-off society in an all-round way. Among the many contents of this strategy, accurately identifying poor people and groups, arranging anti-poverty projects, and monitoring the effects of poverty reduction are the three core aspects. To ensure effective implementation of these policy objectives, a series of scientific and systematic methods for estimating and assessing the accuracy and efficiency of poverty reduction are necessary. However, related studies so far have focused mostly on the economic dimension, and very few of them have explored the underlying mechanisms or assessed the sustainability of poverty-reduction effects. From a multidimensional, dynamic, and systematic perspective, this article categorizes the anti-poverty models in rural China according to the main aspects each project works with, formulates a framework for analyzing the sustainable poverty-reduction effects of these models based on the sustainable livelihoods framework proposed by DFID, and then explores the working mechanism of each anti-poverty model. The result shows that the proposed framework can not only express whether the mechanism of an anti-poverty model matches the characteristics of the target poor people, but also assess the improvements it brings in multiple dimensions of people’s livelihoods and its sustainability. Thus the framework may help shine light on the development of systematic, comprehensive, and quantitative methods or models for estimating the sustainable poverty-reduction effects of anti-poverty projects.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Characteristics of landscape system in the context of global change
    Hsiaofei CHANG, Jian PENG, Yanglin WANG, Wenbin WU, Peng YANG, Yanxu LIU, Zhiqing SONG, Ichen HSUEH
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (9): 1167-1175.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.09.013
    Abstract1416)   HTML5)    PDF (1735KB)(1668)      

    Global change is an integral phenomenon including the impact of climate change, social development, land-use change, as well as other natural and anthropogenic effects and their interactions, which has become the most important driving forces of change in landscape systems. The adaptation of landscape system mainly involves absorbing the consequences of global change and maintaining the principal functions of landscape. This adaptive capacity encompasses different landscape types and components of the system and varying degrees of change in different temporal and spatial scales. From the perspective of landscape ecology, this study takes landscape systems as the main objects for alleviating and adapting to the risks and transformations of global change. We summarize the current adaptive characteristics of the landscape system by integrating relevant landscape research such as agriculture landscape and urban landscape. In the process of adaptation, landscape system shows the following characteristics: (1) The interactions and joint impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors are pronounced (2) The internal geographic characteristics of landscape types are assimilated, and diversity and uniqueness of landscape systems are decreasing (3) Landscapes functions are much more hierarchical, demonstrating clear division of responsibilities and more strength of cross-regional linkages in different spatial-temporal scales (4) A clear spatial boundary exists between different functional landscape types, and the functional degradation of transitional or buffer zones has become more serious. Based on these characteristics, future work should focus on improving the following aspects to relieve the impacts of global change: (1) Adaptability and uncertainty analysis of different landscape types or units (2) Cross scale adaptation approach analysis based on holistic improvement of system health (3) Integration of multidisciplinary and multisector studies under the background of global change (4) Promotion of quantitative analysis method of adaptability of landscape system.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    A literature review on optimization of spatial development pattern based on ecological-production-living space
    Jinchuan HUANG, Haoxi LIN, Xiaoxiao QI
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (3): 378-391.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.03.014
    Abstract1626)   HTML33)    PDF (785KB)(4429)      

    In the process of rapid economic growth and social restructuring, solving the problems such as spatial development disorder and costly resources and environmental impact has been an important scientific proposition of regional sustainable development in the field of human-economic geography. In accordance with the report to the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, optimizing spatial development pattern nationally is placed as the primary measure of ecological progress, followed by the specific requirements stated as "the space for production is used intensively and efficiently, the living space is livable and proper in size, the ecological space is unspoiled and beautiful." Shaping the ecological-production-living space by following these requirements will become the foundation of the spatial planning system. Moreover, it also contributes to improving the protection system of spatial development and implementing major function oriented zoning at all scales. Revolving around the target of optimizing geographical space and regional sustainable development, this article systematically reviews existing literature on ecological-production-living space both in China and internationally, focusing on the quantitative proportion and spatial layout of ecological-production-living space. Following the requirements of improving precision and increasing spatial resolution and with a focus on functional classification, spatial identification, and spatial development pattern optimization, this article finally put forward the research framework of ecological-production-living space. To promote the progress of theoretical research and practical applications on ecological-production-living space, the following measures can be implemented: (1) Establish an improved research framework and technical process through multidisciplinary partnerships. (2) Expand the scope of basic units of analysis. (3) Explore new methods for function identification and attach more importance to the dynamic evolution of ecological, production, and living spaces. (4) Promote the integration of suitability evaluation at different scales. (5) Meet the practical needs of multiple-planning integration and ultimately serve the national efforts of optimizing the spatial development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(48)
    Quantitative analysis and challenges of Chinese human geography in the international academia since 2000
    Jinliao HE, Xianjin HUANG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2017, 36 (1): 112-124.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.01.011
    Abstract1457)   HTML8)    PDF (6025KB)(2067)      

    This article presents an analysis on international journals in the broad discipline of human geography indexed by the US Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), including 115736 articles from 156 Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journals published during 2000-2013. It examines the performance, trends, characteristics, and challenges of Chinese human geography in the process of internationalization by an in-depth analysis of knowledge production in terms of the number of papers, citations, and top institutions and scholars in current human geography literature. The results show that: First, contemporary human geography is comprised of orthodox geographies (for example, economic geography, urban geography, cultural geography, and political geography), environmental studies, urban studies, development and planning, and economics, which are interconnected. There is an evident shift of western human geography towards social and cultural dimensions. Second, it is an indisputable fact that China has emerged as an important contributor for international literature in human geography in recent years with respect to not only the amount of paper production, but also highly influential publications and leading institutions and scholars. Nevertheless, at present China is not in the position to challenge the Anglo-American hegemony in the global pattern of human geography. Third, Chinese human geography is highly characterized by developmentalism and empiricism, being excluded from the mainstream fields of human geographical strands and epistemologies. Lastly, there exist huge gaps in the areas of cultural and social geography, innovation-based studies, social networks, and regional governance between Chinese and international studies, which requires a timely research agenda to promote reform of current institutions of China's educational and research systems, and to make fruitful dialogues with external scholarship.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Identification and change of research hotspots on rural space diversification
    Juan ZHANG, Maojun WANG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2016, 35 (6): 779-792.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2016.06.011
    Abstract964)   HTML4)    PDF (5509KB)(1719)      

    With the transformation of rural economy, society, and culture and other social aspects, capitalization and diversification of rural space including settlements, population, and agriculture have become apparent, therefore diversification of rural space has become a new focus in academic research. This article examined the research trends of rural space diversification using hotspot identification and change by CiteSpaceⅢ. In general, hotspots of international research on rural space diversification have been changing from agricultural production-oriented to consumer-oriented, and the research content is relatively mature, while in China, in a stage of rapid urbanization, research on rural space diversification has been of a relatively short history. The current research still concentrates on agricultural production and rural governance, and consumer-oriented research is in its infancy. In the future, important research areas in China should include multidimensional considerations of capitalization and diversification of rural space, their interaction with urban elements, and rural space diversification models and their identification.

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