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Table of Content

    25 November 2014, Volume 33 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Progress and trend of development of restoration ecology research in the arid regions of China
    Xinrong LI, Yang ZHAO, Rong HUI, Jieqiong SU, Yanhong GAO
    2014, 33 (11):  1435-1443.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.001
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    In this paper, the development process and characteristics of restoration ecology research in the arid regions of China were reviewed, and the research frontiers and development trends were analyzed systemically. The study on restoration ecology in arid regions has been promoted by national demands. Revegetation was the main method and approach for ecological recovery and restoration. Future study should focus on vegetation zonal distribution, soil habitat restoration, interaction of arid land ecology and hydrology, plant water relation, biological soil crust, projection based on models and modeling, and so on. The interaction and integration of geography and biology provide a new way of thinking and approach for both theoretical and practical innovations in the development of restoration ecology.

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    Tourism and Cultural Geography
    Ecological risk assessment of tourism development in Awancang Wetland, Gansu Province
    ZHONG Linsheng, LI Ping
    2014, 33 (11):  1444-1451.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.002
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    Coordinating the relationship between the ecological environment and development is the essence of an ecological civilization. At the beginning of construction, assessing the ecological risk of tourism development is helpful in preventing environmental problems that may occur and promoting the sustainable development of tourism industry. Based on the analysis of ecological risk sources and receptors in Awancang wetland of Gansu province in the northwestern China, this article establishes an index system for ecological risk evaluation of tourism development in Awancang Wetland. The ecological risk sources mainly included the construction of road, the infrastructure of restaurant and accommodation, tourism operators and visitors. The mainly ecological risk receptors were water environment, air environment, soil environment, biodiversity and the Tibetan culture. And there are ten indicators in the evaluation index system for evaluating ecological risk: the degree of air pollution, the degree of water pollution, the degree of noise pollution, the degree of soil pollution, biodiversity, vegetation coverage, the wetland area, tourism resource consumption, the degree of culture impact and tourism carrying capacity. Then, the 20 levels of ecological risk caused by tourism development in Awancang wetland were identified according to severity and probability with the method of the Delphi and Risk Assessment Codes. The results show that, among all negative impacts of tourism development in Awancang Wetland, the most important of ecological risk is the negative impact on Tibetan culture, the second is vegetation coverage reduction, the third is water pollution, the fourth is wetland area reduction and biodiversity loss, etc. Finally, the suggestions about how to reduce the different negative impacts by developing tourism in Awancang Wetland were discussed in this paper.
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    Progress in soundscape studies from the perspective of cultural geography
    LIU Aili, LIU Fucheng, DENG Zhiyong, LIU Min, YAO Changhong
    2014, 33 (11):  1452-1461.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.003
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    With the development of cultural geography, sensory geography represented by soundscape and auditory geography has become an important subfield of cultural geography. However, reviews of related research show that sound phenomenon and soundscape have not been paid enough attention by cultural geographers. Out of the need of research of cultural geography on sound phenomenon and soundscape, this article introduces the concept and related framework of "soundscape" to expand the perspective of cultural geography. The article first elaborates on the significance of studying sound phenomenon and soundscape by reviewing the previous research of cultural geography both within China and abroad. Three temporal and spatial characteristics of sound phenomenon are identified: (1) Sound is produced in certain place and on certain time spot; (2) Sound is broadcast and distributed from one space to another, therefore, spatiality is one of sound's inherent attributes; (3) Sound together with the environment in which it exists forms a certain cultural symbiosis phenomenon, which means sound could reflect the social and cultural meanings of local communities and regions. Second, related literature of soundscape studies is reviewed from the perspective of cultural geography in six aspects. Third, distinctive differences are identified in sound research between Chinese and Western scholars. Chinese scholars mainly use music geography as a theoretical basis to conduct studies on sound phenomenon, while Western scholars borrow the concept of soundscape to analyze relationships among sound, listeners, and the native environment that produces sound. Bearing these differences in mind, this article makes a systematic review of literature on soundscape, with the hope of providing detailed and effective guidance on future Chinese study on sound phenomenon under the framework of soundscape. The conclusions of this article include two parts: (1) Sensory geography including hearing, smell, touch, memory, and so on will become an important subfields of cultural geography. The innovation of research subjects, perspectives, and methodologies of sensory geography will ultimately facilitate the enrichment of cultural geography's theoretical framework. Cultural geographers in China have not paid much attention to the study of sound phenomenon, even on music geography. The system and framework of music geography still need consistent research by cultural geographers to reach its maturity. Apart from music geography, Western scholars have conducted research on sound systematically from the perspective of soundscape. Through introducing the concept of soundscape and methodology of soundscape study in the West, the emergence and development of soundscape research in China will benefit studies of cultural geography on sound phenomenon. (2) The review on the progress in soundscape research, that is, the temporal and spatial characteristics of soundscape, the relationship between soundscape and sense of space, the relationship between soundscape and well-being, the socio-cultural implications of soundscape, the application of soundscape in geography practice, and music geography, provides detailed information about how to use soundscape to study sound phenomenon, especially in the fields of recreation management and landscape planning. This will be instrumental to the study of soundscape by cultural geography in China.
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    Tourism attention degree about China from overseas and its spatial patterns based on Tripadvisor
    WANG Kun, GUO Fenghua, LI Renjie, Fu Xueqing
    2014, 33 (11):  1462-1473.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.004
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    Inbound tourism is an important part and indicator of tourism development in a country. International tourism is influenced by a series of factors. With the development of Internet, tourism electronic community is becoming increasingly more influential in the selection of travel destinations. User- generated content (UGC) that tourism electronic communities produce has gradually become the important source of tourism behavior and perception research. In contrast to the method of describing online attention degree only by using the number of search engine keywords, this article introduces the electronic community hierarchy as the weighting factor and establishes the model of tourist attention degree based on community UGC to adjust the focus of the model expression flexibly and optimize calculation results. Based on the web information collection technology, this study first designed an information collection process for retrieving information about Chinese tourism from an electronic community, Tripadvisor, and reconstructed this information to build a tourism information text database. The authors then built a place name database in order for using the text mining methods to obtain information about the place name frequency. The place names include two types: tourism attractions and destination cities. Based on the study of the tourist electronic community Tripadvisor, we found that attention of international users of Tripadvisor to tourism in China has three typical characteristics: (1) the focus of tourism is on the Great Wall, Mount Taishan, Mount Huangshan, Jiuzhaigou, Zhangjiajie and a small number of other tourist attractions, and a small number of destination cities such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Guilin; attention degree for a large number of attractions and destination cities is low, with a long tail distribution and polarization. (2) Attention for the attractions and destination cities clearly match spatially. The attractions with high attention degree are near to or affiliated with the cities with high attention degree, such as Yangshuo in Guilin, the Great Wall in Beijing, Dujiangyan and Jiuzhaigou in Chengdu, and the West Lake in Hangzhou. (3) Tourism attention decreases from east to central and west and this pattern is consistent with the level of regional economic development in China; popular destination areas such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Chengdu are also regional centers of economic activities. Tourism resources endowment, dissemination pattern of electronic word-of-mouth, geographic location, and level of economic development and the location, economic situation, and culture of the followers' country are the main factors influencing tourists' attention degree and its spatial pattern. This study designed a new data collection process to realize the effective management of a toponym database and tourism text database and set up a e-community tourism attention degree model that aims to solve the problem of quantitative calculation of Internet users' attention to the regional tourism and to provide a new thought for tourism geography study based on UGC from the Internet. In the visualization study, the authors analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of attention and temporal variations. This method provides a new way for inbound tourism research.
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    Research progress on urban recreational business district (RBD) in China
    ZHU He, LIU Jiaming, LI Le, TAO Hui
    2014, 33 (11):  1474-1485.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.005
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    Higher disposable incomes and more free time promotes urban tourism development. Construction of urban recreational business district (RBD) has been burgeoning in China. Urban RBD is a typcial urban tourism economic form, which is based on leisure business and recreation, catering, shopping, and other activities. Studying urban RBD provides important directions to the development of urban tourism, which also can contribute to the improvement of function and comprehensive benefit of RBD. Stansfield and Richert were the first to propose the RBD concept, and Bao introduced the RBD concept to China. Since then RBD research has drawn widespread attention within China. This article reviews the progress of Chinese urban RBD research and analyzes the research directions, research findings, and problems. Based on the 246 papers resulted from the search in CNKI (185 journal articles, 61 theses), this paper first analyzes the progress of RBD research. Based on the number and growth rate of papers per year, RBD research can be divided into three stages. The first stage is the initial development from 1998 to 2004. At this stage, research was primarily about the concept and the number of papers was small. Then started the rapid development period from 2005, when the growth rate of papers about RBD was Higher disposable incomes and more free time promotes urban tourism development. Construction of urban recreational business district (RBD) has been burgeoning in China. Urban RBD is a typcial urban tourism economic form, which is based on leisure business and recreation, catering, shopping, and other activities. Studying urban RBD provides important directions to the development of urban tourism, which also can contribute to the improvement of function and comprehensive benefit of RBD. Stansfield and Richert were the first to propose the RBD concept, and Bao introduced the RBD concept to China. Since then RBD research has drawn widespread attention within China. This article reviews the progress of Chinese urban RBD research and analyzes the research directions, research findings, and problems. Based on the 246 papers resulted from the search in CNKI (185 journal articles, 61 theses), this paper first analyzes the progress of RBD research. Based on the number and growth rate of papers per year, RBD research can be divided into three stages. The first stage is the initial development from 1998 to 2004. At this stage, research was primarily about the concept and the number of papers was small. Then started the rapid development period from 2005, when the growth rate of papers about RBD was higher, the main research directions were spatial structure, formation mechanism, and designing of RBD. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in these research. But an integrated framework for RBD research was absent. At the same time, construction of RBD had began in many cities in China. The third stage since 2007 is consolidated development. Many theories and methods from other research fields were applied to RBD. New research directions were formed, including tourist behavior in RBD, cultural valuation, and business system of RBD. Traditional research directions had developed further. In this review the content of the 246 papers are classified into 12 research directions. The major research contents were reviewed from seven aspects, including the concepts and definition of RBD; characteristics, function, and classification of RBD; formation mechanism and progress of RBD; spatial structure and layout of RBD; influence of RBD on city development; tourism image and visitor experience and perception of RBD; and planning and development of RBD. Main research results were summarized and existing problems were put forward. Finally, this article summarizes problems of urban RBD research. The construction of RBD will become a major trend of urban tourism development. Future studies should create a consistent definition and the content and characteristics of RBD need to be further researched. Quantitative methods should be the focus; evaluation system of urban RBD that can quantitatively reflect the characteristic of RBD in each development stage should be built. In addition, detailed study, environmental effects, and social effects of urban RBD should receive more attention. Interdisciplinary methods and techniques should be used in future studies. Incorporating theoretical studies into practices in RBD construction is most important in these research.
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    Orginal Article
    Risk analysis methods of natural disasters and their applicability
    Xilin LIU, Zhihai SHANG
    2014, 33 (11):  1486-1497.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.006
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    Risk analysis method for natural disasters is one of the key questions of risk research, and it directly affects the data needed for analysis, the selection of mathematical models, and the reliability of analysis results. There have been numerous published research on risk analysis methods. The applicability and reliability of these methods may determine whether the result of risk analysis is useful and may influence risk management. Among existing research, relative level of risk has been examined more often than absolute risk. However, the choice of method should be based on objective of the analysis and risk categories. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various existing quantitative risk analysis methods and analyzes their applications and suitability. The following are found through this review. First, relative risk analysis methods may be divided into three categories, that is, probability analysis, expected loss analysis, and scenario simulation. Among the three types of methods, probability analysis methods have been commonly used in long time series data and macro-scale analysis. The limitation to their application is that historical disaster data may not be easily available. Expected loss analysis methods may be easily applied and are mostly used in analysis at medium -spatial scales, but their predictive power is weak. The precision of the methods based on scenario analysis is high, and they are widely applied in micro-scale analysis where basic data are sufficient. Secondly, for absolute risk, loss of life been the focus of attention and may be examined through historical data analysis, mathematical models, and scenario simulation. Those methods based on historical data analysis need to be improved. Usually the methods for analyzing the risk of loss of life from international studies cannot be directly applied in research for China. Mathematical models for analyzing the risk of loss of life still need to be tested because quantification of qualitative data require greater scrutiny. Scenario analysis methods are most promising and represent the future direction of analyzing the risk of loss of life from natural disasters. In addition, economic risk analysis based on expected losses and land use using remote sensing and GIS techniques are commonly practiced. Ecological-environmental risk analysis is relatively weak among the three types of risks due to the difficulty in quantifying ecological-environmental values. In the future, more attention should be paid to scenario analysis and the role of land use for the absolute risk. Last, similarities and differences are found among the analysis methods of both relative risks and absolute risks. No matter what types of risks are being assessed, the choice of method should be based on risk mechanism, scale of study, and application of modern technologies in order to improve the usability of risk analysis methods and the reliability of the result of analysis.

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    Disaster Research
    Review on research methods of disaster loss accumulation and amplification of disaster chains
    YU Han, WANG Jing'ai, CHAI Mei, SHI Peijun
    2014, 33 (11):  1498-1511.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.007
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    In recent years, the frequent catastrophic disasters have caused great losses of human lives and properties in the world. This indicates that disaster losses may be accumulated and amplified through disaster chains, in which one disaster triggers another, and so forth. The losses are much heavier in disaster chains than in a single disaster. Disaster chain is a typical complex form of regional disaster system. Understanding the amplification mechanisms of disaster chains is very important in catastrophe risk governance. This review first focuses on the concepts and understandings of disaster chain and summarizes a comprehensive definition from the geographic perspective through literature research. It is found that disaster chains have two common features, including the casualty relationship between different disasters and the spatial and temporal expansion of disaster losses. Only under a geographical framework, a sound and complete understanding of the disaster chain concept may be possible. A regional disaster system includes the environment, hazards, and exposure units and the complex spatial and temporal interactions of these elements. Second, considering the different research philosophies, five method categories in recently disaster chain research are summarized and analyzed. The five categories include empirical statistics methods, probabilistic models, complex network models, disaster system simulations, and multidisciplinary theories. The appropriateness and disadvantages of each category of methods are discussed with respect to their utility in describing disaster chain loss accumulation and amplification. Empirical statistics methods are a classical one that often use weighted average of a series of indicators. They have great advantage in taking into consideration various geographic factors and the modeling process is simple. But these methods cannot reveal the disaster chain evolution and processes. Probabilistic models can generate an overview of all possible events after a disaster have happened, as well as calculate the conditional probability. But they have the same problem as the statistics models. Disaster chain is a typical complex network. So the complex network theory may be used to describe the evolution of disaster chain networks. Such method should consider the spatial and temporal features of the disaster chain components in order to make the result more precise. Simulation methods are a promising one that can support the understanding of disaster chains dynamics, as well as the mechanism of the accumulation and amplification of disaster chain losses. However, simulation precision should be improved by including the spatial and temporal features of disaster chains in the future. Two types of important disaster chains, the seismic and typhoon disaster chains were used as examples to show the practical application of these methods. Finally, this review shows that the main trend of disaster chain research is to build and improve the dynamical model of disaster chain loss accumulation and amplification processes. The key is to connect all the factors spatially and temporally in a disaster chain system. It is necessary to transform the research approaches from "static-descriptive-explanatory" to "dynamic-process oriented-simulation" in order to understand the complexity of a disaster system.
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    Orginal Article
    The concept, analytical framework and assessment method of social vulnerability
    Xiaojun HUANG, Xin HUANG, Cailan CUI, Xinjun YANG
    2014, 33 (11):  1512-1525.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.10.008
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1949KB) ( )   Save

    Vulnerability is a concept that evolved out of the social sciences and was introduced as a response to the purely hazard-oriented perception of disaster risk in the 1970s. Recently, the study about social vulnerability of human system and coupled human-environmental system has become increasingly more popular in the field of vulnerability research and sustainability science. The concept of social vulnerability aims at identifying and understanding which groups of people may be more sensitive and susceptible to the impacts of natural disasters and why. In this article, we discuss the progress of social vulnerability research and review the concept, characteristics, analytical frameworks, and assessment methods of social vulnerability. This article first reviews definitions of social vulnerability from different types of stresses including risk and hazard, climate change, demographic characteristics and inequality, resource exploitation, land use change, and environmental pollution. Social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability. Social vulnerability refers to negative impacts of social system exposed to natural or human factors due to its own sensitivity characteristics and lack of ability to cope with adverse disturbance. Second, this article introduces several analytical frameworks of social vulnerability from political economy, social-ecological system, and comprehensive perspectives. These frameworks include the Pressure and Release Model, Sustainable Livelihood Framework, Hazards-of-Place Model, Coupled Human-Environmental System Framework, BBC Conceptual Framework, and MOVE Framework. Strictly speaking, these frameworks are not specialized social vulnerability framework, and most of them were derived from vulnerability frameworks. Some researchers improved and applied them to explain elements, process, and mechanism of social vulnerability. The article compares critical rationale of different frameworks and reviews their merits and defects from three perspectives. At last, the article summarizes assessment methods, computational formulas, and evaluation index systems of social vulnerability. The methods include comprehensive index, function model, back propagation artificial neural network, decision tree, object-oriented analysis, spatial multi criteria evaluation, and GIS methods. Every method has different features and advantages and disadvantages. The choice of method should be based on research purposes. There are also many kinds of evaluation index systems and social vulnerability indexes such as the SoVI, CVI, CCSVI, SV, and so on. Most studies use population and relevant social and economic indicators to establish evaluation index systems. However, there are many questions about the validity and reliability of index systems. Generally, current studies on social vulnerability have the following problems: a unified conceptual and analytical framework has not been formed; assessment methods of social vulnerability are too simplistic; a comprehensive evaluation index system is absent; studies on mitigation and countermeasures are insufficient. In the future, social vulnerability study needs to establish a unified concept and analytical framework, expand the research contents, improve theoretical system, and promote multi-disciplinary integration. At the same time, it is necessary to improve evaluation index system and method of social vulnerability, strengthen research on social vulnerability mitigation and countermeasures, and integrate social vulnerability and social adaptation. We hope social vulnerability research can provide the scientific basis for social adaptability and sustainable development.

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    Disaster Research
    The concept, analytical framework and assessment method of social vulnerability
    HUANG Xiaojun, HUANG Xin, CUI Cailan, YANG Xinjun
    2014, 33 (11):  1512-1525.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.008
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4320KB) ( )   Save
    Vulnerability is a concept that evolved out of the social sciences and was introduced as a response to the purely hazard-oriented perception of disaster risk in the 1970s. Recently, the study about social vulnerability of human system and coupled human-environmental system has become increasingly more popular in the field of vulnerability research and sustainability science. The concept of social vulnerability aims at identifying and understanding which groups of people may be more sensitive and susceptible to the impacts of natural disasters and why. In this article, we discuss the progress of social vulnerability research and review the concept, characteristics, analytical frameworks, and assessment methods of social vulnerability. This article first reviews definitions of social vulnerability from different types of stresses including risk and hazard, climate change, demographic characteristics and inequality, resource exploitation, land use change, and environmental pollution. Social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability. Social vulnerability refers to negative impacts of social system exposed to natural or human factors due to its own sensitivity characteristics and lack of ability to cope with adverse disturbance. Second, this article introduces several analytical frameworks of social vulnerability from political economy, social-ecological system, and comprehensive perspectives. These frameworks include the Pressure and Release Model, Sustainable Livelihood Framework, Hazards-of-Place Model, Coupled Human–Environmental System Framework, BBC Conceptual Framework, and MOVE Framework. Strictly speaking, these frameworks are not specialized social vulnerability framework, and most of them were derived from vulnerability frameworks. Some researchers improved and applied them to explain elements, process, and mechanism of social vulnerability. The article compares critical rationale of different frameworks and reviews their merits and defects from three perspectives. At last, the article summarizes assessment methods, computational formulas, and evaluation index systems of social vulnerability. The methods include comprehensive index, function model, back propagation artificial neural network, decision tree, object- oriented analysis, spatial multi criteria evaluation, and GIS methods. Every method has different features and advantages and disadvantages. The choice of method should be based on research purposes. There are also many kinds of evaluation index systems and social vulnerability indexes such as the SoVI, CVI, CCSVI, SV, and so on. Most studies use population and relevant social and economic indicators to establish evaluation index systems. However, there are many questions about the validity and reliability of index systems. Generally, current studies on social vulnerability have the following problems: a unified conceptual and analytical framework has not been formed; assessment methods of social vulnerability are too simplistic; a comprehensive evaluation index system is absent; studies on mitigation and countermeasures are insufficient. In the future, social vulnerability study needs to establish a unified concept and analytical framework, expand the research contents, improve theoretical system, and promote multi-disciplinary integration. At the same time, it is necessary to improve evaluation index system and method of social vulnerability, strengthen research on social vulnerability mitigation and countermeasures, and integrate social vulnerability and social adaptation. We hope social vulnerability research can provide the scientific basis for social adaptability and sustainable development.
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    Orginal Article
    Research progress of impact of urbanization on carbon emissions
    Yaochen QIN, Peijun RONG, Quntao YANG, Xu LI, Xiaoju NING
    2014, 33 (11):  1526-1534.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.009
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    Urbanization is not only a worldwide phenomenon, but also the trend of historical development. As the impact of global climate change on people and the environment grows increasingly profound, the impact of urbanization on greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide emissions has received growing academic attention. This article examines a large number of international and Chinese literature on the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions and systematically summarizes and reviews these studies from the following three aspects: the origin and development of research on the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions, research contents, and research methods. The review shows that, current studies focus on the relationship between urbanization and carbon emissions; influencing factors of urbanization on carbon emissions, which include macro- and micro-level factors, and the impact mechanism of urbanization on carbon emissions. The main research methods are quantitative. Varies methods, such as IPAT, STIRPAT, GTWR, IDA, SDA, EBA, have been applied. Although Chinese research on the topic lags behind international studies, rapid progress has been made over recent year. Overall, the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions is a long and complex process, which involves population density, technological progress, industrial structure, level of economic development, and stage and level of urbanization in various countries and regions, as well as many other factors. Although the content of the current research is becoming more detailed and the issues have been addressed more thoroughly, and the research methods have become more scientific and diverse, the study on this problem still needs to be improved. For example, research perspectives should be broadened and research methods should be refined in order to provide a scientific basis for urban development strategies and lay the foundation for the development of low-carbon cities.

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    Sustainable Development
    Research progress of impact of urbanization on carbon emissions
    QIN Yaochen, RONG Peijun, YANG Quntao, LI Xu, NING Xiaoju
    2014, 33 (11):  1526-1534.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.009
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    Urbanization is not only a worldwide phenomenon, but also the trend of historical development. As the impact of global climate change on people and the environment grows increasingly profound, the impact of urbanization on greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide emissions has received growing academic attention. This article examines a large number of international and Chinese literature on the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions and systematically summarizes and reviews these studies from the following three aspects: the origin and development of research on the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions, research contents, and research methods. The review shows that, current studies focus on the relationship between urbanization and carbon emissions; influencing factors of urbanization on carbon emissions, which include macro- and micro-level factors, and the impact mechanism of urbanization on carbon emissions. The main research methods are quantitative. Varies methods, such as IPAT, STIRPAT, GTWR, IDA, SDA, EBA, have been applied. Although Chinese research on the topic lags behind international studies, rapid progress has been made over recent year. Overall, the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions is a long and complex process, which involves population density, technological progress, industrial structure, level of economic development, and stage and level of urbanization in various countries and regions, as well as many other factors. Although the content of the current research is becoming more detailed and the issues have been addressed more thoroughly, and the research methods have become more scientific and diverse, the study on this problem still needs to be improved. For example, research perspectives should be broadened and research methods should be refined in order to provide a scientific basis for urban development strategies and lay the foundation for the development of low-carbon cities.
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    Orginal Article
    Coordinated development of ecological-economic system and spatial evolution based on county unit in China
    Xiaoxu WEI, Jun ZHAO, Wei WEI, Binbin XIE
    2014, 33 (11):  1535-1545.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.010
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    Based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 1 km×1 km land use data of 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2012, 2853 counties or districts of China, the rates of change in ecological service value (ESV) and GDP were calculated. Spatial analysis were performed in ArcGIS to examine coordinated development of ecological-economic system and its spatial variation and temporal change. The results are as follows. (1) Since 1980, county level GDP growth in China has been very rapid. The rate of GDP growth in China's southeast coastal area is higher than that in the central part, followed by counties in western China. (2) The total ecological service value of China increased from 85302.15 billion yuan in 1980 to 94876.82 billion yuan in 2012, with a 11.22% increase. Spatially, county level ESV is higher in northern and western counties, and lower in eastern counties. (3) The coordination between economic development and quality of the ecological -environment (EEH) has gradually improved. At the county level, EEH in northern China is better than that in western China followed by central and eastern counties. But the sustainable development challenges of the ecological-economic system is still high. The degree of spatial correlation of EEH is relatively stable. The development trend of coordination between socioeconomic development and ecological environment tend to be positive, but ecological-economic system coordination in different counties varies significantly. The results of this study suggest that the regional economy of China's western counties should be further developed when efforts are made to protect the ecological environment of the region, while in China's central and eastern counties, greater attention should be paid to the protection of the ecological environment and ecological restoration, when the economy continues to grow. Achieving sound and fast economic development and maintaining ecological integrity is a balancing act that requires much greater effort.

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    Sustainable Development
    Coordinated development of ecological-economic system and spatial evolution based on county unit in China
    WEI Xiaoxu, ZHAO Jun, WEI Wei, XIE Binbin
    2014, 33 (11):  1535-1545.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.010
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    Based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 1 km×1 km land use data of 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2012, 2853 counties or districts of China, the rates of change in ecological service value (ESV) and GDP were calculated. Spatial analysis were performed in ArcGIS to examine coordinated development of ecological-economic system and its spatial variation and temporal change. The results are as follows. (1) Since 1980, county level GDP growth in China has been very rapid. The rate of GDP growth in China's southeast coastal area is higher than that in the central part, followed by counties in western China. (2) The total ecological service value of China increased from 85302.15 billion yuan in 1980 to 94876.82 billion yuan in 2012, with a 11.22% increase. Spatially, county level ESV is higher in northern and western counties, and lower in eastern counties. (3) The coordination between economic development and quality of the ecological -environment (EEH) has gradually improved. At the county level, EEH in northern China is better than that in western China followed by central and eastern counties. But the sustainable development challenges of the ecological-economic system is still high. The degree of spatial correlation of EEH is relatively stable. The development trend of coordination between socioeconomic development and ecological environment tend to be positive, but ecological-economic system coordination in different counties varies significantly. The results of this study suggest that the regional economy of China's western counties should be further developed when efforts are made to protect the ecological environment of the region, while in China's central and eastern counties, greater attention should be paid to the protection of the ecological environment and ecological restoration, when the economy continues to grow. Achieving sound and fast economic development and maintaining ecological integrity is a balancing act that requires much greater effort.
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    Orginal Article
    Separate reconstruction of Chinese cropland grid data in the 20th century
    Yongheng FENG, Shihuang ZHANG, Fanneng HE, Zhaoyuan ZHOU
    2014, 33 (11):  1546-1555.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.011
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    Many studies have demonstrated that land use and cover change (LUCC) has played a key role in global environmental change. The contemporary land cover is a result of human land use in the history. In order to simulate the LUCC's influence in climate and ecosystem, it is important to have a historical LUCC dataset, especially high-resolution land cover dataset. However, in China, such national coverage dataset is still missing, and this has limited the national environmental change simulations. So there is an urgent need to develop an effective way to reconstruct historical cropland distribution with high-resolution grids. Considering the complexity of the natural environment in China, in this study we developed a separate reconstruction method. First, we divided China into four regions based on a qualitative analysis: the traditional cultivated region, the northeastern region, the northwestern region, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This division is mostly consistent with other recent studies except for the northwestern region, which differs slightly from common delineation. Second, in every region we examined the relationship between cropland distribution and various natural and human factors and built a reconstruction model. In the traditional cultivated region and the northeastern region, we found that elevation, slope, and population density were the main contributing factors to cropland distribution. In other regions, however, population density was the sole significant contributing factor. This model was then used to reconstruct the cropland distribution of China in 1913, 1933, 1950, 1970, 1990 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 10 km×10 km. By comparing the reconstruction result with remote sensing data interpretation for 1990, we found that the reconstructed cropland distribution data are reliable not only at the county scale, but also at the grid scale. The comparison between the reconstructed change and the remote sensing data-derived change from 1990 to 2000 also supports this view, that is, the separate reconstruction method developed in this study is effective for capturing cropland change over time. The reconstructed dataset indicates the follows. (1) In the northeastern region, the cropland area slightly decreased at the beginning of the People's Republic of China in 1949; up to 1970, the cropland area had recovered and the modern distribution pattern formed; thereafter, the Sanjiang Plain was brought into agricultural development gradually. (2) In Xinjiang in western China, the first cropland development climax appeared in the republican period influenced by the agricultural policy; the second climax appeared between the 1950s and the 1970s, but most of the cropland was distributed in the area of the Tianshan Mountains. (3) Change in cropland distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was not notable, but the area had increased much; the spatial distribution of cropland in the traditional cultivated region also did not change significantly, but the reclamation ratio has increased. In conclusion, cropland area in China had increased in the early 20th century and then decreased, and the inflection point was likely in the late 20th century. This trend occurred not only in cropland area, but also in reclamation ratio. However, the change varies in different regions and is more pronounced in the northeastern and northwestern regions.

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    Land Use
    Separate reconstruction of Chinese cropland grid data in the 20th century
    FENG Yongheng, ZHANG Shihuang, HE Fanneng, ZHOU Zhaoyuan
    2014, 33 (11):  1546-1555.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.011
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (7832KB) ( )   Save
    Many studies have demonstrated that land use and cover change (LUCC) has played a key role in global environmental change. The contemporary land cover is a result of human land use in the history. In order to simulate the LUCC's influence in climate and ecosystem, it is important to have a historical LUCC dataset, especially high- resolution land cover dataset. However, in China, such national coverage dataset is still missing, and this has limited the national environmental change simulations. So there is an urgent need to develop an effective way to reconstruct historical cropland distribution with high-resolution grids. Considering the complexity of the natural environment in China, in this study we developed a separate reconstruction method. First, we divided China into four regions based on a qualitative analysis: the traditional cultivated region, the northeastern region, the northwestern region, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This division is mostly consistent with other recent studies except for the northwestern region, which differs slightly from common delineation. Second, in every region we examined the relationship between cropland distribution and various natural and human factors and built a reconstruction model. In the traditional cultivated region and the northeastern region, we found that elevation, slope, and population density were the main contributing factors to cropland distribution. In other regions, how-ever, population density was the sole significant contributing factor. This model was then used to reconstruct the cropland distribution of China in 1913, 1933, 1950, 1970, 1990 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 10 km×10 km. By comparing the reconstruction result with remote sensing data interpretation for 1990, we found that the reconstructed cropland distribution data are reliable not only at the county scale, but also at the grid scale. The comparison between the reconstructed change and the remote sensing data-derived change from 1990 to 2000 also supports this view, that is, the separate reconstruction method developed in this study is effective for capturing cropland change over time. The reconstructed dataset indicates the follows. (1) In the northeastern region, the cropland area slightly decreased at the beginning of the People's Republic of China in 1949; up to 1970, the cropland area had recovered and the modern distribution pattern formed; thereafter, the Sanjiang Plain was brought into agricultural development gradually. (2) In Xinjiang in western China, the first cropland development climax appeared in the republican period influenced by the agricultural policy; the second climax appeared between the 1950s and the 1970s, but most of the cropland was distributed in the area of the Tianshan Mountains. (3) Change in cropland distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was not notable, but the area had increased much; the spatial distribution of cropland in the traditional cultivated region also did not change significantly, but the reclamation ratio has increased. In conclusion, cropland area in China had increased in the early 20th century and then decreased, and the inflection point was likely in the late 20th century. This trend occurred not only in cropland area, but also in reclamation ratio. However, the change varies in different regions and is more pronounced in the northeastern and northwestern regions.
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    Orginal Article
    Land cover classification based on MODIS images: taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example
    Yushan ZUO, Wei WANG, Yanli HAO, Hong LIU
    2014, 33 (11):  1556-1565.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.012
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1300KB) ( )   Save

    With intensifying human activities global ecological and environmental problems have become increasingly pressing. Therefore the study of global change has become more prominent. Obtaining accurate land cover information in a timely fashion is critically important for such research. With the development of remote sensing science and technology and application, numerous studies have the issue of land cover classification using remote sensing image. In this study, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was selected as a study area for land cover classification using MODIS data. The 16-day MOD13Q1/EVI data in 2013, MOD09Q1 (Band1, 2) and MOD09A1(Band3-7) products in May 2013 were used as the basic data. Harmonic analysis method was employed to remove clouds and noises of the whole year's EVI, so that it can better reflect plant phenology. Then, the processed MOD13Q1/EVI data, surface albedo of MODIS/Ref1-7, modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference soil brightness index (NDSI), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were integrated to construct three schemes of CART decision tree to investigate the land cover classification of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The three band combinations are scheme1: 23 phases of EVI of 2013; scheme2: 23 phases of EVI of 2013 plus B1-B7 of MOD09; and scheme3: scheme2+MNDWI+NDSI+NDWI. The results show that the overall classification accuracy of the three schemes reaches 86.70%, 89.98%, and 89.98% respectively. Their Kappa coefficients are 84.94%, 88.66%, and 90.20% respectively. Therefore, MODIS images with various classification characteristics, combined with the decision trees can achieve higher precision land cover classification. This proves the feasibility of the proposed method for land cover classification at the regional scale.

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    Land Use
    Land cover classification based on MODIS images: taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example
    ZUO Yushan, WANG Wei, HAO Yanli, LIU Hong
    2014, 33 (11):  1556-1565.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.012
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (10507KB) ( )   Save
    With intensifying human activities global ecological and environmental problems have become increasingly pressing. Therefore the study of global change has become more prominent. Obtaining accurate land cover information in a timely fashion is critically important for such research. With the development of remote sensing science and technology and application, numerous studies have the issue of land cover classification using remote sensing image. In this study, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was selected as a study area for land cover classification using MODIS data. The 16-day MOD13Q1/EVI data in 2013, MOD09Q1 (Band1, 2) and MOD09A1(Band3- 7) products in May 2013 were used as the basic data. Harmonic analysis method was employed to remove clouds and noises of the whole year's EVI, so that it can better reflect plant phenology. Then, the processed MOD13Q1/EVI data, surface albedo of MODIS/Ref1-7, modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference soil brightness index (NDSI), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) were integrated to construct three schemes of CART decision tree to investigate the land cover classification of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The three band combinations are scheme1: 23 phases of EVI of 2013; scheme2: 23 phases of EVI of 2013 plus B1-B7 of MOD09; and scheme3: scheme2+MNDWI+NDSI+NDWI. The results show that the overall classification accuracy of the three schemes reaches 86.70%, 89.98%, and 89.98% respectively. Their Kappa coefficients are 84.94%, 88.66%, and 90.20% respectively. Therefore, MODIS images with various classification characteristics, combined with the decision trees can achieve higher precision land cover classification. This proves the feasibility of the proposed method for land cover classification at the regional scale.
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    Orginal Article
    Characteristics of farmland transfer-in and determinants in mountainous areas of Chongqing
    Weifeng HE, Jianzhong YAN, Hong ZHOU
    2014, 33 (11):  1566-1576.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.09.013
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1395KB) ( )   Save

    At present, farmland abandonment is a widespread problem in many poor mountainous areas of China. This type of land use change in sensitive environment has positive impact on the ecological security of these areas, but affects negatively on grain production and food security. For national food security reasons, large amounts of basic farmland in mountainous areas are still required. Therefore the contradiction between ecological security and food security is hard to resolve. Farmland transfer, however, may offer a solution to this problem. Understanding the characteristics and determinants of farmland transfer-in provides insights for decision making on the rational distribution of basic farmland and grain for green projects, but existing research is insufficient for mountainous areas. Based on a field survey of 1015 households in the "two wings" of Chongqing using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tool, this study analyzes the basic characteristics of farmland transfer-in at plot level. It quantitatively analyzes the influencing factors on the farmland area that farming households transfer in by using the Tobit model. The results show that: (1) As free-of-compensation transfer is common in the study area, the surveyed households are unwilling to transfer out large plots located close to residence. However, farming households who transfer in farmland tend to choose plots with relatively good quality or convenient for farming, and have a low demand for plots with relatively poor production conditions. Thus these plots are more likely to be abandoned. (2) The farming households who transfer in farmland are often small farmers with low cropping income and their plots are generally small. With regard to farmland management, the surveyed farming households tend to grow cash crops on the plots that they transfer in, while labor and fertilizer input to these plots are lower than that of own plots. (3) The Tobit model analysis suggests that farm labor force, household farming income, quantity of farming equipment, and cultivated area have significant positive impacts on the farmland area that households transfer in. On the other hand, age of household head, average plot area, and Wulong County have significant negative impacts. Other variables, such as off-farm income, quantity of household livestock, distance from market, road, and Wushan County, have no significant impact on the farmland area that farmers transfer in. (4) In order to foster land transfer market in the mountainous areas, targeted measures need to be adopted by the government, such as developing land consolidation projects, adjusting grain production subsidies and cropping structure, increasing the amount of agricultural machinery purchase allowance, and so on. This study also identified issues that require further research, for example, why free-of-compensation transfer is common in the mountainous areas and what is the role of the government in farmland transfer.

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    Land Use
    Characteristics of farmland transfer-in and determinants in mountainous areas of Chongqing
    HE Weifeng, YAN Jianzhong, ZHOU Hong
    2014, 33 (11):  1566-1576.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.013
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3976KB) ( )   Save
    At present, farmland abandonment is a widespread problem in many poor mountainous areas of China. This type of land use change in sensitive environment has positive impact on the ecological security of these areas, but affects negatively on grain production and food security. For national food security reasons, large amounts of basic farmland in mountainous areas are still required. Therefore the contradiction between ecological security and food security is hard to resolve. Farmland transfer, however, may offer a solution to this problem. Understanding the characteristics and determinants of farmland transfer- in provides insights for decision making on the rational distribution of basic farmland and grain for green projects, but existing research is insufficient for mountainous areas. Based on a field survey of 1015 households in the "two wings" of Chongqing using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tool, this study analyzes the basic characteristics of farmland transfer- in at plot level. It quantitatively analyzes the influencing factors on the farmland area that farming households transfer in by using the Tobit model. The results show that: (1) As free-of-compensation transfer is common in the study area, the surveyed households are unwilling to transfer out large plots located close to residence. However, farming households who transfer in farmland tend to choose plots with relatively good quality or convenient for farming, and have a low demand for plots with relatively poor production conditions. Thus these plots are more likely to be abandoned. (2) The farming households who transfer in farmland are often small farmers with low cropping income and their plots are generally small. With regard to farmland management, the surveyed farming households tend to grow cash crops on the plots that they transfer in, while labor and fertilizer input to these plots are lower than that of own plots. (3) The Tobit model analysis suggests that farm labor force, household farming income, quantity of farming equipment, and cultivated area have significant positive impacts on the farmland area that households transfer in. On the other hand, age of household head, average plot area, and Wulong County have significant negative impacts. Other variables, such as off-farm income, quantity of household livestock, distance from market, road, and Wushan County, have no significant impact on the farmland area that farmers transfer in. (4) In order to foster land transfer market in the mountainous areas, targeted measures need to be adopted by the government, such as developing land consolidation projects, adjusting grain production subsidies and cropping structure, increasing the amount of agricultural machinery purchase allowance, and so on. This study also identified issues that require further research, for example, why free-of-compensation transfer is common in the mountainous areas and what is the role of the government in farmland transfer.
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