• 2012 Volume 31 Issue 4
    Published: 25 April 2012

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  • QIAO Xuning, YANG Yongju, YANG Degang
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    In a watershed, competitive water use in upstream and downstream causes a conflict between development of human beings and eco-environment. It is high time to establish mechanism of payments for ecosystem services (PES). Domestic and foreign researches on PES in watersheds mainly focus on assessment on PES implementation, choice of compensation scale, calculation of compensation standard, relationship between PES and poverty reduction, and spatial differentiation of PES. The key issues are how to make eco-compensation standard and how to realize the beneficial owner recuperation. Compensation bodies and compensation objects are defined by analysis of stakeholders and water quantity and quality between upstream and downstream. Meanwhile, maximum standard, minimum standard and reference standard of eco-compensation are determined by calculating ecological profit and loss from upstream to downstream, opportunity cost and willingness to pay (WTP). Furthermore, PES mechanism of multi-level, multi-subject and multi-factor is established. Finally, difficulties are analyzed during the construction of PES mechanism in watersheds.
  • LIU Litao, SHEN Lei, LIU Xiaojie
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    The renewed focus on energy security is driven, to some degree, by the soaring energy price and the increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Strengthening research on theories and methods of energy security is helpful not only in mastering the key elements and identify evolution trends of energy security, but also in laying a solid foundation for early warning and policy research.
    This article summarized the theories, methods and major progress of energy security, and found out the following results. (1) The quantitative study on energy security of China is very limited. There are very few quantitative empirical studies and a lack of consensus on the conceptual framework and evaluation model of energy security. (2) International evaluation models are mostly based on Shannon-Wiener Index and Herfindahl- Hirschman Index. At present, more representative evaluation models of energy security are developed by Joint Energy Security of Supply Working Group (JESS), Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), International Energy Agency (IEA), The Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre. (3) Discussion and some perspectives in this paper imply that quantitative research on energy security should be improved from the aspects of temporal scale, spatial scale, contents, uncertainties and others.
  • MA Haitao
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    For over 20 years, many kinds of theory paradigms, such as those from the Western economic geography, have offered multi-dimensional angles of views for explaining the phenomena of new economic activity space. Among them, the research on relational paradigm and evolutionary paradigm is especially active. Both relational paradigm and evolutionary paradigm try to establish their own theoretical frames. There are lots of similarities between them in some theoretical supposition. However, there have been relatively few comparative studies between them. Relational paradigm and evolutionary paradigm originated in the mid- and late 1990s, they have similar core assumptions against neoclassical paradigm, and both are concerned about the process of corporate behavior and corporate relations, focusing on formal and informal institutions of economic behavior. Two paradigms of economic geography have subtle differences in explaining some of their core issues, such as assumptions about the decision-making of firms, the spatial evolution of sectors, and the convergence or divergence of spatial systems. But on the whole, they are complementary to each other in advancing the interpretation of the issues. In addition, one method can be integrated with another for there are mutual influences and mutual tolerance in the between the two paradigms in the process of theory building. Of course, there are mutual criticisms between the two of them, but it is such differrences in arguments that have promoted the western theory of the rapid development of economic geography. Finally, with the combination of domestic development of economic geography theory, the paper puts forward two suggestions. One is that we should have in-depth understanding of various theoretical contents of western geography and enhance the construction of domestic economic theory. The other is that we can integrate multiple theoretical paradigms of western economic geography for solving practical problems in domestic economic development.
  • LU Juan, TANG Guoan, ZHANG Hong, JIANG Ping, WU Wei
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    Crime is not distributed uniformly within the geographic time and space, and it shows significant spatial and temporal aggregation, which is called the "crime hot spots". Based on the understanding of crime hot spots, this paper reviews the current international development of research methods for the spatiotemporal distribution of crime hot spots in three aspects, including spatiotemporal patterns, cause analysis methods and spatiotemporal transfer and forecast. Finally, this paper summarizes the research about spatiotemporal distribution analysis of crime hot spots and made prospects of its future trends. On the whole, there have been relatively fewer related domestic research, so we should enhance some methods for crime analysis in combination of China's national conditions. In addition, some breakthroughs and innovations need to be made in the research methods for the spatiotemporal distribution of crime hot spots through in-depth research of the crime theory and the research in other fields as a reference.
  • ZHANG Lijun, QIN Yaochen, ZHANG Jinping, ZHANG Yan
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    The conflict between the great demand of energy in the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization and the CO2-abate pressure under the condition of global warming has become one of the most prominent foci in man-land territorial system. Exploring evolution mechanisms of industrial CO2 emissions in Zhengzhou- Kaifeng metropolitan area and taking appropriate measures are significant for the theoretical and practical development of low-carbon city and low-carbon economy. Sources of CO2 emissions from metropolitan areas are divided into six categories, consisting of agricultural, industrial, commercial and residential energy consumption, as well as construction and transportation energy consumption. Industrial CO2 emissions are further subdivided into 34 kinds of industrial energy consumption. Based on the 2000-2009 Energy consumption data, a CO2 estimation model to account for CO2 emissions in scope 1 (only refer to energy combustion) and scope 2 was constructed in this paper. Evolution mechanisms of CO2 emissions between 2000 and 2009 of six units and 34 kinds of industries were also researched by using LMDI methods. The low-carbon types and low-carbon directions of industrial development are analyzed by decoupling the index in Zhengzhou-Kaifeng metropolitan area. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The changes of CO2 emissions show different sectoral and regional characteristics in various stages, due to the adjustment to CO2 emissions structure. (2) The changes of CO2 emissions took place in the interaction of factors including intensity (technical) effects, structural effects and scale effects of economies. The main reasons for CO2 emissions increase are the rapid growth of economies of scale and the exogenous pattern of economic development by inputting factors. The residential sector has less contribution than production sectors to CO2 emissions, while the gap is gradually narrowing. (3) The decoupling between CO2 emissions and the economic development determines the direction and the degree of industrial restructuring and upgrading. (4) Further studies should be conducted on the contribution of industrial restructuring to CO2 emissions and the degree of decoupling.
  • HUO Jinwei, YANG Degang, TANG Hong
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    Climate change and carbon dioxide emissions have attracted worldwide attention. At the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, China announced its target of CO2 emission reduction, namely, by 2020 the amount of CO2 emission per output unit (GDP) in China will drop by 40%~45% compared to that in 2005, and the target will be incorporated into China's long term socio-economic planning. Based on existing literature and research, in this paper, we first examine the impacts of the population, economy and technology on carbon emissions, which are analyzed econometrically with the relationship between leading industries and the industrial structure of carbon emissions in Xinjiang from 1995 to 2008 through the ridge regression method, in order to find the technology roadmap and strategies of emission reduction to promote the development of regional low-carbon economy. The results are shown as follows. (1) The economic structure and the population scale have more explanatory impacts on the carbon emissions, and although the impacts of technology has to some extent alleviated the carbon dioxide emissions, the effect is little. (2) The present economic development pattern mainly depends on energy and the structural expansion of secondary industry which, however, have strong impacts on the increase of carbon emissions. (3) During the period of study, leading industries of Xinjiang all belong to the heavy industry which focused on oil and gas exploration, petrochemical, and coal chemical industry. In addition, its share in the total industrial output value has largely increased, leading to a sharp increase in energy consumption. However, under the background of globalization, our economic growth should depend more on technological improvement, scientific and institutional innovation, and efforts to protect and improve the ecological environment.
  • ZHANG Weiyang, DUAN Xuejun
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    Against the background of global climate change, studies on the carbon emissions, economic growth and industrial structure interrelate and interact with each other as a whole. Scholars in the global climate change area have been paying more and more attention to the interaction and mechanism effects of the complex system. On the basis of reviews of studies at home and abroad, this paper clarifies the interactive and mutual restraint relationship between carbon emissions and the two factors mentions above. The article also reviews and summaries relevant research methods on this topic. According to the comprehensive reviewing, the main contents are as follows: economic analysis of the carbon emissions, the relationship study between industrial development and carbon emissions, the economic losses on the carbon emission reduction, and the research on the low-carbon economy, low-carbon development, urbanization and carbon emissions, and international carbon flow. The main research methods include: econometrics, mathematical statistics, scenario analysis, model simulation, input-output analysis, carbon footprint, and so on. The quantitative and qualitative investigations complement each other. As regards to the research progress, the contents shift from basic analysis to practical application; the theories shift from sustainable development and circulation economy to low carbon economy; research methods tends to be integrated; research perspective starts to involve the community, the family and the individual behavior at the micro-scale. In the future, the writers think that the research theoretical system on carbon emissions and economic- industrial system, methodological innovation and regional studies should be enhanced. Simultaneously, the research should explore our research models and frameworks that are suitable for China. Further work is expected to be the research scale to fill research gaps and offset weaknesses.
  • TANG Chengcai, ZHONG Linsheng, CHENG Shengkui
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    Global climate change and the issues of natural resource and environment have a great impact on the sustainable development of human beings, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy has become imperative duties for safeguarding the global socio-economic and environmental sustainability. Scientific analysis on carbon emissions in tourism for tourism destination could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy and the sustainable development of tourism and its related industries. Research progress on carbon emissions in tourism was reviewed in detail based on the databases of Elsevier Science Direct and CNKI. Firstly, the research course of carbon emissions in tourism was summarized and the course of this research were divided into two phases, i.e., the phase of initial exploration and the stage of rapid development. The research methods were analyzed comprehensively which include Top-down Approach and Bottom-up Approach, Life cycle assessment method, field investigation, Questionnaire method, Scenario analysis. Secondly, the major research contexts were reviewed from five aspects, which included measuring carbon emissions for regional tourism and tourism sectors, carbon footprint for tourism, the impacts of carbon emissions on tourism, and the measures for coping with carbon emissions in tourism. Finally, the research perspectives on carbon emissions in tourism in China were put forward in building the theory research, improving the research methods, and deepening the research content.
  • ZHU Lin, LIU Yansui
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    Based on the "PUSH-PULL" theory and the labor migration theory of new economics, this article, first of all, analyzes all kinds of driving forces on peasants'desire and influencing factors for urban household registration. Then, by using the Logistic regression model, the article examines these theories with 169 valid questionnaires, which were collected from the households and village leaders in Dancheng County in December, 2010. Some results can be drawn as follows. (1) The main "PUSH-PULL" factors include the convenience degree of living environment, education environment, pension, medical and social security level, family income, off-farm employment and the cost of living in cities. The convenience degree of living environment and the education environment are the strongest "PULL" forces of urbanization. Furthermore, the strongest "PUSH" forces are temporary jobs in cities. (2) The influencing factors of peasants'desire for urban registration household have close relation to personal characteristics, family characteristics and village characteristics. The results suggest that the main factors are "age", "educational level", "household living standard", "whether a friend or a family member has migrated to the city", and "the medical services level of the village". The first two factors play a positive role and the last factor plays a negative role.
  • CHEN Dabo, ZHANG Xinhuan, YANG Degang, XIAO Yanqiu, YANG Fan, XIAWenjin
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    Through farmers' interviews and questionnaires, by using the DEA method, this paper evaluated farmers' irrigation efficiency in the Sangong River Basin from two aspects of the crop type and areal space. By employing the Tobit model, the paper explored the factors that affected farmers' irrigation efficiency and different factors that played a role in determining the irrigation efficiency. The results are shown as follows. (1) There are significant differences among different crop types in irrigation efficiency. And the average irrigation efficiency of six crop types is in the order of cotton (0.95) > grapes (0.89) > sunflower (0.88)> hit melon gourd (0.80) > corn (0.78) > wheat (0.72). (2) Irrigation efficiency is different in different regions. Average irrigation efficiency of the same crop type was significantly different in local and corp's; moreover, from lower to upper reaches, the irrigation efficiency was also significantly different, namely, corps' > local's; lower's > middle's > upper's. (3) Irrigation methods, crop type, per hm2 income, irrigation yield, price of water, irrigation management and technical training have significant impacts on the irrigation efficiency. Concrete details, irrigation yield and irrigation efficiency are negatively correlated; while irrigation methods, irrigation management, water price, technical training and per hm2 income are positively correlated with irrigation efficiency. In addition, in accordance with different crop types and regions, irrigation efficiency has a significant change. Finally, we put forward some suggestions to raise the irrigation efficiency.
  • LIU Bintao, TAO Heping, LIU Shaoquan, KONG Bo
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    Population pressure is an important factor in the development of mountainous areas. In order to assess the population pressure of mountainous areas, a new population pressure assessment model was proposed in this paper. It consisted of three components, i.e., urban population pressure index, agricultural population pressure index and natural population growth rate. Taking Liangshan Yizu Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province of China as the study area, the urban population pressure index, agricultural population pressure index and population pressure index were computed by the model. We had three main conclusions. 1) The mean value of population pressure index of the study area is 4.95, which is at a“normal”level of population pressure. The“small” level,“smaller”level,“normal”level,“large”level and“very large”level respectively account for 23.53%, 11.76%, 29.41%, 29.41% and 5.88% of the total study area, respectively. 2) Topography is an important factor of population pressure of the study area, with the population pressure being higher in the eastern and northeastern parts, and the population pressure lower in the valley of Anning River, the south of the study area and the Yanyuan basin. 3) The population pressure index is related with the incidence of poverty and the ecological frangibility, so the result also proves that the high population pressure and ecological frangibility are important factors leading to the poverty in the mountainous areas.
  • DING Jinxue, JIN Fengjun, WANG Chengjin, WANG Jiao'e, LIU Dong
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    The evolution of spatial pattern of transport hubs has been a concern for the transportation geography at home and abroad over a long period of time. Studying the long-term evolution of transport hubs can help grasp the development mechanism of transport hubs, and provide a scientific basis for space optimization. Through a systematic analysis of the development process and spatial patterns of transport hubs since the Qin and Han dynasties in China, it is indicated that there were six stages of space evolution of transport hubs: (1) from the Qin and Han dynasties to the Southern and Northern Dynasties; (2) from the Sui Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty; (3) from the Song Dynasty to the Liao and Jin dynasties; (4) from the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty; (5) The Qing Dynasty; (6) from the Republic of China till now. Based on the development path of transport hubs of China in different historical stages, this paper summarized the conditions of transport hubs formation and the general process of spatial evolution, and analyzed the life cycle of transport hubs. On this basis, this paper studied the basic development model of transport hubs, and summarized the spatial layout of transport hubs in China.
  • SUN Lei, ZHANG Xiaoping
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    In the first decade of this century, Beijing has been undergoing the conversion from an industrial city to a new economic city which is more suitable for the capital city, and the transfer will have a profound and far-reaching influence on the distribution of the manufacturing in Beijing. This paper intends to represent the spatial evolution of manufacturing in Beijing in recent 10 years, using the methods of functional zonation and center of gravity calculation. In addition, by decomposing the change of the center of gravity, we also try to describe quantitatively some factors which affect the distribution of manufacturing. Firstly, by collecting and processing the statistical data of the manufacturing in Beijing, we found that the spatial distribution of manufacturing in Beijing had been expanding from the function extension area to the new urban area, and the centers of gravity of both manufacturing employment and enterprises in Beijing extended eastward. However, there are also some differences: the former to the northeast, the latter to the southeast. Secondly, we decomposed the change of the center of gravity to three effects. The result shows that both the structure effect and the spatial effect play more important roles in the change of the center of gravity of manufacturing employees, which were the dominant driving force for the change of the center of gravity of manufacturing in Beijing. It is concluded that, on one hand, we should carry out the readjustment of industrial structure, to transfer from the labor-and capital-intensive heavy chemical industries to the knowledge-and tech-intensive high-tech industries, such as manufacture of electronic and communication equipment and manufacture of computers and office work equipment; on the other hand, we should further optimize the spatial distribution of the manufacturing in Beijing, so as to shape a new closer industrial pattern among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province.
  • ZHU Yangang, HE Canfei
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    Dunning's eclectic theory of international production is generally recognized a paradigm to explain foreign direct investment. However, this paradigm mainly focuses on manufacturing FDI, which might be not applicable to FDI in the service industry. With the fast growing of the ratio of FDI in service industries, researches on services FDI have become a new focus of economics, management and geography. This paper makes a detailed review on the theory development of service FDI by integrating both traditional FDI theories and trade theories. It analyzes the features and international models of services FDI and makes a comparison between services FDI and manufacturing FDI. Besides, it makes a review on the status of the development of services FDI and systematically introduces factors affecting the location choice of FDI in the service industry. Finally, this paper summarizes the researches on services FDI in China and predicts the prospect of the trends of services FDI in the future research.
  • SHI Peiji, WANG Zujing, LI Wei
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    There are rich tourism resources in Gansu Province, including three 5A level and fifteen 4A level scenic spots. But due to unsatisfactory traffic conditions and economic factors, the tourism economy there is not highly developed. The central cities have great effect on the surrounding tourism hinterlands. This article applies the theory of urban geography in the research on the tourism industry, and takes into account the comprehensive scale of tourism economy of central cities and road traffic conditions. It takes 14 prefecture-level cities as the study area of Gansu Province in 2009, supported by GIS software and based on vector analysis of spatial data. With the field strength model and the Huff model, we calculate the field strength of tourism economy, and divide the hinterland of urban tourism with the overlay analysis of the city zoning. In addition, this paper identifies cities belonging to the same type. Finally, suggestions are put forward on the urban tourism economic zonation and tourism planning so as to increase the income of Gansu Province.
  • WANG Yongming, MAYaofeng, WANG Meixia
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    This study examines the network structure of multicity inbound tourism in China in 2008 with the methods of social network analysis, GIS spatial analysis and mathematical analysis. More precisely, this investigation acquires analyses of the structural configuration of each city, network and cohesion within a country destination by measuring the indicators of network analysis which include node indicators of centrality and structural holes, network indicators of density, centralization and core-periphery, and cohesion indicator of clique. The results show that there are 46 nodes in the tourism network. Nodes distribution shows the spatial pattern of "dense southeast and sparse northwest". On average, each city node in the tourism network has tourists flow-related connections with 2.96 other nodes. And the node system is divided into four levels, the higher the rank, the smaller the number of nodes is. The major traditional tourism cities and regional central cities have good performance, and take important positions. The density of tourism network is low and unbalanced. There are nine cliques in the tourism network, which were driven by location transportation, tourism resources and economic links, but the effect of urban space distance is the minimal.
  • LIU Tianbao, CHAI Yanwei
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    Danwei System was a gradually constructed tool by the nation to achieve communism and modernization in the period of planned economy and under special historical conditions. The representation of its fundamental characteristic is“urban unit”. Both the nature and feature are unfolded in spatiality, temporality and sociality. Danwei research System can help understand the history of planned economy to sublate Danwei factors through evaluation. Also, Danwei System research forms an important and special perspective not only to understand the mechanism of the urban transition in China but also to analyze those problems in the same period. As far as future planning is concerned, Danwei System research can promote further protection and development of those old Danwei, as well as help the application of the positive factors to new urban increments. Danwei System research in the perspective of geography can be carried out in three related aspects, the first space, the second space and the third space. The first space research consists of spatial structure, function and deformation of the physical space; the second space research describes and explains the spatial representations of political organization, professional function and society and culture; the third space research will be done in different perspectives and methods to deconstruct spatial conflicts in Danwei space and construct harmonious space. The research in the perspective of geography includes three scales, social scale, spatial scale and temporal scale. The existing research has made some important achievements, but much more work needs to be done in the aspects of span, theoretical depth and interdisciplinary studies.