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Table of Content

    24 July 2002, Volume 21 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    On the Industrial Spatial Structure of the Western China
    FAN Jie, CAO Zhong xiang, LU Xin
    2002, 21 (4):  298-301.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1120KB) ( )   Save
    The problems of industrial structure are the key factors leading to the lowliness of regional economic developmental quality in the West. Judging by the situation of regional industrial spatial structure and its evolutive process in China, the West is always in the trough of Chinese industrialization process, and also, the upgrading speed of industrial structure lags behind the East and the whole country. As a result the economic developmental level of the West goes behind the East and the whole country and the gap is broadening ceaselessly. The characteristics of industrial structure of the West are based on the condition of natural resources, while the impacts of national macro strategy of regional development are the leading motive power which makes the West the regional type of industrial structure with both higher ratio of state economy and lower level of technology. At the same time, the impacts of national macro regional policies lead to the differences of economic levels among provinces and between cities and countries. Based on analyses above, the authors put forward the key notes of adjustment of industrial structure in the West: it is difficult for state devotion to change the status of the West in national macro regional industrial structure and the situation of its industrial structure evolution; the superiority of resources should be understood renewedly and the limit of environment to economic development should be paid much attention to; the strategy of industrial economic development must transfer from "richening region" to "richening residents", from enlarging of quantity to improving of capability of economic sustainable development, and from reducing the gap of economic developmental level to slackening the broadening of the gap of economic developmental level as well as reducing the gap of social developmental level; the state should distinguish different regions to support and should especially lay much stress on the development of country economy, etc..
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    An Index System for Boundaries of Eco-geographical Regions of China
    WU Shao hong, YANG Qin ye, ZHENG Du
    2002, 21 (4):  302-310.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1006KB) ( )   Save
    Boundary of eco geographical regions is based on a set of index that indicates the regional features. It is located on special location by spatial differences in environmental features. Impersonally recognizing and delineating the boundary is an important way to open out spatial order of the environment. This boundary is a line or belt as border for two joined regions with different features. It shows relative coherence in environmental features within a region and otherness to the other region. The boundary is a belt with wideness that can be changed as course of time. Higher-class regions have wider boundary and lower class regions have clearer boundary. In delineation of eco geographical regions, several factors that can hardly be controlled by human are selected as main indexes. Days and cumulated temperature of daily temperature ≥10℃, average temperatures of the coldest and hottest months are used as indexes of temperature state. Dryness is the most common factor as token of dry humid degree of a region. Annual precipitation is more reliable but calculation of latency evaporation should be improved. Division of higher class of eco geographical regions focuses on biological and climatic differences, first of all on horizontal zonality. Because of limitation of number of climatic stations, the boundary is always modified with vegetation. Vertical zonation links latency vegetation with climate, which is divided according to precipitation, potential evaporation and bio temperature relationship. How to deal with relation between classes and indexes of eco geographical regions is another important point. Some studies tried to combine indexes of natural factors with social economic factors. Some considered the index system should cover environmental, resources, economic, social and population factors. Some proposed taking temperature, water moisture factors for the higher classes and introducing resources and social-economic factors for the lower classes. However, the former has not given detailed index and the latter took different indexes for different regions, which should have more work to realize the combination.
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    New Understandings on the Historical Temperature Changes in China
    GE Quan sheng, FANG Xiu qi, ZHENG Jing yun
    2002, 21 (4):  311-317.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (800KB) ( )   Save
    years passed since Prof. Chu Ko chen published his famous article "A Preliminary Study on the Climate Fluctuations During the Past 5000 Years in China" in 1972, which drew the outline of the historical temperature change of China. In the past 30 years, great progresses have been made in historical temperature change in China. Six aspects of new understandings on temperature changes in China are summarized in this paper: (1) confirming the major cold periods found by Prof. Chu and subdividing them in detail; (2) newly identifying out the Zhanguo Cold Period and the Mid Tang Dynasty Cold Period; (3) proving that the MWP was existed in China and it was the warmest stage during the past 2000 years; (4) finding that the warm periods of the East Han Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty are not as warm as estimated by Prof. Chu; (5) discovering the 1350a period of temperature change in China; (6) estimating on the range and rate of temperature change in the past 2000 years. The new understandings above supports as a whole the outline of the historical temperature change of China drawn by Prof. Chu 30 years ago, ans also improves the understanding of the regularities of historical temperature change in China.
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    Climate Change Character in the Special Sand Area of the Areas Encircling Beijing: A Case Study on the Counties of Zhangbei,Huailai and Fengning
    LIU Lin shan, ZHANG Yi li, ZHENG Du
    2002, 21 (4):  318-326.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1140KB) ( )   Save
    People pay much attention to the desertification since sandstorms frequently happened in north China recent years. It is well known that desertification is mainly caused by human activities and natural factors, especially the climate changes. Based on daily climatic data of the metrological stations since the establishment of them, the climate changes of the Zhangbei, Fengning and Huailai were analyzed in this study. Slip average of five years was taken to analyze the change of the climate elements and a regression equation was made to see the speed of temperature increasing in last 40 years. The average temperature in different seasons by decades was also calculated and maps of evolution of the monthly mean temperature anomaly were made by Arcview software. Main conclusion can be drawn: (1) The air temperature keep increasing with the average velocity of 0.04 degree per year in last 40 years. And the speed of temperature increase keeps increasing after 1970s. It shows that the temperature increasing is mainly happened in the winters and the temperature change in winter is much larger then other seasons. The change of land surface temperature is similar to air temperature but with larger changes between years, especially in summer. (2) 1985 is a special year, before it the climate change is much more fluctuate (the extent of change rate of average temperature precipitation and wind speed is -29%~13%, -50%~48% and -16%~37%), after it the change is stable (the extent of change rate of average temperature precipitation and wind speed is 22%~28%, -43%~46% and -23%~-1%), the temperature of air and land surface keep increasing continuously. (3) The precipitation in year is mainly control by summer. It decreased before 1985, after that it increased a little but still less then before. The precipitation in summer keep decreasing before 1990s, but the speed of decrease keeps decrease and after 1990s the precipitation increased. The change rate of precipitation is most obviously in winter. The precipitation in April, March and November in the last decade is much less then the average, while it is reversed in December. (4) The wind speed has a negative correlation to the temperature. The speed of wind decreased while the temperature increased, which impact the desertification in opposite way.
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    Discuss on Quantitative Method Study of Sand-dust Information Using MODIS Data
    XIONG Li ya, LI Hai ping, ZHUANG Da fang
    2002, 21 (4):  327-332.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (759KB) ( )   Save
    With the successful launching of the new generation satellite of EOS Terra, its Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) data has more advantages in comprehensive research of land, ocean and atmosphere. Also it can be used in disaste mornitoring and assesment. This paper focus on the discussion of using MODIS data to study sand dust information quantitative retrieval method. The conclution is that MODIS data can be used to study the quantitative retrieval of sand dust information and the study scenario has certain feasibility. The study contains of selecting the characteristic spectrum bands of sand dust information; seperating sand dust information from the background and enhancing the weak information of floating dust ,raising dust etc. Theory basis of quantitative retrieval method are remote sensing quantitative method, atmosphere radiative transforming and visibility theories. Data pre processing is also necessary. Retrieving of sand dust aerosl optic thickness is more difficult and also the key problem to resolve. Case study is necessary and should be used to support the quantitative method. The study can provide the theory basis and techenic supportting for sand dust disaster forcasting, mornitoring and preventing.
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    Progress and Problems of Resources Security Studies in China
    WANG Li mao, LANG Yi huan
    2002, 21 (4):  333-340.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (446KB) ( )   Save
    There are no identical views about the definition of resources security. But its key content includes three aspects: the quantity of resources, the stability of resources supply, and the rationality of resources prices. Resources security studies in China can be divided into three research directions: the first one is focus on the aspect of international security and relations; the second one is focus on economic security, which considers resources security a part of economic security; and the third one is focus on the aspect of resources and environment. Main research areas are energy security, food security and ecological security. Up to now, a comprehensive index system for appraising resources security has not been established, although some indices can be found in some special areas, such as food security, energy security, financial security and water security. At the end of this paper, it discusses some important issues related to resources security. (1) Do not overstate the risks of utilizing of overseas resources; generally speaking, the benefit of utilization of overseas resources is much higher than the cost of risk. (2) Self sufficiency can reduce short term risks of resources supply, but may increase the long term risks. (3) Open and diversified resources supply system is more stable and safety. (4) Consideration must be given to both the security and benefit, but benefit first. (5) Importing resources is a reflection of China’s opening policy, not a threat to international resources markets. (6) Non traditional security and traditional security can interweave into each other, and non traditional security can change into traditional security if it developes to a certain degree.
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    Progress in Watershed Hydrological Models
    WU Xian feng, LIU Chang ming,
    2002, 21 (4):  341-357.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (561KB) ( )   Save
    With the development of computer technology and intercross subjects, the methods of hydrology simulation have great advances. The remarkable trends of watershed hydrological models are the research of physically distributed based models and the use of Geography Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technology. The hydrological model integrated with GIS has many advantages, but it does not mean that the model itself is with high quality. The data arrived from RS is difficult to use in hydrological model directly. Study on mechanism of runoff and streamflow has great foreground to build hydrological model coupled with GIS and RS, and hydrological scale problems should always be paid attention to.
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    Research of TUPU on Land Use/ Land Cover Change Based on GIS
    YE Qing hua, LIU Gao huan, LU Zhou, GONG Zheng hui, Marco
    2002, 21 (4):  358-364.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (905KB) ( )   Save
    Since 1990, scientists at home and abroad have been paying attention to researches on land use and land cover change (LUCC), but research is not enough on "space and process" on LUCC. Spatial relationship between variables has not yet been established. So it is important for us to research LUCC in various temporal spatial scales. The Geo information Tupu is a kind of methodology that is brought up by academician Chen Shupeng, supported by such advanced technologies as Remote Sensing(RS), Geographical Information System(GIS), Internet Communication, Virtual Reality and Cartography by computer, etc. Tupu is combination of "carto" of spatial units and "graph" of the beginning and process of events. It can express spatial differences in temporal system and develop data mining methods in spatial differences. Tupu can also show its advantages to integrate various tempo spatial multi dimension features in geo scientific analysis. Based on the theories and methods on Geo information Tupu, the thesis discusses spatial and process integration on land use/land cover change by ERDAS and ARC/INFO software. According to theories on Geo information, spatial geo information cognition, systematic global sciences geographic integration, and tempo spatial integration on fire models, the thesis puts forward land use/land cover models based on Tupu unit, which is integrated by "Spatial·Attribute·Process", and composed by relatively homogeneous geographic unit and temporal unit. It is a piece of powerful tool in tempo spatial analysis.
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    Studies on Urban Grade-size Change in the Pearl River Delta Based on Remote Sensing
    HU Wei ping, WU Zhi feng, HE Jian bang
    2002, 21 (4):  365-373.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (499KB) ( )   Save
    This paper studies the urban grade size change of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) based on remote sensing. We use the built up area (rather than population) to analysis the urban size. TM imageries taken in 1988 and 1998 are used to get the built up area theme information, and we set up a spatial database of the Pearl River Delta towns in Arc/Info 8 02. The Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) is selected to extract urban built up area theme information. The classified result accuracy by MLC is only 0.6559 (kappa index), and it is not enough to analyze the urban size. So we improve the computer classification results according to expert knowledge. The general spatial temporal structure, grade size change features, urban built up area change by administrative grade, and general urban system change features are discussed. From 1988 to 1998, the inner circle and outer circle spatial structure of the urban distribution kept relatively stable, and most of the large urbans concentrated on the estuary area of the PRD. The urban number of each grade size changed greatly during the study period. The urban number of grade size less than 0 1 km 2 decreased to 13 in 1998, but this number in 1988 was 112. And the urban number of grade size over 20 km 2 increased from 4 to 9. Urban area of town grade increased by 290 1%, urban area of county grade grew by 158 0%, and urban area of grade higher than county increased only by 108 4% during 1988 to 1998. The unbalance index of grade system decreased from 0 6011 to 0 5011, and the four largest urban indexes also decreased, but the standard deviation and the mean size of urban increased greatly. The results shows that the grade size based on remote sensing of the Pearl River Delta changed greatly in the end of the 20 century and this study is complementarity for traditional urban size study based on population.
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    Research of Application Model Based on Management of Metadata and Dataset
    LAI Zhi bin, XIA Shu dong, WANG Hu, CHENG Ji cheng
    2002, 21 (4):  374-382.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (355KB) ( )   Save
    Metadata is one of the valid technique for data sharing. Current Metadata management models and management systems focus on the Metadata, the management of Dataset is independent, and there is no direct connection between Metadata and Dataset, it leads to the inconsistency of Metadata and Dataset. Due to the direct relationship of Metadata and Dataset, the management model based on Metadata and Dataset is given, it consists of three level including integrating management level, service level, application level and solve the independent management of Metadata and Dataset. Integrating management level exchanges services flow with service level. Service level manages the distributing Metadata servers and Dataset servers, and it exchanges Metadata information flow and Dataset information flow with application level. Application level consists of customer machines. In addition, the application flow of this model is explained in three parts. The first part is the construction of Dataset object. it includes the filling and registering Metadata, submitting the Dataset to Dataset server. The second part is Dataset object querying and getting. it includes searching the Dataset based on the Metadata searching engine, and downloading the Dataset from Dataset server. The third part is Dataset object revising. it includes the Metadata revising in Metadata Server and Dataset revising in Dataset server consistently. In the end, with IIMS which is based on the integrating application model, typical application research is done in Xiamen Environment Bureau’s Metadata management system.
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    Exploitation of Cool-cold Weather Resource and Structure Adjustment of Vegetable Industry of Yangyuan County, Hebei Province
    Zhang Yi feng, Wang You feng, Liu Lu xiang, Chen Mao he
    2002, 21 (4):  383-390.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (340KB) ( )   Save
    Developing the cool cold resource is the most important direction of crop and livestock integrated arid regions in north China. Only by this can this region change the disadvantages of aridity and coldness to the advantages of the regional development. Coldness and aridity provide an ideal environment to the vegetables that prefer cold weather to warm weather. And the development of vegetable market of north China will supplement the off season market of Beijing and Tianjin, and even of other temperate zones in China. So currently lots of regions excavate the cool cold resource and produce the proper commodity. Based on the low temperate resource of Yangyuan County, Hebei province, this paper analyzes the advantages for Yangyuan to develop cold loving vegetable. Now Yangyuan County has been appointed as one of the producing base of vegetable. So if Yangyuan County catches this chance to improve industrial level of vegetable, it will be good to not only the economy of Yangyuan, but also to Beijing and Tianjin consumer markets. Now the most important work for Yangyuan County is to adjust the structure of vegetable industry. The development of vegetable industry must keep up with the need of the national and world market. At the same time, the development of vegetable industry must depend on the improvement of technology to get high quality produce.
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    Competitiveness of Local Traditional Industries towards Globalization: Cases from Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province
    ZHANG Xiao ping, JIN Feng jun, LIU Wei dong
    2002, 21 (4):  391-400.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (364KB) ( )   Save
    The development models in the rapid growth areas along China coast after reform and opening up to the international market include two models, one of which is called the Jiangsu-Zhejiang model. This means that the principle power for economic development in these regions mainly relies on regional and domestic markets rather than on oversea ones. The economic development of the township enterprises and the coordination between the internal and external regions are the two characteristics in Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province. The local industrial clusters in Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, which has generated high rate of regional economic development, are now confronted with new challenges in the globalization age, because most local enterprises are middle and small sized ones and are engaged in traditional industrial productions, such as shoes, glasses, clothes and other commodities. However, the globalization will consolidate the important role of locally industrial system played in the regional development, rather than weaken it as some people have supposed to be. The main concern of this paper is firstly devoted to discuss the features of local networks in Wenzhou city, and then by employing the two cases, it is argued that local industrial clusters can maintain and further improve their competitiveness by expanding their national and global networks which are deeply embedded in local networks, as well as by keeping the dynamic capability of learning and innovation which is oriented to upgrade the local traditional industry. Furthermore, it is suggested local enterprises to develop networks which represent a set of selective and explicit linkages between one firm and others with which it has technological and marketing relations as well as other social and cultural linkages, aiming at mutual advantages. Such linkages may take a material or a non material form and include supplier user relationships, subcontracting, production sharing, joint ventures, licensing agreements, and R&D collaboration, etc. This finding has important implications for the regional development and industrial structure adjustment ongoing in China.
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    Study on the Geographically Epidemic Character of Arsenism and Its Countermeasures
    HOU Shao fan, WANG Wu yi, LI Hai rong, YANG Lin sheng
    2002, 21 (4):  401-402.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (462KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the distribution, type and geographically epidemic character of arsenism in China were reported. We studied the transmitting way, flux and dose effect of arsenic from environment to human in different type of arsenism in affected areas. The analysis of environmental dose effect of arsenic indicated that difference of environmental dose effect in drinking type arsenism in affected areas was caused by the differentiation of geological surroundings, for example, the lowest dose of arsenic in drinking water that could induce arsenism was 0 05 mg/L in Inner Mongulia, however, in Xinjiang, it was 0 12 mg/L, this indicated that the existing conformation and speciation of arsenic in water were distinguishing in different areas affected by arsenism; in areas affected by coal type arsenism, there was no patients affected by arsenism when the content of arsenic in coal was lower than 35 mg/kg. At last, the countermeasures to protect and control arsenism were presented according to the environmental, social and economic conditions in different areas affected by arsenism.
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