Table of Content

    24 April 2010, Volume 29 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    The Spatial Pattern of Guangzhou Metropolitan Area Industry Based on Point Data and GIS
    TIAN Guangjin,SHA Moquan
    2010, 29 (4):  387-395.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1241KB) ( )   Save

    This paper studies the spatial pattern of intra-sectoral and inter-sectoral industries in Guangzhou metropolitan area using the digital city data of 2004. The industries of Guangzhou metropolitan area are classified as manufacture, wholesale and transportation, retail, producer service, real estate, administration service, education, health care and social assitance, entertainment and accommodation. The cartographic map of 1km2, percentage and location quotient are applied to study spatial distribution of establishments. In the central urban areas, administration service, real estate, retail, finance and insurance are the major industries while manufacture, wholesale and transportation and producer service are the major industries in the new cities. Average nearest neighbor distance (R) is used to study the intrasectoral spatial pattern. The establishments of Guangzhou are cluster distributed and finance and insurance are concentrated in central urban areas. Proximity index (PI) is used to study intersectoral pattern. The proximity of entertainment and accommodation and retail, education and health care and social assistance, producer service and administration service are more obvious.

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    Progress on the Study of Urban Architecture FAR
    BAO Zhenhong,LI Chaokui
    2010, 29 (4):  396-402.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1288KB) ( )   Save

    FAR(Floor Area Ratio)is an an important indicator of describing the intensity of urban land development. At present, the contradiction between people and land is becoming increasingly acute. The urban development principle of “High volume, low density” has been widely accepted. However, a lot of problems were exposed when the policy implemented in practice, such as traffic jam, lack of sunlight and fire-threat. These problems affected people's health and cities’ sustainable development seriously. How to determine a rational FAR becomes a current research focus.This paper started with the concept, characteristics and influencing factors of FAR (Floor Area Ratio), researched and analyzed the FAR in urban planning, including the effects of FAR on land price, the estimation of present floor area ratio and the determination of planning plot ratio, compared the advantages and disadvantages of methods which can determine the correction coefficient in assessing urban land price, expounded the application and development of high resolution satellite imagery in estimating the present FAR of a city, explored an effective approach to determine the rational FAR values—comprehensive balance method, found out that the bottleneck that limits the increase of FAR was environmental capacity by carding the research history of FAR, tried to explore a method for estimating maximum FAR by using the 3DCM sunshine analysis model, and determined the future study focus of FAR.

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    Progress and Prospects of Studies on Grassland Tourism in China
    LV Jun, WU Bihu
    2010, 29 (4):  403-410.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.003
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    The development of grassland tourism is gradually becoming a hot topic in China, and research literature is constantly emerging. Since the 1990s, the studies have mainly focused on subjects such as tourism development strategies, tourism economics, regional tourism resource development, management of tourism destinations, effect of tourism on the environment, general theories of tourism resources, products sold to tourists, tourism aesthetics, tourism culture, destinations marketing, souvenirs, and tourism laws. The above-mentioned studies are time specific, and the authors study mostly the areas where they live. The previous studies focus excessively on the same topics, using qualitative description as the dominant method. Tourism research methods need to be standardized, and more attention should be paid to the intersections of multiple disciplines. Furthermore, research should be done in more detail but in more different directions.

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    Progress and Prospect of the Research on the Ethnics Village Tourism in China over the Past Ten Years
    LI Rui,YIN Hongmei
    2010, 29 (4):  411-421.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1904KB) ( )   Save

    The author surveyed comprehensively the fields of tourism research of China in recent 10 years (1999-2008) and discovered that the research literatures on the ethnics village tourism in China presented a fast growing tendency since 2003, so the ethnics village tourism in China would become one of the important subjects of the tourism research in China. This paper took the Chinese periodical full text database, the Chinese outstanding master's degree paper full text database and the Chinese doctorate paper full text database as the retrievable origins of the literatures, and attempted to combine the method of subjective screening with the analytic method of Pearson Correlation in order to make a research summary scientifically on 12 master & doctorate theses and 81 important papers on the ethnics village tourism in China in the period 1999-2008. The authors analyzed research literatures to discover the following five characteristics: (1) The quantity from the core periodical literatures and CSSCI periodical literatures was small. (2) Most literatures were published in the periodicals of university journals, the ethnics journals, and the economic journals. Others were published in the periodicals of social science, tourism, geography and agriculture. (3) Most literatures were about various research cases, which covered the central-western China’s provinces and autonomous regions such as Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and Guangxi, but the research literatures on pure theoretical aspects were limited. (4) The research contents mainly involved in development, community participation, marketability, right of properties, cultures, and other fields. The researches on the development have the largest amount of literatures. (5) In the literature, the amount of researches using qualitative methods is large, and that using quantitative methods is small. Finally, based on the summarized researches of this paper and the long-term studies on the Guizhou ethnics tourism villages, the authors forecasted eight important research trends about the ethnics village tourism in China in order to have the sympathetic responses of the scholars.

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    The Environmental Problems in Urban Fringes of the Metropolitan Area and the Countermeasures:A Case Study of Fangshan District of Beijing
    TAN Minghong,RAN Shenghong,MA Suhua
    2010, 29 (4):  422-426.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.005
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    The urban fringe area is the main region to which urban population and industries moves outwards. As a result, built-up areas expand quickly, and land use changes are dramatic in these areas. Furthermore, the area is adjacent to the large built-up area, and has the similar living style and industrial structure to those of urban areas, which may bring more waste compared with remote rural villages. At the same time, the basic infrastructure is poor in this area. So, the Environmental problems are very serious and sensitive. Fangshan district is located in the southwestern part of Beijing, and is one of typical urban fringes. The Environmental problems of the district discussed in this paper include those related to the processes of land use, use of water resources, the exploitation of mineral resource, and the development of tourism. To solve these problems, corresponding measures are put forward. The research may provide a reference for the study of Environmental problems in urban fringes of big cities.

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    The Water Stress of Winter Wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under Rain-fed Condition
    LIU Ming,WU Jianjun,LV Aifeng,ZHAO Lin,HE Bin
    2010, 29 (4):  427-432.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1012KB) ( )   Save

    Water stress is one of the main factors that affect the crop growth. Water stress can induce agricultural drought, and decrease the yield. Analysis on the water stress under rain-fed condition can reflect the influence of local climate and soil on the crop growth. It is very helpful for the agricultural drought management and improving the water use efficiency (WUE). This study simulated the growth of winter wheat under rain-fed condition using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model) crop growth model. The temporal and spatial pattern of water stress was analyzed. It was found that the rainfall in this area could not afford the demand of the crop growth. The water stress in the later period of winter wheat growth season was very serious, especially in the third 10 days of May when the frequency of the severe water stress was up to 48.2%. Through the contrast between regions, the Hebei-Shandong-Henan low-lying plain and the agro-forestry hilly region in Shandong were worse than the other two regions in the study period.

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    Calculation of Return Period for Storm Surge in the Pearl River Delta Region
    LI Kuo,LI Guosheng
    2010, 29 (4):  433-438.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.007
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    The Pearl River Delta Region is one of the few regions in our country which are seriously threatened by storm surges. Affected by global warming and sea-level rise, the return period for storm surge in this area is obviously changing. According to Gumbel and Pearson Ⅲ, the return periods of 11 tide stations for storm surge in the Pearl River Delta Region are calculated separately and the results are compared. Gumbel and Pearson Ⅲ distribution curves of extreme storm surge are mapped. The results show that the Gumbel distribution curves in most tide stations agree better with the experience frequency dots than Pearson Ⅲ distribution curves, but the Pearson Ⅲ distribution curves in the other tide stations agree better with the experience frequency dots than the Gumbel distribution curves. It is the best way to integrate Gumbel and Pearson Ⅲ methods. We analyze the basic characteristics of the return periods for storm surge in this area. Finally, we summarize the relationship between storm surges and the typhoon path, astronomical tide and the terrain. All the calculated results would be useful for the planning and design department to make decisions. This research would provide a scientific basis for the government for storm surge prediction, coastal engineering design and estimation of disaster demage.

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    Ecological Risk Analysis of LUCC in Relation to Stakeholders
    RAN Shenghong,TAN Minghong, LV Changhe
    2010, 29 (4):  439-444.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.008
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    The ecological services value is one of indexes to measure all services functions of ecosystem. In this paper, the value is employed to express the effect of the ecological services function. On the basis of the theory of ecosystem services function, the decrease of the ecosystem services function caused by land use/cover change (LUCC) is regarded as ecological risk in this paper. Then, a quantitative analysis is used to examine ecological risks that the various stakeholders may face in the context of LUCC. The stakeholders mainly refer to the land owner or the operator (individual, community and country) in this study. The research shows that, during the period of 2000-2006, the service function values had increased 28.91% in the Yan River basin, mainly due to the implementation of the policy of grain for green. The analysis designed for different stakeholders in the context of LUCC indicates that the ecological services values for the individual, community and country were increased by 34.71%, 33.64%, 14.57% between 2000 and 2006, respectively. The main ecological risks include two aspects. One is that the capacity of obtaining foods for individuals was decreased by 5.71%, and the other is that the biological control for the country dropped 24.56% during the same period.

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    Empirical Study on the Economic Effects and Spatial Distribution of Trade Risk: A Case Study of Guangdong Province
    WANG Zhiyong
    2010, 29 (4):  445-453.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1263KB) ( )   Save

    International trade is one of the most important links between one country or area and the world economy. Meanwhile, economic globalization will bring risks to a country’s or an area’s employment and economy growth through international trade. Therefore, the study on trade risk and its regional distribution is important for stabilizing regional economic growth and promoting employment. In this paper, we studied the economic effects and spatial distribution of trade risk, taking Guangdong Province as an example. The empirical study of this paper shows that the export is very important to the growth of a region’s economy and employment. If the export slows down, the regional economy and the employment will also slow down. However, the regional economy and the employment should not depend heavily on export. When the ratio of export in the regional economy growth is too high, it will have a negative effect on both the regional economy and employment. The spatial analysis of trade risk shows that the highest trade risk regions are mainly located around the Pearl River Delta area, such as Dongguan, Shenzhen, Huizhou and Zhuhai. The spatial distribution of trade risk regions is helpful to policy decision making. Once there is a sign of recession of world economy, counter-measures against trade risks should be taken in advance in those regions with high dependency of international trade.

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    Summary on Research of Coupled Human-Environment System Vulnerability under Global Environmental Change
    CHEN Ping,CHEN Xiaoling
    2010, 29 (4):  454-462.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.010
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    Perturbations and stresses induced by global environmental change due to human activities have been the primary hindrances to sustainability of coupled human-environment system. Vulnerability analysis serving as a principal tool for sustainable researches increasingly arrests research communities’ attentions and it has become the hotspot in researches of global environment change. So far there have no consummate theory for vulnerability research, normal evaluation procedure and genetic metrics. Based on collected literatures, the conceptual framework of vulnerability was summarized, and formulation and components of vulnerability, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, on different research contexts were analyzed in depth as well as the core issues around vulnerability. From a perspective of human-environment system, traditions and states quo of vulnerability research were presented through summing up current hotspots, and assembling researches on hazard responding thresholds, relationships among three vulnerability components, qualitative measurement of vulnerability and multi-source-data integration for evaluating vulnerability. Three typical analytical frameworks in vulnerability studies, which are especially suitable for coupled human-environment system, are also discussed. The challenges for vulnerability research in the future are concluded to effectively illustrate the causal relationship between vulnerability and multiple stressors in the coupled human-environmental system, to solve uncertain issues of the system, to accurately delineate dynamical process and the interaction among the elements of the system in vulnerability evaluation and to improve the efficiency of the information flow between vulnerability evaluation and decision makers.

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    A Quantitative Study on the Coordination Degree between Economy and Environment in Liaoning Province
    WANG Hui,GUO Lingling,SONG Li
    2010, 29 (4):  463-470.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.011
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    The theory of the coordination degree has been viewed as an important way to research the degree of coupling between the regional economic development and environmental protection. Many studies about the coordination degree between economy and environment effectively identified whether the relationship between economy and environment was in the state of coordination. Although some researchers have done lots of studies, it is still a disputable question how to make a rational assessment of the degree of coupling between economy and environment.Based on the theory, this paper established an indicator system, a model and a calculating method for the coordination degree. Through technological treatment and analysis of ten-years′ data of the 14 cities in Liaoning Province, the article made an attempt to assess the coordination degree between the economic growth and the conservation of environment. Many conclusions were obtained as follows: the coordination degree between economy and environment in Liaoning Province was generally situated in the stage of reconciliation from 1996 to 2005, while in the spatial distribution, the cities with the higher value of the coordination degree mainly were located in the southern coastal areas and those with the lower value of the coordination degree were mostly in the eastern and western parts of Liaoning Province. The evolutional trend of the coordination degree between economy and environment in Liaoning Province was a "V-shaped" curve since 1996, and the coordination degree had the lowest value of the transitional stage from the ninth five-year plan to the tenth. The relationship between the economic development and coordination degree was in line with a "U-shaped" curve, and the lowest value of the coordination degree value occurred in the Ⅱ stage of the economic development which was the initial and middle periods of industrialization. The coordination degrees of the 14 cities presented an unbalanced development from 1996 to 2005, and among these cities Dalian held a higher value of coordination degree. These conclusions will help the government to understand and forecast the developing trend in the coordination of each city in Liaoning Province, so as to adjust it on time and to avoid the economic growth relying on the deterioration of resources and environment. Finally, this paper suggested that, taking Dalian as a "cock", it should carry out regional cooperation strategies with the other cities which had far lower values of coordination degree, in order to reach the state of coordination for each city of Liaoning Province between the economic development and the environmental protection. The detailed measures included technological support about the conservation of environment, the assistance of the economic and environmental professors, and the funds offered to develop the regional economy and protect the ecological environment.

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    A Review on Researching Scale Effect of Net Primary Productivity Based on Remote Sensing
    WEI Yaxing,WANG Liwen
    2010, 29 (4):  471-477.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1123KB) ( )   Save

    Remote sensing is often used to simulate net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation on the surface land. It has become an important direction of simulating NPP. With the rapid development of data process capability of remote sensing technology and physiology-ecology research based on remote sensing observations , dynamic quantitative observations of large scale ecosystem pattern and process have become possible. Multi-source satellite sensors have sent abundant multi-scale earth observing data, and images level system with various resolutions has been made. Therefore, simulating NPP derived from quantitative remote sensing has multi-scale problems. When remote sensing data of various resolutions are input in the NPP model as parameters, the simulated NPP values as outputs of the NPP model will be obviously different. In order to improve the precision of simulating NPP, the effect of simulated NPP results from remote sensing data derived at different resolutions should be fully studied, and that is the scale effects of the NPP model. In the paper, study examples of scale effect of remote sensing are discussed. Research cases of monitoring NPP distribution variation using multi-resolution remote sensing data and recent research progresses of scale effect of simulating NPP are also presented. In addition, future trend of researching scale effect of NPP by remote sensing is also discussed in detail.

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    Comprehensive Effectiveness Evaluation of Land-use in China Based on Correspondence Analysis
    ZHU Yuxin,ZHANG Jinzong
    2010, 29 (4):  478-482.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (827KB) ( )   Save

    Effectiveness evaluation is the base and starting point for land-use general planning. Taking 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China inland as samples, an index system including product effectiveness, quality status, structure status, utilizing level, utilizing intensity, and conditions of resources is set up for comprehensive evaluation of China’s land-use. Under the help of Matlab6.5 we used correspondence analysis to characterize the status of comprehensive effectiveness of land-use in China. The conclusions of the study are: 1) China’s land-use effectiveness is controlled under the first and the second main factors which express the effects of production effectiveness and utilizing intensity, and the factors of quality status and amount of resources have limited effects on China’s land-use effectiveness. 2) Investment increase in construction results in increase of the output from construction land and the decrease of the output from agricultural land, and eventually results in the loss of output of land-use. 3) 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities are assorted into 7 types, and Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin belong to a high-level type of which two main factors act harmoniously.

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    Land Use Change over Red Soil Hilly Regions in Southern China:Taking Jitai Basin as an example
    YANG Gege,YANG Yanzhao,FENG Zhiming,ZHANG Jing
    2010, 29 (4):  483-488.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.014
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    This paper analyzed the land use changes from 1995 to 2006 in Jiangxi's Jitai Basin, which is in the typical red soil hilly regions in southern China, using the ARCINFO format land use data in 1995 and 2000 with a scale of 1:10 000 and the high-resolution Landsat TM image in 2006. By interpreting the TM images with the reference to the above data, the 2006 land use data was obtained. Based on these three-period land use data, this paper did some analysis work using ArcGIS 9.2 and EXCEL, and investigated the characteristics of land use change in the Jitai Basin. The outcomes indicated that during the study period, the land use was steadily developed in Jitai Basin, in which forestland and farmland remained as the main types. Water area and built-up land area were gently increased while the other four land use types were declined, but the proportion of every type is basically unchanged. The annual changing rate of unused land was the largest, and that of forestland was the smallest. Considering the transform of land uses in the Jitai Basin, forestland converted to farmland, farmland converted to water area, and grassland converted to forestland were the three main types from 1995 to 2006, any of which covered an area above 2300 hm2. In view of the point of spatial distribution, forestland converted to farmland was the most widely distributed type, while the type of farmland converted to water area was scarcely distributed. Grassland converted to forestland was mainly distributed in the northern part of the Jitai Basin. In the future, built-up land area and water area will expand gradually, both of which have positive state index, and the others have negative state index values, thus they will slowly shrink.

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    Research on Optimal Allocation Scheme of Land Resources Based on Ecological Function Zones in the Yellow River Delta
    ZHAO Jun,LIU Gaohuan,FU Xin
    2010, 29 (4):  489-484.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.015
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    The optimal allocation of land resources is one kind of measures, of which the essence is to judge the ecological suitability of land types and their structural difference. Artificial regulation technologies are utilized to adjust and arrange the structure of land use, which is different from natural ecological structure. Furthermore, land resources can be used in the best way and the region can be developed in a sustainable way. In the paper, according to the status quo of the Yellow River Delta (YRD), for the purpose of protecting and improving ecological environment, land use is arranged according to land suitability, and the results are used to optimize the allocation of land resources and to implement the optimal allocation of land resources in practice. Based on the model and using GIS, the land for cultivation is computed and analyzed, and its total amount is up to 2656.301 km2. Finally, a comprehensive suitability index of land use is referred and utilized, and the results show that the distribution rule of land suitability is that it increases gradually and symmetrically to the both sides of the current Yellow River channel. In a word, from the view point of ecology, it is comparatively reasonable for land resources to be optimally allocated according to ecological functional zones in the YRD.

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    Study on the Sediment Transport Models on Unit Watershed for Single Rainstorm in Hilly Loess Area of the Loess Plateau
    CUI Puwei,CAI Qiangguo,FANG Haiyan,NIE Binbin,CHEN Xiaoan
    2010, 29 (4):  495-500.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (970KB) ( )   Save

    The soil loss on the Loess Plateau, especially in hilly loess areas, is among the severest in the world, and it would be of great meaning to study soil erosion and sediment transport as well as sediment delivery ratio in the gully/channel system in the highly erodible region. Though many models have been constructed in the hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau, the models predicted well only for the large runoff-sediment events. On the other hand, although the physical models usually perform better for small events, the data required for the models are so rigorous that it is not easy to apply them for most of the catchments. In our present study, Tuanshangou catchment, a unit-catchment in the hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau, was selected. Using 95 runoff-sediment events during the period 1961-1969 and by analyzing peak discharge (Qz), the maximum sediment concentraion (Cz), mean discharge of single storm (Qp) and runoff depth (H), five models were constructed given the fact that suspended sediment yield is the function of suspended sediment concentration (Cs) and runoff depth (Ms=CsH). Then, through analyzing the predicted errors of the models, two models of Ms=H(109.2ln(Qz)+546.1) and Ms=H(Cz-141.2) had better modeling precision with mean errors less than 19% and 12%, respectively. Both models presented good modeling precision for the events larger than 30 t/km2, and presented good modeling application for the Shuiwanggou catchment (a neighbored catchment by Tuanshangou catchment). Compared to the previous models, the two models had better modeling results, especially for the small events in the study area. Deep analysis found that, influenced by different flow mechanisms, for the events less than 300 t/km2, the results modeled by logarithmic function was better than that by exponential model. However, the results modeled by exponential modeling was better than that by logarithmic modeling for the events larger than 1000 t/km2. The structures of the two models built in this paper are simple, only composing of two variables H and Qz and H and Cz, respectively. In addition, the model can be applied according to the data acquirement when studying sediment yield in the hilly loess region on the Loess Plateau. The simplicity and easy application of the constructed models would be of assistance in predicting sediment yield (especially for small events) and in constructing soil and water conservation measures in Yellow River basin in the future.

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    Flood Processes and Channel Responses in Typical Years of the Different Channel Patterns in Neimenggu Reaches of the Upper Yellow River
    WANG Suiji,FAN Xiaoli
    2010, 29 (4):  501-506.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.017
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    The sedimentation on channel bed in the Neimenggu (Inner Mongolia) reach of the upper Yellow River has been relative severe since the last two decades. Some of researchers expect that artificial flood can erode the channel bed and lower the channel bed. In this work, the discharge-water level hydrographs of the maximal floods that occurred in the typical years have been revealed, and the shapes of the hydrographs include single line, clockwise loop, anticlockwise loop, and complex line plus anticlockwise loop, anticlockwise loop plus line, “8”-shape plus line, nested anticlockwise loop and cross lines. These relations can reflect whether the channel bed is eroded or deposited, when eroded or deposited, and whether the erosion and deposition are iterative. The responses of the Neimenggu channel of the upper Yellow River are different from those at the downstreams. The downward erosion and the depressed channel bed have a braiding channel pattern, the evident upward aggradation has a meandering pattern, and the slight upward aggradation or the balanced erosion-deposition has a straight pattern. This trend is adaptive to the stream power decrease downstreams. The decrease of concentration of suspended sediment downstream is the evidence. Artificial flood can not change the sedimentation trend on the meandering channel bed and can not help people to inhabit in the Hetao plain to avoid the flood hazard.

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    Seasonal Time Lag Response of NDVI to Temperature and Precipitation Change and Its Spatial Characteristics in Tibetan Plateau
    DING Mingjun,ZHANG Yili,LIU Linshan,WANG Zhaofeng,YANG Xuchao
    2010, 29 (4):  507-512.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.04.018
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    Today, human activities become more and more intense. How to minimize human disturbance is very important in the study of the relationship between vegetation and climate. The Tibetan Plateau, as one of the few extensive regions escaped from human disturbance, provides an ideal site for studies on the response of natural vegetation cover to water/thermal conditions. Based on the trend surface of TN (short for time series of ten-day NDVI), TP (short for time series of ten-day rainfall) and TT (short for time series of ten-day temperature) , which all are multi-year means, ARCGIS9.2 software and lag cross-correlation method are used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of the relationships between water/thermal climate elements and vegetation cover. The main results are as follows: (1) Except high-cold desert vegetation and forest vegetation, the TN has very good correlation with TT and TP on the Tibetan Plateau, especially in the areas with a vegetation cover of moderate density, such as meadow and grassland. (2) NDVI has a hysteresis effect towards temperature and precipitation and in the northern part (Qaidam Basin and the north of Kunlun Mountains) and southern part of the Tibetan Plateau, the vegetation responds to the water/thermal changes slowly, but in the middle and east parts of the Tibetan Plateau, the vegetation responds to the water/thermal changes quickly; (3) Different vegetation types respond to water/thermal condition differently. The descending order of the responding degree for each vegetation type is: alpine cold meadow, alpine cold grassland, alpine cold brush, periglacial cushion vegetation, desert, and forest.

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