Table of Content

    25 February 2010, Volume 29 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Research on the Tourism Climatology: Review and Preview
    WU Pu1, XI Jianchao2|GE Quansheng2
    2010, 29 (2):  131-137.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1183KB) ( )   Save

    Global climate has experienced a remarkable change of warming since the 1980s. Global climate warming has aroused much attention from society and scientist due to its impacts. As one of the biggest industries in world economy, tourism depends greatly on climate, and the impact of climate change on tourism is no less than that on agriculture. The impact of climate change on tourism has been noticed by IPCC and WTO (World Tourism Organization). Therefore, the branch subject of Tourism Climatology becomes the focus of tourism and meteorology research. However, tourism itself is a complicated system and there are still many uncertainties about climate change. It is very difficult to research the relationship between climate change and tourism. The study on Tourism Climatology in China began in the 1980s, lagging 20 years behind abroad. For all that, it has acquired the rather development for years, but there are still some shortcomings in the research and there are many blind spots that need a breakthrough. In order to enrich this interdisciplinary, the article reviewed the study of Tourism Climatology from total quantity and structure of literature, the research stage, content and the method. According to the reviews, the total quantity of papers on Tourism Climatology in the past years is quite small. The research work focuses mainly on two aspects. The first is climate and weather as tourism resources; and the second is comfort climate condition to tourists' activities. From the 1980s till now, the research of Tourism Climatology experienced four stages. At present, the research is still in its initial stage, and the method system has not been established. For the moment, the research of Tourism Climatology has not been fully recognized by tourism. There are many fields that need to be further explored, such as the influence of climate and weather on tourism destination to tourists' behaviors and the influence of human activities on climate and weather. In the future, we need strengthen basic theoritial studies on Tourism Climatology, especially the interaction between climatic change and tourism. In order to enrich this interdisciplinary, we should expand the field and view of Tourism Climatology research.

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    Research on Relationships between Monthly Evaporation and Conventional Meteorological Elements during Dry Season in Yunnan
    HUANG Zhongyan
    2010, 29 (2):  138-144.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.002
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    Based on pan-evaporation data of past years and other meteorological element data of conventional surface meteorological measurement from 112 weather stations, orthogonal expansion method and canonical correlation are used to investigate the correlativity between monthly evaporation and conventional meteorological elements and to analyze and compare the capacity for each conventional meteorological element to explain potential evaporation, while regression analysis is applied to validate the foregoing analysis results and to seek the optimalizing element combination for conventional meteorological elements to simulate evaporation. As it turned out, there were 6 conventional meteorological elements which had notable effects on evaporation. The degrees of correlation between conventional meteorological elements and evaporation were as follow: average relative humidity(H)>average temperature(T)>average land surface temperature(Dt)>sunshine duration(S)>average speed of air(W)>average vapor pressure(Vp)>average atmospheric pressure(P)>amount of precipitation(R). Among these essentials, essential H could explain 63.5% population variance of field variables for evaporation. T and Dt also had greater explanatory ability (more than 31% population variance interpreted). The explanatory ability of S, W, Vp and P to population variance of evaporation was relatively approximate about 20%. And precipitation had little effects on evaporation. All these were in accordance with the explanation of thermodynamics and dynamics in water evaporation.
      According to correlation analysis and regressive simulation, average relative humidity took precedence over other conventional meteorological elements in simulating evaporation. The combination of relative humidity attached speed of air was probably the best two-essential combinatory simulating evaporation. Based on average relative humidity, average temperature, average speed of air, sunshine duration and average vapor pressure, the first three-essential combination and five-essential combination were respectively the optimum combination simulating evaporation by conventional meteorological elements under simply-universal requirement and high-precision requirement. The three-essential combination generated an average relative error of fitting, 2.77%, in this simulation while the five-essential combination made the identical error equal to 1.96%.
      In the paper, mutuality of spatial distribution for essentials is analyzed by orthogonal expansion method and canonical correlation at the same time as correlativity of their temporal changes is investigated by regressive simulation (stepwise regression included). Both methods have validated and replenished opposite party reciprocally. So demonstration by reasoning is all-around and systematical here. The research has deepened the understanding related to potential evaporation, and is meaningful for reckoning evaporation and quantizing its spatial distribution.

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    The Impact of Urbanization on Temperature in Kunming for the Last 48 Years
    WANG Xuefeng1, ZHOU Deli2, YANG Pengwu1
    2010, 29 (2):  145-150.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.003
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    Selecting Kunming, Anning and Taihuashan stations to represent big city, small city and rural area over Low Latitude Plateau respectively, using the meteorological data of three observation stations from 1960 to 2007, this paper analyzed the variations of temperature by the development of different city sizes. The results show: (1) The mean temperature of the area near Kunming is rising remarkably and conformably in the 48 years. (2) Urbanization quickens the rising range of mean temperature. Urbanization effects reach 0.31℃/10a in big city and 0.09℃/10a in small city. The sharp rise happened in the late 1980s, when rapid urbanization emerged. (3) Urbanization quickens the rising of mean minimum temperature remarkably, but the influence on mean maximum temperature is not obvious. That leads diurnal temperature range to a remarkable decrease. Urbanization effects reach -0.49℃/10a in big city and -0.27℃/10a in small city. (4) Urbanization brings other climatic elements to remarkable variations too, such as the rise of extreme minimum temperature, the drop of relative humidity, and the decrease of frost days. But the influence of extreme maximum temperature is not obvious.

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    Hydrothermal Characteristics of the Land-Atmospheric System in an Alpine Area of West Nyainqentanglha Mountains
    XIE Jian1,2, LIU Jingshi1, DU Mingyuan3, KANG Shichang1, IA Shugang1, WANG Zhong
    2010, 29 (2):  151-158.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.004
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    A preliminary study was carried out on the hydrothermal characteristics in the Nyainqentanglha mountainous region, using one-year observation data of air temperature, three layers of soil temperature and moisture from two sites at 4800 m a.s.l. and 5333 m a.s.l. on the southern slope, and one site at 5400 m a.s.l. on the northern slope. The results indicated that the differences between soil and air temperatures were greater in winter than in summer, and they were generally larger compared to the nearby areas. The soil thermal gradient could be inverse between higher and lower elevations. The soil at the higher elevation was slightly wetter than at the lower one. The soil moisture at the studied sites was dominated by the freeze-thaw cycle during dry season and by Indian monsoon precipitation during the wet season, respectively. The freezing period at the higher elevation was 3 to 4 months longer than at the lower place. The soil moisture at the lower depth (50 cm) for the higher elevation showed mutation near the phase changing point. The soil temperature differences for the same horizon between the southern and northern slopes of the Nyainqentanglha Mts. were within 0-8℃. The soil temperatures on the southern slope was on average 3-4℃ greater than the northern counterpart. The southern slope showed latter freeze but earlier thaw compared to the northern one. The soil at the upper depth (5 cm) for the southern slope was drier than that for the northern counterpart. In contrast, the soil at the lower depth (50 cm) on the southern slope was wetter for  than the northern slope. The hydrothermal characteristics showed differences between the two parts of the Nyainqentanglha Mts.

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    Integrated Risk Governance Paradigm for Meteorological Disasters: Thoughts on the Low-temperature Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster in Southern China of 2008
    HU Aijun1,2, LI Ning1, ZHU Yande2, WU Jidong1, GUO Haifeng2, LI Chunhua3
    2010, 29 (2):  159-165.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.005
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    Most provinces in southern China suffered from low-temperature freezing rain and snow disaster at the beginning of 2008. Based on the data about the situation of the disaster reported by newspapers and weather forecast information of Hunan province, the paper thoroughly analyzes many problems in the meteorological disasters emergency responses, including the faultiness of meteorological disasters emergency response mechanism, the absence of meteorological disaster integrated risk appraisal, and the failure of risk communication. And then we bring forward the concept of “Meteorological Disaster Integrated Risk” as an indicator factor, to reflect meteorological disasters in many integrated risk chains in terms of the interaction between natural and human dimensions. Finally, we establish a meteorological disaster integrated risk governance paradigm according to disaster processes. It is important to improve meteorological disaster integrated risk appraisals and to constitute an emergency disposition of social linkage mechanism based on effective risk communication mechanism.

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    The Study on Affecting Factors of Runoff Changes at Yingluoxia Station of Heihe River
    YANG Mingjin, ZHANG Bo
    2010, 29 (2):  166-172.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.006
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    Based on the runoff data covering 45 years at Yingluoxia Station at the main stream of the Heihe River, this paper studied the global change, sunspot activity, ENSO cycle and underlying surface variation affecting the change of mountainous runoff at the main stream of the Heihe River using correlation analysis, cross-spectrum analysis, statistical law analysis and precipitation-runoff double mass analysis. The results showed that: (1) The global change had significant influence on the runoff of Yingluoxia Station; (2) The runoff of Yingluoxia Station and the number of sunspots were closely related with the vibration periods of 2 and 3.3 years, but vibration period change of the number of sunspots lagged behind the runoff of Yingluoxia Station; (3) The ENSO cycle had some influence on the runoff of Yingluoxia Station, while the influence of El Nino and La Nina sustained shortly, which could only exert some effect on the runoff of Yingluoxia Station when they occurred obviously, but they affected the next year's runoff weakly; (4) The underlying surface variation had a weak influence on the runoff of Yingluoxia Station.

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    Experimental Research on Characteristics and Affecting Factors of Finger Flow during Redistribution in Sandy Soil
    LI Heli1,2,3, LI Huaien2, XU Yanling4
    2010, 29 (2):  173-178.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.007
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    The process of water transferring through soil zone can be divided into two phases: the foregoing infiltration and the following redistribution. Finger flow as a form of the preferential flow of water, differs from macro-pore flow and funnel flow. It has been validated that finger flow can occur during the redistribution following the infiltration of soil water. However, domestic studies on finger flow are very few at present, and cognition about it is very scarce either. Hereby, in this paper, the experiments were designed to discuss the characteristics and the effects of different factors on the development of finger flow during redistribution with a sandy soil. The affecting factors included the quantity of the water supplied in prior process of infiltration, the size of the experimental box, the fluid characteristics and so on. The major results are as follows: finger flow can develop easily during water redistribution process with prior sufficient water supply; the quantity of water increased in prior process of infiltration has little influence on the final form of finger flow developed whereas quickens the speed of the finger flow development; the smaller experiment box can restrain the development of finger flow;the finger flow develops faster with a clearer form during the water redistribution process when the concentration of simplex solution is increased, but when compared with the experiment in which tap water is used, the experimental result is reversed.

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    Robust Estimation for the Determinant Model of Land use Pattern Based on the Area Percentage Dataset of Land Uses
    DENG Xiangzheng1, LIN Yingzhi1, ZHAN Jinyan2, HE Shujin1
    2010, 29 (2):  179-185.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.008
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    Given that the ordinary least square estimate is not adaptable to analyzing the driving mechanism of land use pattern represented by the area percentage data, this paper develops an estimation approach according to the partial least squares regression algorithm capable of analyzing the driving mechanism of land use pattern identified at the pixel specific resolution. The approach can be used to obtain the robust estimates for the determinant model of land use pattern and guarantee that the sum of predicted area of all kinds of land use categories equals the total land area of each grid pixel in addition to deducting the estimation bias resulting from the multi-collinearities between explanatory variables. This paper elaborately deduces the estimation algorithm for the explanatory model for the land use pattern according to the partial least-squares regression algorithm and based on the area percentage data. By using this kind of estimation approach, this paper analyzes the driving mechanism of land use pattern for cultivated land, built-up area and other kinds of land and obtains the estimates with high goodness of fit in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The research result shows that the partial least squares regression analysis can be used to estimate the driving mechanism of land use pattern represented by the area percentage data. The estimation approach proven applicable in this study is with unbiased, efficient and robust characteristics and worthy of being promoted to use in relevant case studies.

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    On Rural Settlement Patterns in New Era
    ZHOU Guohua, HE Yanhua, TANG Chengli, ZENG Shanshan, PENG Peng
    2010, 29 (2):  186-192.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1254KB) ( )   Save

    With the growing disparties between urban and rural areas, "three rural issues" have become an urgent strategic issue in China, and new socialist countryside construction is being conducted. Rural settlement pattern research is an important part of the new rural construction pattern, it will provide an important theoretical basis for effectively improving the rural living environment,and for new rural construction planning. The innovation of rural settlement pattern is an effective way of mitigating the "rural disease" and promoting rural development, and is also one of the keys of promoting the organic convergence of urban and rural settlements and realizing the harmonious development of urban and rural societies. From an academic point of view, improving of the study content-framework, perspective and methods of the rural settlement patternt is conducive to development of the theories and methods on rural settlement geography, and also conducive to the rural geography. This article holds that, as an important subject of rural settlement geography, rural settlement pattern research should be standing in geographical developmental environment, basing on the new human-land relationship, integrating the theories and methods of ecology, economics, environmental studies, behavioral science and sociology, and should set up a symbiosis of human-land,co-ordination of urban and rural development, regional coordination and harmonious society, forming harmonies between human and nature, human demands and settlement functions, and urban and rural settlements, focusing on settlement form, settlement structure, settlement process and mechanism, comprehensively studying reserch theories and methods, classification and developmental process and mechanism.

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    A Grey Correlational Analysis on Industrial Structure Changes and Industrialization Processes in Beijing Region
    GUO Tengyun
    2010, 29 (2):  193-198.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.010
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    On the basis of Chenery-Syrquin’s standard patterns of development and Kuznets’s national pattern of development based on per capita GDP and three industrial structures, by using grey correlational analysis method, this paper discusses the industrialization processes in Beijing region during the period of 1978-2005. The study results show during the period: 1) from 1978 to about 1984 the industrialization level in Beijing region was in the early half of middle stage of industrialization; 2) from about 1985 to about 1993 it was in the late half of middle stage of industrialization; 3) from about 1994 onward it was in the late industrialization stage; and 4) from 2001 on it has been characterized by a developed economy. The determination results are not only corresponding to the realistic development situations in Beijing region during the same periods, but also being validated by other relevant studies from different researches. This research also shows, on one hand, grey correlational analysis method demonstrates its advantages over the conventional direct comparison based on the per capita GDP and three industrial structures in the studied region and the Chenery-Syrquin’s standard pattern of development or Kuznets’s national pattern of development, and makes the determination results more reliable, acceptable and cogent. On the other hand, different from the conventional direct comparison method, the grey correlational analysis will make the determination almost not depend mainly on the judgement maker’s own experience, knowledge accumulation and even subjective consciousness. On all accounts, the determination by grey correlational analysis method is easier than that by the conventional direct comparison, and this method minimizes the disadvantages, and makes the determination process and results more scientific, objective, accurate and reliable.

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    A Review on Research of Service Industry from an Angle of Space
    WANG Haiwen
    2010, 29 (2):  199-207.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.011
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    With the development of theory and practice, much attention has been paid to the research of service industry from an angle of space. Meanwhile, there is a great need to make a deep research into the law of the geographical and spatial development of service industry in order to strengthen the guidance function of theories.
         The paper makes analysis of the progress and tendency of the researches concerning the space of service industry and appraises them through comments based on clarifying the theoretical basis and background of related studies. Undoubtedly the tendency from location-theory basis to the combination of multi disciplines and the revitalization of Spatial Economy pushes the development of the research.
         For the time being, the researches mainly concentrate on service industry in regions, particular service sectors and high-order producer services. Although great progress has been made, it should be noticed that a good analytical framework has not formed yet and inductive method and empirical analysis are mainly carried out. Therefore, the depth and applicability of conclusions and viewpoints become restricted.
         As to the tendency of the relating researches in the future, there are three following main aspects: firstly, the combination of multi disciplines and creation of theories will lay solid foundation on the study. Various theories and disciplines such as Location theory, Urban Economics, Regional Economics and so on inevitably become necessary resources and important bases of the creation and development of studies, which will push the research up to a higher level; secondly, multiple methods will certainly deepen the research. Through drawing on the methods of Geographical Science, Information Technology Science, Industrial Economics and Econometrics etc., combining qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis, static analysis with dynamic analysis, the researchers will surely obtained all-round understandings; thirdly, different angles will develop the research platforms. The research eye span concentrates not only on city, but also on the region and the globe. What’s more, more factors such as institutes, geography, culture etc. should be taken into account.    

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    A Matching Analysis on the Foreign Economic Contact and Geo-economic Relationship of the Economic Circle PRD
    DENG Chunyu
    2010, 29 (2):  208-216.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.012
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    This paper revises city gravity model by using the index of Krugman and information indicators, and selects the second and the third industrial employees' per capita economic information and other indicators to make an optimization of the geo-economic relationship measurement index system.  It also selects the indicators of the second and the third industrial employees' per capita economic information in 2007, and makes a matching analysis of the external economic links and geo-economic relations between PRD and 20 urban agglomerations in China. The results show that there is a strong competition, overall the weak economic ties and unsatisfactory matching relations between PRD and 20 urban agglomerations. The PRD economic circle should readjust the development strategy, promote the vertical and horizontal distributions of industrial labor and the transfer of laborers, change the relations from competition to mutual complementing and strengthen economic ties.

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    Study on the Management of the Nature Reserves Based on Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Value in Tibet: A Case of Gongbu Nature Reserve
    2010, 29 (2):  217-224.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.013
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    In this paper, according to “Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China”, the economical, ecological and social values of forest ecosystem service were evaluated by using the data from national forest resource inventory, the price parameters released by the authorities, and the parameters of actual situation in Gongbu Nature Reserve. The results showed that the forest ecosystem service value was 177.856 billion Yuan in Gongbu Nature Reserve. The economic value was 69.441 billion Yuan, which was made up of lumber value and forest products value. The ecological value was made up of water conservation, soil conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen released, atmosphere environment purification, action of forest against natural calamities, species conservation and forest recreation. The total value of them was 108.377 billion Yuan. The social value was 38.15 million, which mainly focused on the increasing employment in Gongbu Nature Reserve. According to the case evaluation of forest ecosystem service value, this article pointed out the main problems in the managements of nature reserve in Tibet, and also made some suggestions.

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    Research on the Economic Impact Domain and Spatial Structure of Tourism Areas Based on the Element Superposition Model: A Case Study of Badaling Tourism Area in Beijing
    NIU Yafei1, SONG Tao1,2, LIU Chunfeng1, CHEN Tian1
    2010, 29 (2):  225-231.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.014
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    The research on the spatial structure of tourism impact- domain of tourism areas not only can enrich theories of tourism areas and tourism impact, but also is an important complementary tool to help develop tourism areas. The paper discusses the concept and elements of tourism economic impact domain-tourism labor, tourism revenue and tourism perception, and then analyses the tourism economic impacts resulted from the development of the Badaling tour area. After selecting six sample areas around the Badaling tour area, the author conducted detailed site surveys in six sample areas and processed the data of tourism economy by using the method of tourism location quotient. The authors finally analyse the tourism domain value of Badaling tour area and propose the spatial model of the tourism economic impact domain by the way of element superposition.

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    Spatial Pattern of Health Clubs in Beijing at Various Scales
    LI Renjie1,2, GUO Fenghua3, ZHANG Junhai1,2, FU Xueqing1,2, HE Yuanyuan1
    2010, 29 (2):  232-240.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.015
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    The research target is the health club, which is a special type of the recreation space in a city. Based on GIS and geostatistical software, using point pattern identification and ESDA(exploratory spatial data analysis) methods, the paper analyzes the spatial pattern characteristics of health clubs in Beijing. The nearest neighbor indicator(NNI) and quadrat analysis results indicate that the health clubs cluster together evidently at a whole region scale. But if we observe the pattern in the units separated by the roads or district, it presents different spatial patterns, varying from clustering to random, even dispersing. The analyzing results of health clubs based on the 5 scale cell units from 1 km to 5 km grids make further explanation that its spatial pattern are influenced evidently by the units’ scale. At any scales the density and NNI of health club samples have evident spatial diversification. From the Moran’s I statistics and Moran Scatterplot Map we also find the evident spatial autocorrelation of the units. The 2 km and 3 km unit scales are the best scales for finding the microscopic spatial pattern and diversification. So the whole region scale is not the only or the best scale for spatial pattern research of recreation spaces especially for the health clubs. In some microscopic units the spatial pattern will be more evident and the research results will even be opposite to that at the whole region scale. The pattern description based on more statistical units at various scales may discover the points’ distributional characteristics and the patterns more easily. The spatial pattern research of health club points in units at various scales provides a new way of describing spatial patterns of recreation space points. And the effects of such a way are also demonstrated in this paper.

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    Expressway Network Accessibility Analysis and Structured Change of Urban System in Yangtze Delta Megalopolis
    ZHOU Kai
    2010, 29 (2):  241-248.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.016
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    This research is to explore a co-relationship between regional development and transport network construction in Yangtze River Delta, by measuring the expressway accessibility development from 2000 to 2015. Network indicators were used to summarize the expressway constructing process. Accessibility measured by traveling distance was used to evaluate the improvement of the connectivity between node cities. Economically and demographically weighted accessibility shows the attractive and emissive effects through the network in regional development. Furthermore, a comparison was conducted between the regional network accessibility improvement and regional urban system change under globalization. Some principal interactions between regional development and transport network were concluded and a forecast for the next 10 years was given.

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    Layout Patterns of the Intercity Rail Transit of Urban Agglomerations in China
    LV Tao1,2, YAO Shimou1, CAO Youhui1, LIANG Shuangbo1,2, Roger C K Chen3
    2010, 29 (2):  249-256.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.02.017
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    With the rapid development of urban agglomerative region and urban agglomerations in China, the demand of networked and modernization of transportation is getting urgent. However, intercity rail transit is the important mode and premise of urban agglomerations development. Development experience in developed countries suggests that intercity rail transit is the best mode of passenger transport of urban agglomerations. There exists close spatial relations between urban agglomerations and intercity rail transit. In views of the above-mentioned relationships, according to the five modes of China's regional spatial structure of urban agglomeration, the article puts forward four types of intercity rail transit layouts, including radiation type, pendulum type, string-bead type and network type, and expounds the characteristics respectively. In the future, the domestic intercity rail transit will flourish. Therefore,we should carry out scientific plannings and rationally select the layouts of intercity rail transit in order to effectively meet the growing demand for large passenger flows and promote the development strategy of urban agglomeration.

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