Since the 1990s, a new branch discipline, health geography, has developed from Western medical geography. Under this new disciplinary framework, the focus of geographic research has gradually shifted from disease and medical services to health and well-being in a broad sense, and related studies have had a significant impact in the fields of geography and social sciences. These studies on healing share a common theoretical foundation—the concept of "therapeutic landscape" proposed by Gesler in 1992—and gradually developed a set of influential theories in the subsequent development, becoming a well-deserved important theoretical contribution to health geography. As a core theoretical framework of health geography, the study of therapeutic landscapes is rarely mentioned in geographic research in China. This article reviewed the theoretical development process and current research progress on the use of therapeutic landscapes since the 1990s. The therapeutic landscape concept draws on structuralist and humanistic theories of new cultural geography. Influenced by the relational turn of geography in the later period, it gradually developed into the most influential theoretical framework of health geography. Therapeutic landscape research from a relational perspective has been deeply influenced by theories such as non-representational theory, actor network theory, and the mobility turn, and has gradually developed branch theories such as therapeutic assemblage, enabling place, therapeutic mobility, and therapeutic "taskscapes". Finally, the article summarized some challenges in the current research on therapeutic landscapes, and put forward suggestions for the development of health geography under the framework of therapeutic landscapes in the future.
Urban transportation resilience reflects the ability of the transportation system to maintain its basic functions and structure through its resistance, mitigation, and absorption under extreme conditions, or the ability to restore the original equilibrium or reach a new equilibrium state within a reasonable time and with reasonable cost. Global warming, sea-level rise, and rapid urbanization all increase the risk of compound extreme weather events, presenting challenges for the operation of urban-related infrastructure including transportation infrastructure. In this context, some questions become important. For example, how to measure the strength of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events (including the impact of different extreme weather event intensities on its strength); how to monitor its spatial and temporal features and evolution trends; and how long will it take for the entire system to restore balance? At present, effective monitoring methods for transportation resilience under the influence of extreme events are lacking, especially the monitoring of the temporal and spatial dynamic changes of transportation resilience under climate change, to answer these questions. Therefore, it is urgently needed to solve the problem of accurately identifying the state of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events and improving the level of prevention and control of transportation system impact of natural hazard-related disasters. The development of big data mining technology and deep learning methods for spatiotemporal prediction made the construction of spatiotemporal datasets for evaluating and predicting urban transportation resilience possible. Such datasets can reveal the spatiotemporal evolution features, changing trends of urban transportation resilience intensity under the influence of extreme weather events, as well as the mechanism of influence. It indicates the key research areas that should be focused on for transportation resilience under climate warming. This article reviewed and summarized the research on transportation resilience in China and internationally in the past 50 years, analyzed the deficiencies in the existing research based on the relevant research results of transportation resilience in China and globally, and identified the key areas and directions of the research on transportation resilience under climate warming in order to provide new ideas for future research on transportation resilience.
In recent years, the frequent extreme weather and climate events have attracted wide attention. Their disastrous process often stems from the interaction of multiple factors, which brings many challenges to regional security and risk prevention. Starting from a bibliometric analysis, this article systematically reviewed the progress of research on compound extreme events by focusing on the conceptual features, classification, and driving factors of such events, and summarizing the main methods for the spatial-temporal dependance analysis and hazard assessment of compound events. The review found that: 1) The research on compound extreme events has developed rapidly in recent years, and the types of events studied have become increasingly rich and diverse. 2) The research system has been established and increasingly improved, with significant advance in the research on the conceptual characteristics, dependance, causative mechanism, and risk assessment. 3) The research techniques were constantly evolving. Statistical modeling for joint probability based on Copula has developed from two-dimensional to multidimensional, and from static to dynamic; the precision of numerical simulations represented by the coupled hydrological-hydrodynamic and ocean models has been continuously improved. But further in-depth studies are still needed, especially for some key and difficult problems, such as diagnosing and modeling the complex dependance structure of temporally and spatially compounding events, the synthetic effect of weather system, large-scale circulation and human activity impact on the formation of compound events, hazard scenarios and multidimensional joint probability analysis of compound events, and so on. In addition, it is urgent to explore the non-stationary changes of the marginal distribution and dependance structure of compound events under climate change and their impact on the risk of compound events in the future.
Administrative division is the basic supporting unit for a country to carry out local governance. The adjustment of administrative divisions is related to the grassroots social governance system and capacity building, and constitutes a part of the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, which has a long-term impact on economic development and regional governance. This article systematically reviewed and analyzed the literature on China's administrative division research in the past 30 years, and summarized the development status of China's administrative division research from the aspects of history, type of models, effectiveness evaluation, influencing factors, and comparison within China and internationally. The research found that the setting of administrative divisions serves the national development strategy, and the research is closely related to national policies. The promulgation and implementation of relevant policies stimulate the research of administrative divisions, and vice versa. The study of administrative division has a strong historical continuity and spans multiple disciplines. Drawing on the useful experience of developed countries, it also has very strong local characteristics. In the process of integration of administrative divisions into national governance system and governance modernization, scientific and practical research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions should be strengthened. We should give full play to the advantages of multiple disciplines, strengthen the theoretical and methodological research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions, and comprehensively improve the effectiveness of national spatial governance.
Production of space systematically integrates Marxism and spatial theories into a materialistic system with both dialectical and historical thinking, opening up a new horizon for interpreting and analyzing spatial practice processes. Using the CiteSpace bibliometric method and based on publications in China and in the field of production of space, combined with in-depth reading of typical literature, this study examined the progress of the application of the theory of production of space in the field of urbanization research in China, and summarized the overview, highlights, and shortcomings of research. The results indicate that: 1) The rapid development of urbanization in China and the expansion of the dissemination and influence of the Western theory on the production of space have jointly promoted the relevant research in China, which is characterized by diverse objects, broad themes, flexible perspectives, and a combination of practical interpretation and problematic criticism, focusing on the correspondence between foreign theories and local practices. 2) The generalization of spatial patterns of urbanization and the critique of urbanization effects are the two key points of the application of the production of space theory. The former is to apply production of space to sort out diverse and specific localization practices, while the latter is the revelation of contradictions in specific spatial production practices based on human-centered values. There still exist several shortcomings: 1) The lack of attention to the richness of historical practice and the special focus on the logic of capital have led to the suspicion of economic determinism and relatively neglected other important areas such as everyday life. 2) Insufficient attention to the localization of historical practices and the biased dogmatic appropriation of Western theories has limited the growth of critical theoretical innovation. 3) Insufficient attention has been paid to the need to guide practice, and the value of Marxism for guiding practice is still limited. 4) From the standpoint of historical materialism, the outlook of theory application was proposed in the light of the specific trends and needs of high-quality development of urbanization in China, that is, from productive space analysis to living space concern, from spatial problem analysis to the construction of a Chinese system of theories, and from the interpretation of spatial theory to the guidance of spatial practice.
Technological relatedness is a key perspective for understanding regional industry dynamics in contemporary evolutionary economic geography (EEG), mainly focusing on the final outputs of industries or products. Skill relatedness is introduced on the basis of technological relatedness. It also combines with the research on labor mobility and occupational skills in labor geography, and attempts to reveal knowledge structure and regional capabilities from the perspective of labor force. Systematically reviewing the research of technological relatedness and skill relatedness is of great significance for the development of China's economic geography and the exploration of regional high-quality development pathways. This article first reviewed and summarized the concepts and measurements, micro mechanisms, and empirical research of technological relatedness and skill relatedness in China and internationally. Then, it discussed the main differences and connections between technological relatedness and skill relatedness. On the whole, technological relatedness and skill relatedness reveal different aspects of regional economic space evolution, and both can reflect the quantity and quality of regional knowledge bases. The perspective of skill relatedness helps explain the evolution patterns of skill structure of employment, and reflects the source of relatedness from the perspective of labor skills, which is a good supplement and expansion of existing technological relatedness research. Because skill relatedness research is still in its infancy and has excellent potential, this article put forward prospects for future research on skill relatedness based on existing research.
Urban residential differentiation is a multidimensional process and complex system. It is increasingly more challenging to describe cities' multi-heterogeneous socio-spatial differentiation patterns by traditional single-dimensional and large-scale analysis. Based on the logics of the multidimensional attributes and scale effect of residential differentiation and referring to the thoughts of Western residential differentiation research, combined with the characteristics of urban residential differentiation in the new period of China, this study constructed a theoretical framework of the dialectical unity of "society-material-information" ternary space of residential differentiation. This study focused on the multidimensional turn and method innovation of residential differentiation research under the intervention of information elements and digital capital, and improved the recognition of urban residential differentiation patterns in the digital era. It pointed out that the study of residential differentiation needs to transform from a single dimension to multidimensional dialectical unity, from differentiation index to structure detection, and from spatial-temporal relationship to interaction mechanism. This study expanded the theoretical depth of residential differentiation research in China by reviewing and reflecting on the progress of Chinese and international research. It provides a reference for promoting high-quality and balanced development of urban social space.
Driven by various natural and human factors, the land system in China is undergoing profound changes. Modeling land system changes can provide not only decision support for major national needs such as territorial spatial planning but also research support for mechanisms of land use changes and modeling of the integrated terrestrial system. This study reviewed studies of land use change modeling through analyzing the origin and development of land use change models. We summarized the development trends since the 1990s and discussed existing challenges and future prospects. The review showed that there exist two development trends in land use change models: the balance between demand and supply, and the combination and optimization of model parameters. The former trend is reflected in an ideological transformation from consideration of only supply or demand to consideration of supply-demand balance when modeling land use changes. Also, there exist two routes to realizing this ideological transformation, namely the top-down route of downscaling spatialization and the bottom-up route of coupling scientific demands and models. The latter trend is not only reflected in the changes of modeling rules from descriptive rules to combined parameterized rules but also in a series of efforts aiming at the optimization of model parameters, specifically in the improvement of regression models and the combination of machine learning methods. Existing challenges of land use change models lie in the divergence of core mathematical mechanisms, challenges of the fledging transformation from unsupervised to supervised simulation, and the deficiency of the new paradigms (vector data-based and integrated data-based) to overcome the shortcomings of the old paradigm (raster data-based). This study recommends more attention to the mathematical mechanisms of land use change models, through evaluations of existing mechanisms, and the incorporation of complexity in analytic expressions. Future land use change models could be improved through coupling series of planning policies under the new paradigms to promote the further development of supervised simulation.
In the context of high-quality development, the conflicting relationship between tourist areas and surrounding communities has become a severe obstacle to the realization of high-quality economic development. As a theoretical tool to describe the relationship between tourist areas and surrounding communities, the concept of tourism island is of great value in identifying, assessing, and managing the conflicts between tourist areas and surrounding communities. Therefore, it has gradually become a new topic in geography, sociology, economics, and other related disciplines. On the basis of distinguishing and analyzing the three interrelated concepts of tourism enclave, tourism bubble, and tourism island, this article systematically reviewed the research progress from the four aspects of tourism island types, key characteristics, causes of formation, and impacts, and found that the current research still has obvious deficiencies in theoretical framework, empirical research, and governance system. Finally, this article proposed three specific directions for further research based on the shortcomings of the current research. Based on the practice of Chinese tourism development, a theoretical framework of tourism island should be constructed, the formation processes and impacts of tourism island should be explored using diversified methods of analysis, and a multi-dimensional, multi-level, and multi-process regulatory mechanism should be developed. Overall, this article presented a systematic review of the previous research literature on tourism island to show their results and quality; it also clarified the starting point for further research and laid a foundation for new research works.
The urban life cycle theory was proposed by Hall and Van den Berg and colleagues based on European urban research. According to the changes in the population of the urban core and rings, the urban spatial evolution process is divided into four stages: Urbanization, suburbanization, deurbanization, and reurbanization. The stage alternation and specific stages described by the theory have also been confirmed by subsequent empirical research, and this theory has been widely applied in identifying and studying the stages of urban development. However, this theory has been criticized and questioned as follows: 1) The process of urban development cannot be measured solely from a single population change perspective; 2) There are heterogeneities in urban development under different backgrounds; 3) The division of stages is unreasonable and debatable; and 4) Urban space does not always evolve linearly in a unidirectional order. In this context, many studies have made revisions, supplements, and improvements to this theory, and some new theories have been proposed, but there is still room for breakthroughs and development. Future breakthroughs can be made in the following aspects: 1) Incorporate marginal cities, shrinking cities, gentrification, and new urban phenomena into research of the post crisis and post pandemic period, and consider changes in people's lifestyle and thinking, socioeconomic background, and so on, to expand the applicability of the theory; 2) Refine urban types to identify the diversity of evolution, and conduct comparative research to identify urban life cycle models that are suitable for China; 3) Incorporate population structure and integrate the data of population size, age, and household and socioeconomic characteristics to enhance the depth of urban spatial analysis; and 4) Increase research on the migration of residents and businesses, expand micro-scale perspectives, and integrate multiple urban systems to enhance the comprehensiveness of urban spatial evolution theory.
This study reviewed the research progress of Chinese agricultural geography, and examined the change of themes of agricultural studies in China. This article discussed the development characteristics of agricultural geography in different time periods, and summarized the experience and achievements, which has theoretical and practical values for promoting the development of agricultural geography and meet the needs of agricultural production and rural development in China. The study used literature review and comparative analysis to analyze the characteristics of Chinese agricultural geography research in different periods. The results show that: 1) From the perspective of research process, agricultural geography research can be divided into four stages—historical description period, agricultural collectivization period, reform and development period, and modern revolution period. 2) Modern agricultural geography in China, mainly involves four research fields—sustainable utilization of agricultural resources, sustainable development of regional agriculture, adjustment and transformation of agricultural structure, and comprehensive study of agricultural and rural geography. 3) Future agricultural geography research will focus on themes around climate change, urban and rural integration, adaptive resilience, and digital technologies and apply them to the practices of development of decision -making.
Infrastructure investment and construction is an important factor for understanding socioeconomic development. As the large-scale cross-border infrastructure investment and construction continue to thrive in recent years, however, it is not unusual to find those failed to achieve sustainable development. Such infrastructure-led development model is increasingly questioned. This article reviewed different conceptualizations and characteristics of infrastructure and infrastructure-led development model, and examined relevant Chinese and international research focusing on the theoretical assumptions, bases, and explanation of mechanism through time: 1) During the Keynesian period, infrastructure as public goods matched national policies and provided key support for industrial and social development. 2) In the neoliberal era, infrastructure, on the one hand as an "input factor of production", influenced socioeconomic development by external effects; and on the other hand, as a "component" embedded in the socioeconomic system, adapted to and adjusted the socioeconomic environment. 3) In the post-neoliberal period, the mutual influence between complicated infrastructure and the socioeconomic environment reveals that their relationships are a dynamic process rather than simply promoting or suppressing. Therefore, combined with the theory of co-evolution, this article proposed a research framework of "infrastructure-institutions and culture-industry and trade foundations" co-evolution for sustainable development-oriented infrastructure investment and construction practices.
China's rapid urbanization is characterized by rural-to-urban migration that was mainly driven by economic opportunities in the past several decades. With the increase of income, however, the factors that influence migration are expected to change from what they were in the past. In recent years, increasingly more migrants chose to change where they live for the pursuit of amenity, which is termed amenity migration, amenity-led migration, or amenity-driven migration. Against this background, it is necessary to follow the concept and theories of amenity migration in international literature for understanding China's migration transition and its interaction with urban-rural development transformation. This article provided a comprehensive review of the progress of international research on amenity migration. It is found that the concept of amenity emphasizes a place-specific or location-specific feature. Different places have their own unique amenity, with significant differences between urban and rural areas. Amenity can be divided into natural amenity, service amenity, and social amenity. Natural amenity refers to the natural environment that makes people comfortable. Service amenity depends on various human-made facilities. Social amenity dictates a pleasant social and cultural atmosphere. Numerous empirical studies have explored the impact of amenity on migration based on the equilibrium model and found different effects of different categories of amenity, but the research on the mechanism of influence and heterogeneity is still weak. Amenity migration is defined as a kind of migration behavior mainly driven by amenity factors, which profoundly affects the urban-rural development transformation. Amenity migration of talents generates positive urban innovation and growth effects, and amenity migration of the urban middle class causes rural gentrification. Finally, this article discussed directions of the theoretical and empirical research of amenity migration and its inspiration for China's urban-rural development transformation. This article contributes to extending the international view of research on China's internal migration and to better targeting and interpreting the future changes and mechanisms of migration patterns.
Submarine optical cable network is the key connectivity infrastructure in the post-Fordism production system, which is related to international telecommunications, social economic activities, and national defense and security. Human-economic geography research of submarine optical cable network is cutting-edge and much needed, and is of great significance to the disciplinary development and national policy formulation. Based on a literature review, multidisciplinary knowledge of submarine optical cable network is integrated and systematically discussed in this article. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Existing research on submarine optical cable network is relatively few, but such research activities have significantly increased in recent years. The research content is mainly focused on its own facility attributes and gradually spreads to the social and economic sectors that it is associated with. Further discussion based on human-economic geography will become an important direction for future research. 2) Submarine optical cable network research is a new field of human-economic geography, which can be developed from the multidimensional perspectives of transportation geography, infrastructure geography, information and communication geography, and cyberspace geography, thereby enriching and improving the disciplinary system of human-economic geography in the new era. 3) In the future, the research on the human-economic geography of submarine optical cable network should focus on global connectivity oriented geographic research, space-time interaction mechanism of regional development, new narratives of geopolitical issues, and space of flow and world urban network.
E-waste has emerged as the most rapidly expanding category of solid waste globally. This article initially offered a comprehensive examination of the international scholarly advancements concerning geographies of e-waste, encapsulating three principal interconnected research topics: The global cross-border trade of e-waste, spatial distribution, and global environmental injustice; the interplay between material cycles, value circulation, and the geographical connections linking global dismantling networks and global production networks of e-waste; and the political ecology of transnational e-waste trade. Subsequently, the investigation unraveled the institutional metamorphosis of China's e-waste regimes, which transitioned from global dismantling networks orchestrated by the grassroots informal sector to a circular economy steered by state authority and market participants. International inquiries hold considerable significance in comprehending the institutional evolution at this national magnitude, encompassing China's engagement in shaping global dismantling networks, the (re)configuration of the pollution landscapes within the "dismantling hub" by national political economy and environmental governance patterns, as well as the intricate discourse surrounding environmental justice in the context of this institutional transformation. Lastly, the article deliberated on China's current execution of waste governance policies and proposed practical recommendations for integrating the interests of underprivileged populations into policy considerations, thereby facilitating a superior ecological civilization through enhancing socioecological justice.
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has developed rapidly from establishing in the mid-1990s, which provides irreplaceable data support for global climate change simulation and future climate change projection. This paper reviewed systematically the development process from CMIP1 to CMIP6, including theoretical framework, future scenario construction, international participation, etc. On this basis, the paper comprehensively summarized the performance of CMIP models in simulating global and China's temperature, precipitation, and other variables. Furthermore, the simulation results of historical experiment in CMIP3, CMIP5 and CMIP6 was emphatically compared. With the development of CMIP, the simulation performance of global climate models has also been improved due to the improvements of physical parameterization scheme and spatial resolution. However, the performances of CMIP models in simulating climate characteristics at regional scale are still limited, especially for the simulations of precipitation change in small-middle scale, and the simulation performances of different models varies greatly. Finally, the paper looks forward to the possible development directions of CMIP models according to the above problems.
Carbon emission accounting of prefectural and county units is the basic work of emission reduction research. Due to the lack of energy data, scholars in China and abroad have proposed many carbon emission accounting methods at the prefectural and county levels. Existing accounting methods lack comparative analysis and systematic summary. To provide a scientific reference for researchers to choose appropriate accounting methods, this study reviewed relevant literature in China and internationally from 2000 to 2022, classified prefectural and county scale carbon emission accounting methods, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and their scope of application. The main results and conclusions are as follows: 1) There are two types of accounting methods for the prefectural and county units—inventory and nighttime light data inversion. 2) The inventory methods include the top-down decomposition method, which allocates energy consumption to target units according to the proportion of the output value of each sector in the corresponding sector at the provincial level; the bottom-up method, obtaining energy data and carbon emission accounting by sector; and the combination of the top-down and bottom-up methods, which combines the available sectoral energy data with the decomposition of energy data, taking into account the feasibility of accounting work. 3) Nighttime light inversion methods include the equation parameter downscaling conduction method, which was used to construct the regression model of light brightness and total carbon emissions of different scale units in a province; and downscaling decomposition method, which takes the proportion of total nighttime light brightness in the provincial unit as the weight to decompose the provincial carbon emissions into the administrative unit at the lower level. 4) The scope of application of different methods was discussed from the aspects of spatial scale and research content. An important future development direction of carbon accounting methods is to conduct carbon emission accounting at the prefectural and county levels, investigate the energy consumption of typical prefectural/county units, and use them as samples to construct inversion equation models of nightlight brightness and carbon emissions.
The government-guided investment fund, as a policy tool to promote regional development, has been widely used by governments in many countries and regions, which has been widely concerned by scholars. From the perspective of regional development, this article summarized the reasons that the governments use government-guided investment fund, the diffusion and distribution of government-guided investment fund, the operation mode of government-guided investment fund, and the influence of government-guided investment fund on regional development. The main findings of the existing studies are as follows: 1) To alleviate the financing gap and achieve regional development goals, governments actively set up government-guided investment fund. 2) Government-guided investment fund were diffusing in different geographical scales and forming an unbalanced spatial distribution pattern. 3) The operation of government-guided investment fund can be divided into four steps: Raise fund, invest, manage, and withdraw. The main features of government-guided investment fund that are different from private venture capital fund are the participation of public capital and government intervention. 4) In general, government-guided investment fund have a positive impact on the supply of regional venture capital, innovation, and industrial upgrading, but may also have widened the regional development gaps. Finally, this article proposes that geographers should strengthen the research on government-guided investment fund from the perspective of regional development, and points out related research directions.
Small towns occupy a vital position in the urban and rural settlement system and are one of the main settlement types of humankind. Since the middle of the twentieth century, small towns in Western developed countries have gradually started transitional development. Their overall decline and differentiated development have become a universal phenomenon worldwide. With the increasing interaction between urban and rural areas and global mobility, small towns are increasingly influenced by forces at the regional, national, and global scales. Therefore, this study systematically examined the relevant studies on the transformation and development of small towns in developed countries and summarized the processes and patterns of their transformation and development based on the perspective of multi-scalar characteristic and rescaling from the four dimensions of economy, society, culture, and policy, with the hope to provide a reasonable explanation for the transformation and development of small towns in developed countries. This study holds that small towns have a multi-scalar characteristic and can be embodied by ladder scale, nested scale, and network scale metaphors. The transformation and development of small towns contain the process of scale production and reproduction and can be further divided into four dimensions of economy, society, culture, and policy. Under the background of globalization and urbanization, the original core-periphery structure of small towns is undergoing a trans-scale and networked scale restructuring process. Some small towns tend to decline in this process, while others can become nodes in the global network scale, achieve a development transition in the ladder scale, and expand the hinterland in a nested scale. Finally, this article argued that it is necessary to pay attention to the differences in different contexts when we examine the transformation and development of small towns in China based on the rescaling theory. There is still a considerable gap in the research on the pluralistic differentiation and transformation and development of small towns in China, which urgently needs to be supplemented by theoretical research of urban and rural geography to provide theoretical support for the planning and construction of small towns in China.
Improving the carbon sequestration and sink capacity of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the most economical and green ways to achieve the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals on schedule. Soil particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), as important soil organic carbon fractions, are the key to understanding changes in the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that climate warming has changed the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and affected the input of organic carbon from plants and microorganisms at the same time, but there is no unified conclusion on the response of soil organic carbon components to climate warming and their controlling factors. This article systematically introduced the framework of soil particulate and mineral-associated organic matter. The formation, transformation, and stabilization of the two components were described. The article reviewed current research progresses on the response of soil particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon to climate warming and their influencing factors. On this basis, the shortcomings of existing research and future challenges were discussed, and the key scientific issues that need to be solved urgently at present and future research directions were proposed, in order to provide a theoretical reference for the formulation of soil organic carbon management and solutions to climate change.