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    Effect of industrial growth on atmospheric pollution and its spatio-temporal pattern in Shandong Province during 1991-2011: Taking SO 2 and dust emissions as example
    CHENG Yu, XU Chenglong, LIU Lei, REN Jianlan
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2013, 32 (11): 1703-1711.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.013
    Abstract956)      PDF (5131KB)(1088)      
    Economic growth is considered to be leading causes of ecological crisis. With rapid industrialization and urbanization, environmental problems inevitably have become the important factors that affect regional sustainable development. Recently, the spatio-temporal pattern of environmental pollution caused by industrial development and economic growth became a hot topic in geography. In this paper, we took Shandong Province as an example, selected SO 2 and dust as two indicators of atmospheric pollution, and used LMDI model, decomposition model and geographic (spatial) analysis to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of industrial growth and atmospheric pollution in Shandong Province from 1991 to 2011, and drew conclusions as follows. (1) SO 2 emission showed a trend of a downward-upward cycle, followed by a second downward-upward cycle, with the inflection points in 1997, 2002, and 2005, respectively, and, generally speaking, the dust increased first and then decreased, with the inflection point in 1997. The two atmospheric pollutants basically changed from relatively decoupled to absolutely decoupled, indicating an overall improvement of the atmospheric environment. (2) The results of the overall total amount and annual amounts of pollutants indicate that the overall scale of industrial and economic activities is the main cause of atmospheric pollution with SO 2 and dust, the effect of technical efficiency is the main reason for the reduction of total pollutants, and the structure effect played certain, but limited, roles in the reduction of pollutants. So adjustment of industrial structures, especially reducing the pollution-intensive industries, is the main approach to pollution control. (3) Overall pattern of SO 2 and dust pollution suggested that the situation of pollution control was getting better. SO 2 emissions per unit area are high mainly in Laiwu, Zibo, Zaozhuang and other areas, and relatively low in Heze, Linyi and other western and southern areas. Dust emissions per unit area are mainly high in Ji'nan, Zibo, Laiwu, Yantai and Zaozhuang of the middle, southern, and western areas. Based on the above research results, we propose that different regional policies need to be implemented, industrial layout optimized, environmental management measures innovated, environmental information disclosure, in addition to other relevant countermeasures. In order to solve the current atmospheric\ environmental problems, this research is of practical significance for the establishment of atmospheric environmental governance and the mechanism of sustainable regional development in Shandong Province, and promotion of the coordination between regional economic growth and environmental protection.
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    Contributions of moisture from local evaporation to precipitations in Southeast China based on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes
    MA Qian, ZHANG Mingjun, WANG Shengjie, WANG Baolong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2013, 32 (11): 1712-1720.   DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.014
    Abstract1058)      PDF (2296KB)(1468)      
    Stable isotopes are considered as a diagnostic tool which has been utilized in different media and widely used in geosciences and environmental studies, including use of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rivers, lakes and groundwater to investigate the circulation mechanism as well as the surface runoff composition in drainage basins, and use of isotopic data from speleothems, tree rings and ice cores to reconstruct paleoclimate. Precipitation is a main input factor in atmospheric water cycle and contains two natural tracers ( 18O and 2H) with strong signals for tracking the trajectories of water vapor. Rayleigh model is a popular model used in the methods to investigations the changes in moisture sources. Many investigators have used the model to simulate the variations of δ values in different study areas and got better results. In this paper, the study area in Southeast China is mainly influenced by summer monsoon during the period from June to September. However, with depletion of moisture in clouds, the impact of monsoon moisture changes from coast to inland. Based on Rayleigh theory and an evaporative model used by many researchers to calculate the contribution rate in different areas, we investigated the atmospheric water cycle mechanism, the contribution rate of evaporative vapor and the effect of secondary evaporation in Southeast China during the summer monsoon. (1) The comparison between the modeled values and the observed values indicated that the movement of water vapor abided by Rayleigh theory. (2) It was found that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface increased from coast to inland. The contribution rate of evaporative vapor, varying from 1.4% to 4.1% in the area, was 2.2% on average. (3) By comparison of the observed d excess to the global average d excess (10‰), it was inferred that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface and the effect of secondary evaporation both existed in this area. However, the effect of secondary evaporation decreased from coast to inland, suggesting that the decrease of the secondary evaporation may have been compensated by the supply of evaporative vapor from land. Based on the results in this research, it was concluded that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface area and the effect of secondary evaporation both had influences on water circulation in the study area. However, the value of the supply of evaporative vapor and the impact of the secondary evaporation could only be roughly estimated. Related investigations on the supply of evaporative vapor and the effect of secondary evaporation are few and far between in the area. If the problems above can be comprehensively solved, it will be of great significance not only studying the regional water cycle, but also providing basic data for agriculture, meteorology and other purposes. Thus, more sampling sites should be built in this area for detailed studies.
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