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    The concept of therapeutic landscape and its research progress in health geography
    ZHOU Peiling, CHENG Yang, Mark W. ROSENBERG
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 602-616.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.015
    Abstract768)   HTML22)    PDF (5879KB)(210)      

    Since the 1990s, a new branch discipline, health geography, has developed from Western medical geography. Under this new disciplinary framework, the focus of geographic research has gradually shifted from disease and medical services to health and well-being in a broad sense, and related studies have had a significant impact in the fields of geography and social sciences. These studies on healing share a common theoretical foundation—the concept of "therapeutic landscape" proposed by Gesler in 1992—and gradually developed a set of influential theories in the subsequent development, becoming a well-deserved important theoretical contribution to health geography. As a core theoretical framework of health geography, the study of therapeutic landscapes is rarely mentioned in geographic research in China. This article reviewed the theoretical development process and current research progress on the use of therapeutic landscapes since the 1990s. The therapeutic landscape concept draws on structuralist and humanistic theories of new cultural geography. Influenced by the relational turn of geography in the later period, it gradually developed into the most influential theoretical framework of health geography. Therapeutic landscape research from a relational perspective has been deeply influenced by theories such as non-representational theory, actor network theory, and the mobility turn, and has gradually developed branch theories such as therapeutic assemblage, enabling place, therapeutic mobility, and therapeutic "taskscapes". Finally, the article summarized some challenges in the current research on therapeutic landscapes, and put forward suggestions for the development of health geography under the framework of therapeutic landscapes in the future.

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    Heterogeneity of educational attainment of talents in China: Spatial and temporal patterns and driving factors
    QI Honggang, QI Wei, LIU Zhen, ZHAO Meifeng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 821-836.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.001
    Abstract640)   HTML119)    PDF (9184KB)(377)      

    Educational attainments of talents are different, and exploring the spatiotemporal distribution of talents with different educational attainments and its driving factors is of key significance for formulating different kinds of talent policies and optimizing the high-quality economic development pattern of the urban system. Using data of the 2005, 2010 and 2015 population sample surveys of China, this study examined the differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of China's talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees from 2005 to 2015 at the prefecture level, and used a spatial econometric model to explain the driving factors of these differences. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of China's talents with different educational attainments was highly uneven, and talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees were mainly concentrated in the municipalities, provincial capitals, and independent plan cities. There was also some concentration of talents with college and undergraduate degrees in resource-based cities of the northwestern region, such as western Inner Mongolia and northern Xinjiang. The level of uneven distribution of talents increased with the increment of educational attainments and the unevenness was alleviated through time, but the degree of its alleviation decreased with the increase of educational attainment. 2) The dynamic agglomeration of talents showed the Matthew effect—the higher the proportion of talents at the beginning of the study period, the greater the increase of the proportion of talents during the period. The intensity of the Matthew effect of dynamic agglomeration of talents gradually increased with the increase of educational attainment. 3) The concentration of China's talents with college, undergraduate, and graduate degrees was mainly economic driven, and salary played the most important role in influencing the concentration of talents with different educational attainments. The reduction of regional salary gaps in China had caused a decrease in the level of uneven distribution of talents with different educational attainments. The rapid growth of service industry and improvements in social amenities such as secondary education, medical service, and transportation had also promoted the agglomeration of talents with different educational attainments. Nevertheless, environmental factors such as elevation and green leisure space did not significantly boost the agglomeration of talents in China. The role of both economic development and social amenities in promoting talent agglomeration showed a tendency to increase with increasing educational attainments.

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    Spatial and temporal evolution of tourism economic resilience and mechanism of impact in China
    FANG Yelin, WANG Qiuyue, HUANG Zhenfang, WU Yanni
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 417-427.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.001
    Abstract637)   HTML76)    PDF (7590KB)(415)      

    Tourism economic resilience involves high-quality development of tourism. By using the relevant data of tourism development in the Chinese mainland from 1998 to 2020 and based on the quantitative measurement of provincial tourism economic resilience, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of tourism economic resilience and revealed the mechanism of impact. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: China's tourism economy has strong resilience from 1998 to 2020, and the special events in individual years have not fundamentally changed the long-term positive trend. The temporal and spatial evolution of China's tourism economic resilience has the characteristics of instability and spatial agglomeration. The results of the spatial Markov chain model show that the probability of evolution of tourism economic resilience to high-value areas is high, and the tourism economic resilience at different levels generally presents agglomeration distribution. The mechanism of impact of regional tourism economic resilience was analyzed by using geographical detectors. The value of interactive leading factor q is generally greater than the maximum value of a single influencing factor, and this reflects that the impact on tourism economic resilience is generally from "resultant force". In general, the tourism economic resilience of the eastern region is closely related to the internal factors of the tourism industry, which indicates an endogenous driving type. The tourism economic resilience of the central and western regions is closely related to the external socioeconomic factors, which belongs to an exogenous driving type. Promoting the internal and external circulations of the economy plays an important role in improving the regional economic resilience. The research on the temporal and spatial evolution mechanism of tourism economic resilience provides a theoretical basis and decision-making reference for an objective understanding of the high-quality development of tourism and the risks and challenges faced by regional tourism.

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    A comparative study on the temporal and spatial characteristics and influencing factors of Beijing’s outward investment and inward investment
    WANG Zi'an, LU Minghua
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 438-451.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.003
    Abstract597)   HTML28)    PDF (9564KB)(182)      

    With the vigorous development of Beijing's headquarters economy and continuous promotion of the relief of noncapital core functions, capital flows between Beijing and other cities in China have received increasingly attention. Using the data of Beijing's outward investment and inward investment at prefecture-level and above cities from 2000 to 2019, this study examined the temporal and spatial characteristics of Beijing's outward investment and inward investment, and analyzed the spatial differentiation characteristics of investment influencing factors using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The research found that: 1) Beijing's outward investment and inward investment first increased and then decreased, outward investment had always been greater than inward investment, and Beijing was a net capital export area. Beijing's outward investment and inward investment were mainly in the service sector, and the total amount and proportion of manufacturing in outward investment were greater than that of inward investment. 2) The spatial scope of Beijing's outward investment and inward investment continued to expand, the spatial distribution of destinations of outward investment was wider than inward investment, and the stratification phenomenon was more obvious. Beijing's outward investment was mainly in eastern coastal cities and provincial capital cities. Recently, more attention had been paid to the investment in central and western cities and cities around Beijing. The origin city of inward investment was stable, mainly provincial capital cities, eastern coastal cities, and cities around Beijing. The key cities of outward investment and inward investment were similar. 3) Beijing had a high degree of spatial concentration of outward investment and inward investment but showed a downward trend, and the degree of spatial concentration of inward investment was even higher. Recently, Beijing's outward investment had shown a positive spatial association, and inward investment had shown a random distribution. The high-high agglomeration areas of outward investment were the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Shandong Peninsula regions, and the high-high agglomeration areas of inward investment were the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta regions. 4) Beijing's outward investment and inward investment were both affected by differences in economic development scale and industrial structure, but there was an obvious spatial heterogeneity in the effects of influence. Outward investment was also affected by differences in transportation accessibility and labor costs, and inward investment was also affected by differences in economic openness. The research has improved the comparative study of outward investment destinations and inward investment sources, and enriched the study of investment geography.

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    Progress and future development trend of urban transportation resilience research
    JI Tao, YAO Yanhong, HUANG Xian, ZHU Yunqiang, DENG Shejun, YU Shijun, LIAO Huajun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 1012-1024.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.014
    Abstract590)   HTML30)    PDF (2907KB)(327)      

    Urban transportation resilience reflects the ability of the transportation system to maintain its basic functions and structure through its resistance, mitigation, and absorption under extreme conditions, or the ability to restore the original equilibrium or reach a new equilibrium state within a reasonable time and with reasonable cost. Global warming, sea-level rise, and rapid urbanization all increase the risk of compound extreme weather events, presenting challenges for the operation of urban-related infrastructure including transportation infrastructure. In this context, some questions become important. For example, how to measure the strength of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events (including the impact of different extreme weather event intensities on its strength); how to monitor its spatial and temporal features and evolution trends; and how long will it take for the entire system to restore balance? At present, effective monitoring methods for transportation resilience under the influence of extreme events are lacking, especially the monitoring of the temporal and spatial dynamic changes of transportation resilience under climate change, to answer these questions. Therefore, it is urgently needed to solve the problem of accurately identifying the state of urban transportation resilience under extreme weather events and improving the level of prevention and control of transportation system impact of natural hazard-related disasters. The development of big data mining technology and deep learning methods for spatiotemporal prediction made the construction of spatiotemporal datasets for evaluating and predicting urban transportation resilience possible. Such datasets can reveal the spatiotemporal evolution features, changing trends of urban transportation resilience intensity under the influence of extreme weather events, as well as the mechanism of influence. It indicates the key research areas that should be focused on for transportation resilience under climate warming. This article reviewed and summarized the research on transportation resilience in China and internationally in the past 50 years, analyzed the deficiencies in the existing research based on the relevant research results of transportation resilience in China and globally, and identified the key areas and directions of the research on transportation resilience under climate warming in order to provide new ideas for future research on transportation resilience.

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    Progress of research on compound extreme event and hazard assessment
    FANG Jian, TAO Kai, MU Sha, FANG Jiayi, DU Shiqiang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 587-601.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.014
    Abstract574)   HTML30)    PDF (5029KB)(344)      

    In recent years, the frequent extreme weather and climate events have attracted wide attention. Their disastrous process often stems from the interaction of multiple factors, which brings many challenges to regional security and risk prevention. Starting from a bibliometric analysis, this article systematically reviewed the progress of research on compound extreme events by focusing on the conceptual features, classification, and driving factors of such events, and summarizing the main methods for the spatial-temporal dependance analysis and hazard assessment of compound events. The review found that: 1) The research on compound extreme events has developed rapidly in recent years, and the types of events studied have become increasingly rich and diverse. 2) The research system has been established and increasingly improved, with significant advance in the research on the conceptual characteristics, dependance, causative mechanism, and risk assessment. 3) The research techniques were constantly evolving. Statistical modeling for joint probability based on Copula has developed from two-dimensional to multidimensional, and from static to dynamic; the precision of numerical simulations represented by the coupled hydrological-hydrodynamic and ocean models has been continuously improved. But further in-depth studies are still needed, especially for some key and difficult problems, such as diagnosing and modeling the complex dependance structure of temporally and spatially compounding events, the synthetic effect of weather system, large-scale circulation and human activity impact on the formation of compound events, hazard scenarios and multidimensional joint probability analysis of compound events, and so on. In addition, it is urgent to explore the non-stationary changes of the marginal distribution and dependance structure of compound events under climate change and their impact on the risk of compound events in the future.

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    Detecting spatiotemporal variation of population in different types of regions in China based on the census data of 2000, 2010 and 2020
    YIN Xu, WEI Hui, LI Yurui, CHEN Yue
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 452-463.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.004
    Abstract527)   HTML52)    PDF (10949KB)(335)      

    In the new era, research on China's population aggregation and decentralization in different types of regions is of great reference value for the implementation of strategies for the new-type urbanization and rural revitalization. Therefore, we studied the spatiotemporal variations of population in China and its different types of regions (for example, urban agglomerations, original contiguous destitute areas, and border areas) at the county level based on the data of three censuses from 2000 to 2020. The results show that: 1) The pattern of China's population distribution, which is dense in the east and sparse in the west, had not fundamentally changed, and the population ratio of the southeast side to the northwest side of the Hu line is still 94∶6. Furthermore, the Chinese population had entered a period of negative growth, and more than half of the counties had negative population growth from 2010 to 2020. 2) The urban agglomeration areas were the main areas carrying China's population, accounting for nearly 90% of China's total population in 2020. From 2010 to 2020, among the 19 urban agglomerations of China, the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta had the most significant population growth, while the Harbin-Changchun and central-southern Liaoning urban agglomerations experienced negative population growth. 3) The population of original contiguous destitute areas dropped continuously from 2000 to 2020, and the total population decreased by more than 11 million during the 20 years. But the population growth of three prefectures of southern Xinjiang and the Tibet area inhabited by ethnic minorities exceeded 15% from 2010 to 2020. 4) The population of border areas had been basically stable, but the population agglomeration index and population density decreased slightly from 2000 to 2020. In particular, the population of the northeastern and northern border areas declined significantly, both with a decrease of 15% from 2010 to 2020. The implications of this study are that the government should attach greater importance to the actual status of population change for carrying out targeted policies—such as the new-type of urbanization, rural revitalization, and national defense and security—under the new situation.

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    Evolution of spatio-temporal patterns of ecological well-being performance in China and its driving effects
    WANG Shengyun, DUAN Liancheng
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (4): 617-628.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.001
    Abstract373)   HTML46)    PDF (4617KB)(276)      

    Ecological well-being performance (EWP) is the ecological efficiency of improving human well-being. Analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns and driving effects of EWP can help reveal regional differences in ecological efficiency of human well-being enhancement in China and its causes. This study analyzed the evolution of the spatiotemporal patterns of EWP in China based on a comprehensive subjective and objective well-being perspective, and used the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) method to reveal the driving effects of EWP changes and the determinants of economic growth effect in China. The results show that: 1) The changes in EWP in China in 2006-2018 relied mainly on the effect of economic growth, but the overall level of EWP decreased due to the constraints of environmental well-being effect and social well-being effect. Among the determinants of the economic growth effect, technological progress played the most important role. 2) The differences between the mean values of EWP of southern and northern provinces in China had increased from 0.762 to 1.005, showing a spatial variation of high in the south and low in the north. The economic growth effect value in the south was much higher than that in the north, which was the main reason for the widening of the north-south differences in EWP in China. 3) The change in EWP in China as a whole appeared to be driven by economic growth, with only Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai showing a change driven by economic growth + environmental well-being improvement. There was a significant regional heterogeneity in the determinants of the economic growth effect in the southern and northern regions and in eastern, central, and western China. The results of the study can provide reference suggestions for promoting the coordinated regional development of EWP in China.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution and driving factors of urban-rural integration in China
    LUO Wanlu, WANG Wulin, LIN Zhen, ZHOU Weijian
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (4): 629-643.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.002
    Abstract369)   HTML33)    PDF (12033KB)(313)      

    Urban-rural integration (URI) is a new idea to guide the urban-rural transformation in China, and exploring the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of URI in China is an urgent need to overcome the dilemmas of insufficient rural development and unbalanced urban and rural development. Based on the process framework of "foundation-motivation-result" of URI, an evaluation indicator system was constructed. The improved entropy evaluation model and the kernel density estimation method were used to quantitatively measure the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of URI level of 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China's mainland from 2000 to 2020. This study further used the Geodetector to explore the heterogeneous evolution of driving factors for URI level in different regions of China. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) From 2000 to 2020, the URI level in China decreased first and then increased, showing a √-shaped trend, and its spatial differences narrowed. 2) The URI level in China presented a spatial pattern of high in the east and low in the west, divided by the Hu Huanyong Line. The high-value centers showed prominent polarization characteristics and presented a zonal aggregation trend. The medium-value areas were clustered but weakened,and showed a spreading trend from the eastern to the central and western parts. 3) At the national scale, the core influencing factors of URI level were population mobility, economic development level, urban-rural income gap, and educational supports, potential factors were the optimization of industrial structure and the opening-up level, and threshold effect existed in investment benefit and government intervention. At the regional scale, the core driving forces of URI level in China showed obvious spatial heterogeneity, and in 2020 they were economic development level, investment benefit, and government intervention in the eastern region, investment benefit, opening-up level, and urban-rural income gap in the central region, are educational supports, government intervention, and the optimization of industrial structure in the western region. The interaction of driving factors had far more influence on URI level in China than individual factors, and the interaction between traffic accessibility and other socioeconomic factors had been significantly enhanced. Research on the spatio-temporal evolution and mechanism of URI in China can provide theoretical basis for rural revitalization and high-quality urban and rural development.

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    Spatial and temporal characteristics of elderly people’s metro travel behavior and its non-linear relationship with the built environment: A case study of Wuhan City
    YANG Hong, SHEN Lifan, HU Yiwen, ZHANG Yuanhang, PENG Jiandong
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 491-504.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.007
    Abstract360)   HTML29)    PDF (8481KB)(149)      

    The increasing aged population poses new challenges to urban transportation, and the provision of age-friendly metro services is an effective measure to cope with population aging. Existing studies have emphasized the influence of the built environment on residents' metro travel behavior. The special physiological characteristics of the elderly make them more easily affected by the built environment, and it is unclear whether the findings of existing studies are applicable to the elderly people. Taking Wuhan City as an example, this study explored the influence of the built environment of the stations on older people's weekday and weekend metro travel behavior based on multi-source big data such as metro smart card data and using a gradient boosting decision tree model in machine learning. The results indicate that: 1) Elderly people's metro travel distance showed a significant increase from weekdays to weekends, but their travel frequency was lower on weekends than on weekdays. 2) The travel length of the elderly was concentrated within 45 minutes. The cross-river travel of elderly was less, and the destination of this group was concentrated in the areas with better public service facilities along the riverfront in the same district, and the travel time showed obvious temporal mismatch with the urban commuting peak. 3) Building floor area ratio and the number of shopping centers were the most important variables, and they showed similar trends on weekdays and weekends. 4) All built environment variables showed significant non-linear effects on elderly's ridership, with the highest effect occurring when the floor area ratio reached 2.0 and the number of shopping centers was 18. 5) Unlike other studies, the effects of density of bus stops and land use mixture on the ridership of the elderly were not significant. The results of the study can help better understand the spatiotemporal characteristics of metro travel for the elderly and the impact of the built environment, which has a very positive effect on coping with population aging.

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    An analytical framework of the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin municipalities and characteristics of factor mobility
    WANG Bei, LIU Yanhua, CHEN Kebi, ZHANG Dongsheng, HE Chaodong, YANG Ming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (7): 1229-1242.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.07.001
    Abstract350)   HTML57)    PDF (10972KB)(217)      

    Strengthening the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities is of great significance for promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and enhancing the competitiveness of the whole region. In order to depict the characteristics of interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin in detail, this study proposed an analytical framework for the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin based on the theory of dual-nuclei structure. According to this framework, the interaction of factors between Beijing and Tianjin can be divided into three aspects: resident population mobility, firm economic factor mobility, and government cooperation platform co-construction. The characteristics of these interactions between Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed by integrating multiple sources of data, including traditional statistical data, big data of mobile signaling, big data of enterprise contact, and field research data. The results show that Beijing and Tianjin have already had significant business cooperation that benefits both cities by combining their strengths. However, compared to Tianjin, Beijing has absolute advantage in most economic development factors, which leads to the deep dependence of Tianjin on Beijing. Tianjin needs to make efforts to enhance the spillover capacity of its advantageous fields to the whole Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Beijing and Tianjin clearly share common understanding of the functional positioning of the two cities, but the characteristics of the interconnection between Beijing and Tianjin show that they still need to further refine their functional coordination and improve the policies and mechanisms on some important links. For example, Beijing should improve its cooperation with Tianjin while conducting its non-capital function dispersion and Tianjin has room for improvement in optimizing its allocation of factors and industrial environment, and actively responding to Beijing's functional positioning. In particular, Tianjin, as a gateway and traditional manufacturing city and a city with advantages in R&D resources, should put more emphasis on responding to Beijing's spillover of talents and transfer of manufacturing industries and scientific and technological achievements, and provide more supports to Beijing in its shipment of import/export goods and cooperation and exchanges with other countries.

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    The spatial practice and identity construction of the Russian-speaking immigrants in Sanya from the perspective of mobility
    XIA Zhi, LIU Yungang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 505-517.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.008
    Abstract331)   HTML11)    PDF (5544KB)(159)      

    China is becoming a country with both outflow and inflow of population. Under the background of cross-border migration, as an international tourist destination, Sanya City's international population mobility has shaped its Russian language landscape and attracted immigrants from Russian-speaking countries to migrate to the city. Through field research and in-depth interviews, this study analyzed the connection between immigrants and urban space in the Russian-speaking areas in Sanya from the perspective of mobility, and discussed the mobility characteristics of immigrants, the significance of their everyday practice, and how to produce and construct urban space. Under the new paradigm of mobility, this study tried to understand the characteristics of migration in Russian-speaking countries from the perspective of mobility and moorings dialectic and revealed the structure and significance of the moorings formed by the spatial agglomeration of immigrants from everyday mobility practice, as well as the identity behind them. The study found that group identities can be created and identified through social networks and organizations. While the residence and social identity of Russian-speaking immigrants in Sanya are characterized by mobility and precariousness, they are given special place significance through spatially constructed infrastructures that act as moorings for their everyday mobility. The moorings guide the everyday mobility of the group through spatially constructed placeness and initiate the reconstruction of social networks. In this process, the shaping and experience of placeness by the Russian-speaking population produces the creation and identification of group identity through linguistic culture, as well as the social construction of the group by the others, forming a Russian-speaking social network. As an important mooring space for migrants' mobility trajectories, their everyday spatial practice of mobility and social interactions interact and depend on each other, and the migrants' spatial practice and identities constitute important elements of new social networks under the interaction of people and places. Based on this, we hope to promote the construction of Sanya as a multicultural city, attract more international population to work and live in Sanya, and further promote the construction of Hainan as an international tourism island and a free trade port.

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    Pattern identification of flow regime variation in the source small watersheds in the water conservation zone of the Yellow River
    CAO Can, ZHANG Yongyong, LIU Yu, ZHANG Shiyan, LIU Xiaojie, WANG Guoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (9): 1667-1676.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.09.001
    Abstract321)   HTML50)    PDF (7863KB)(210)      

    The water conservation zone of the Yellow River (including the source region of the Yellow River, the Weihe River Watershed controlled by the Huaxian Station, and the Yiluo River Watershed) is the main runoff producing area. Identifying the comprehensive change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regime can provide an important scientific basis for analyzing the water cycle evolutions and their causes in the Yellow River Basin under the changing environment. Current research focused on the influence of environmental change on runoff magnitude in the Yellow River Basin, but cannot comprehensively explain the change characteristics and spatial differences of flow regimes. In this study, 31 source small watersheds in the water conservation zone of the Yellow River were taken as the research areas. The characteristics of flow regimes, including the magnitude, rate of change, frequency, duration, and timing metrics, were comprehensively considered. The Theil-Sen trend-free pre-whitening with Mann-Kendall (TFPW-MK) trend analysis and Sen's slope estimator methods were used to detect the variation of flow regime metrics in all the watersheds from 2000 to 2020. The hierarchical clustering method was used to identify the main patterns of flow regime changes and spatial distribution characteristics. The results show that: 1) At most watersheds, significant increases in all magnitude metrics, rate of change in high flow, and low flow frequency were detected, while rate of change in low flow, high flow frequency, and all duration and timing metrics showed a significant decrease. 2) The typical flow regimes found in the Huangshui River, the Tao River, downstream of the Weihe River, and the Luohe River were more sensitive to climate change, mainly showed significant increase in high flow magnitude but decrease in timing, and significant increase in low flow frequency but decrease in duration and timing metrics. 3) The variation of flow regime characteristics was divided into three patterns. The first pattern accounted for 42%, located in the Taohe River, the Huangshui River, the trunk and tributaries of the Weihe River, and the main stream of the Yi River, with significant increases in magnitude, frequency, and rate of change, and significant decreases in duration and timing. The second pattern accounted for 35%, located in the upstream and downstream of the three major watershed divisions, with metrics of low flow increased significantly except for a decrease in rate of change; while the five type metrics in high flow all decreased significantly. The third pattern accounted for 23%, located in the middle and lower reaches of the three watershed divisions, with significant increases in magnitude and frequency, and significant decreases in rate of change, duration, and timing.

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    Scales and spatial distribution patterns of grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    DUAN Jian, WANG Weiting, CHEN Jing, FU Huijuan, SHI Fanji
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (10): 1869-1881.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.10.001
    Abstract310)   HTML59)    PDF (12479KB)(197)      

    Government grain reserves are the ballast for national food security, and local government grain reserves are the first line of defense to safeguard national food security and market stability. Bordering India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and the Kashmir region, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is China's strategic front for national defense, and it is of great significance to examine the scale and spatial distribution of grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study proposed a demand-based method to measure the scale of grain reserves. Considering the grain storage conditions and the characteristics of grain production and consumption on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we applied the model and revised the key parameters to calculate the scale of grain reserves on the plateau. On this basis and using the road network analysis method, we further discussed the spatial location of grain storage infrastructures. The results show that: 1) The total scale of required grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 815100 t, which was equivalent to 24.04% of the total annual grain consumption, and the ratio of grain reserves to consumption was higher than the minimum safe level recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which is 17%-18%. 2) Grain production, consumption, and reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were unbalanced. Only 27.19% of the counties could achieve a balance between grain production, consumption, and storage, and most counties had grain shortages. 3) The total grain deficit on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was about 1.82 million t, and the grain deficit in agricultural areas, pastoral areas, and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas were 1.24 million t, 331600 t, and 241400 t, respectively. 4) The grain storage infrastructure system on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau consisted of three vertical levels: two first-level nodes (Xining and Lhasa), 15 second-level nodes, and 114 third-level nodes. 5) In reality, the scale of local grain reserves on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was 26.39% lower than the theoretical value. Therefore it is urgent to further increase the scale of local grain reserves. The results can provide policy references for the reform of the grain reserve system in Tibet and Qinghai.

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    Causes of the high temperature process in the Yangtze River Basin in 2022
    ZHANG Ling, GUO Guangfen, XIONG Kaiguo, QIN Pengcheng, WU Yao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 971-981.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.011
    Abstract309)   HTML45)    PDF (16767KB)(275)      

    A rare persistent high temperature event occurred in the Yangtze River Basin in summer 2022, which caused serious impacts on the life and production of the provinces in the basin. Scientific analysis of the causes of this high temperature process is of great significance for improving the prediction and early warning of high temperature processes. Based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the daily temperature data collected from 699 stations in the Yangtze River Basin, this study examined the atmospheric circulation characteristics and the causes of this high temperature process. The findings indicate that: 1) The high temperature process that occurred in the Yangtze River Basin in 2022 ranked the highest in terms of the area of influence, intensity, duration, and comprehensive strength since 1961. 2) There were mainly two circulation causes that attributed to this high temperature process. The first was the impact of local circulation, that is, the middle and upper layers of the troposphere over the Yangtze River Basin was controlled by the abnormal anticyclonic circulation generated by the equivalent barotropic mechanism. The second was the impact of large-scale circulation, that is, the South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High moved in an opposite direction and overlapped over the Yangtze River Basin. Under the control of high pressure, the sinking movement over the Yangtze River Basin and the solar radiation reaching the ground are obviously strong, which led to strong extreme high temperature. 3) The main reason for the long duration of the abnormal circulation is that with the Rossby wave transmitting energy eastward from Western Europe and the Lake Baikal, the circulation distribution presented a "two grooves and one ridge" model from west to east in the middle and high latitude of Eurasia and a stable "three-wave" model in the middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Therefore, the energy converged in the subtropical region above the Yangtze River Basin, which helped maintain the intensity of the subtropical high and the occurrence of the abnormal positive height anomalies over the Yangtze River Basin.

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    Employment choice of the floating population and influencing factors in China
    LIU Zhen, QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, QI Honggang, JIN Haoran, ZHANG Xuefei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (6): 1055-1068.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.06.003
    Abstract308)   HTML35)    PDF (6720KB)(178)      

    Understanding the employment preferences of the floating population is crucial for formulating relevant employment policies. In this study, based on the China dynamic monitoring survey data for the floating population in 2017, we categorized the employment options into traditional secondary industry, high-tech manufacturing industry, traditional service industry, and modern service industry, and then scrutinized the floating population's employment choices and spatial variations at the prefecture level. We also established a mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression model to investigate individual and regional factors of the employment choice of the floating population. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) The majority of the floating population have engaged in employment in the traditional service and traditional secondary industry, with only a small fraction opting for high-tech manufacturing and modern service employment. 2) The percentages of the floating population engaged in employment in the traditional secondary industry and high-tech manufacturing industry were significantly higher in the eastern region than in other regions, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Shandong Peninsula. 3) Most city units in the central-west and Northeast regions had a high concentration of floating population employment in the traditional service industry, with some city units showing relatively high employment percentages in the modern service industry. 4) The floating population's employment choices were influenced by both regional and individual factors. Specifically, regional industrial structure and urban population size affected the regional employment structure, while employment competition and human capital levels of the floating population affected their integration into the regional employment structure. Moreover, gender, age, and population registration status of the floating population also affected their employment choice. The research findings can deepen the understanding of the mechanisms behind the employment choice of the floating population in Chinese cities, especially the relationship between the employment choice of the floating population and urban industrial development, providing references and support for the formulation of employment policies on the floating population.

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    Future global socioeconomic risk changes to rainstorms based on the different return periods of CMIP6
    TANG Mingxiu, ZHU Xiufang, LIU Tingting, GUO Chunhua, ZHANG Shizhe, XU Kun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 531-542.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.010
    Abstract306)   HTML15)    PDF (13946KB)(111)      

    A reasonable assessment of the risk of extreme precipitation in the future and its changes relative to the past is conducive to the scientific formulation of risk prevention measures. Based on the future daily precipitation simulation data of 24 global climate models of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) 2-4.5 in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP6), the reanalysis precipitation data of ERA5, and the prediction of population and gross domestic product (GDP), this study evaluated the socioeconomic risk of future global rainstorms at four return periods (5 years, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years) and their changes relative to historical periods. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Under the future scenarios, the rainstorm intensity in Oceania is the highest and that in Europe is the lowest. With the increase of the return period, the areas where rainstorms occur continue to expand, and the intensity of rainstorms is also projected to increase. 2) At different return periods, the rainstorm risk in Europe and Oceania are the lowest, and that in Asia and Africa are the highest. 3) The regions with the most obvious increase of rainstorm risk in the future are concentrated in the southern and eastern coastal areas of Asia, the central, northern, and southeastern areas of Africa, and the eastern, western, and southern coastal areas of North America. The regions with the most obvious risk reduction are mainly distributed in central and southern Europe, northwestern and eastern Africa, and northern South America. With the increase of the return period, the proportion of the grids with increased risk is projected to increase. 4) The factors that are most related to risk changes at the four return periods differ in the 10 countries with significant changes in risk. The risk change of Russia has the greatest correlation with the change of rainstorm intensity. The risk changes of the United States, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Argentina, and Australia have the greatest correlation with the change of population. The risk changes of Canada and China have the greatest correlation with the change of GDP. The study can provide a certain theoretical support for disaster prevention and mitigation in areas affected by extreme precipitation.

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    The research of administrative division of China in the past 30 years: Progress, implications, and prospect
    MENG Gui, WANG Kaiyong, WANG Fuyuan, DONG Yaojia
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 982-997.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.012
    Abstract304)   HTML21)    PDF (7043KB)(223)      

    Administrative division is the basic supporting unit for a country to carry out local governance. The adjustment of administrative divisions is related to the grassroots social governance system and capacity building, and constitutes a part of the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, which has a long-term impact on economic development and regional governance. This article systematically reviewed and analyzed the literature on China's administrative division research in the past 30 years, and summarized the development status of China's administrative division research from the aspects of history, type of models, effectiveness evaluation, influencing factors, and comparison within China and internationally. The research found that the setting of administrative divisions serves the national development strategy, and the research is closely related to national policies. The promulgation and implementation of relevant policies stimulate the research of administrative divisions, and vice versa. The study of administrative division has a strong historical continuity and spans multiple disciplines. Drawing on the useful experience of developed countries, it also has very strong local characteristics. In the process of integration of administrative divisions into national governance system and governance modernization, scientific and practical research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions should be strengthened. We should give full play to the advantages of multiple disciplines, strengthen the theoretical and methodological research on the setting and adjustment of administrative divisions, and comprehensively improve the effectiveness of national spatial governance.

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    Improvement in the statistical criteria of intercity floating population and their mobility features and determinants under the new criteria
    WANG Jingwen, ZHU Yu, LIN Liyue, KE Wenqian, XIAO Baoyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 464-477.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.005
    Abstract302)   HTML29)    PDF (4638KB)(140)      

    Intercity floating population is a key factor that affects the evolution of migration and mobility patterns and the high-quality development of urbanization in China. Based on the data from the 2017 China migrant population dynamic monitoring survey, this study improved the statistical criteria of intercity floating population, and analyzed their sizes, socioeconomic characteristics, spatial distribution, and the determinants and mechanism of their intercity mobility under the new criteria. The results show that: 1) The intercity floating population by the new criteria accounted for 42.92% of the total floating population, much higher than the 18.85% by the original criteria. 2) Compared with those by the original criteria, members of the intercity floating population by the new caliber had a slightly higher proportion of males and married people, a younger age at the time of first migration, a longer migration duration, a lower level of education, income, housing condition, social security, occupational status, and willingness to settle down in the current city. 3) Compared with rural-urban migrants, the urban-urban migrants were more capable of long-distance migration, and were more likely to have migration experiences in cities at high levels in the urban hierarchy and migrate to coastal prosperous cities in their subsequent migration. In contrast, rural-urban migrants who came to coastal areas were more likely to return to central and western areas. 4) The characteristics of individual migrants, their mobility and families, and the first destination cities of migration had significant impacts on the intercity migration of the floating population. The probability of subsequent migration between cities was higher among business and service sector workers and people with younger age and higher educational level, being married, having longer migration duration and higher family income, but lower for those with accompanying family members and an increased number of children. The characteristics of the city also affected the subsequent urban-urban mobility, with lower average wage level and green space coverage and higher per capita GDP and financial expenditure promoting subsequent migration of the floating population in cities. These results corrected some problems in the statistical criteria for intercity floating population and misunderstandings on them based on such criteria, and promoted research of this relatively weak field.

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    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (8): 1433-1436.  
    Abstract300)   HTML52)    PDF (414KB)(184)      
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    Knowledge complexity and innovation collaboration in China: Evidence from intra- and inter-city collaborations
    CHEN Yan, ZHANG Zixuan, GU Renxu, CHENG Xinyu
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 428-437.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.002
    Abstract299)   HTML22)    PDF (7338KB)(102)      

    Knowledge production is widely recognized as a critical source of long-term economic growth. However, the increasing complexity of contemporary knowledge production requires inputs exceeding that of the individual. This knowledge burden is dampened to some degree by collaboration. Yet, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between complexity and collaboration, especially in China. By using the data of more than 3.0 million Chinese patents from the China National Intellectual Property Administration on 297 prefecture-level cities and above in China during the period from 1985 to 2019, this study explored the spatial and temporal evolution of patent complexity and examined the relationship between knowledge complexity and innovation collaboration in Chinese cities. The empirical analysis revealed that: 1) complexity was increasing and was spatially unevenly distributed during this period with an overall trend of high in the east and low in the west, and high in the south and low in the north; 2) there was a robust positive relationship between complexity and collaboration, suggesting that the increase of complexity can contribute to innovation collaboration; and 3) there was a negative and significant relationship between complexity and inter-city collaboration, indicating that complex knowledge is "stickier" than less complex knowledge, and increasing complexity is associated with local rather than nonlocal collaboration.

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    Nonlinear relationship between urban vitality and the built environment based on multi-source data: A case study of the main urban area of Wuhan City at the weekend
    WANG Zimeng, LIU Yanfang, LUO Xuan, TONG Zhaomin, AN Rui
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (4): 716-729.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.008
    Abstract298)   HTML43)    PDF (8066KB)(215)      

    Constructing a vibrant urban space by optimizing urban built environment is a significant measure to shape and develop urban vitality. However, the nonlinear and threshold effects of variables on urban dynamics are often overlooked in most existing studies. In this study, we used the Wuhan metropolitan area at the weekend as a case to quantify the spatiotemporal pattern of urban vitality with population heat data in 2019. We investigated the nonlinear influence of urban built environment on urban vitality and extracted the optimal thresholds for key variables with the gradient boosting decision tree-Shapley additive explanations (GBDT-SHAP) model. The results indicate that: 1) The distribution of urban vitality showed distinct spatiotemporal and functional heterogeneity in the Wuhan metropolitan area. Spatially, urban vitality showed an overall characteristic of high in the center and low at the periphery; temporally, it gradually increased from 7:00 a.m. and peaked in the afternoon and evening; functionally, urban vitality was higher in areas with better infrastructure facilities and near large shopping centers, and lower in industrial areas. 2) The built environment in the Wuhan metropolitan area significantly affected the intensity of urban vitality, and its nonlinear influences and threshold effects were significant: the impact threshold for large shopping centers was roughly 3000-4000 m; the impact of subway on urban vitality was mainly in the intra-city area and the subway stations served the areas within 1500 m; the point of interest (POI) mix above 0.4 inhibited urban vitality. The SHAP values compensated for the shortcomings of traditional multivariate linear models in terms of interpretability. 3) The three variables of distance to central business district (CBD), distance to subway stations, and sky openness and business type have time-varied effects, and the importance of their impacts on urban vitality changes over time. Implementing the transit-oriented development (TOD) concept and improving the connection of metro traffic with large shopping areas are effective measures to enhance the vitality of the city. Setting up outdoor open space promotes residents’ morning exercise and social activities. Adding small dining and recreational spaces is also a measure to enhance vitality. These nonlinear effects and thresholds help planners make better decisions.

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    Making and negotiating “home” of lifestyle migrants from the perspective of home-city geographies
    LU Jun, CAI Haohui, TAO Wei
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (3): 518-530.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.03.009
    Abstract296)   HTML15)    PDF (9221KB)(119)      

    In the context of China's increasing mobility, modernity, and urbanization, the meaning and experiences of place and space are continuously reconstructed in migrants' everyday lives. The perspective of "home" helps to unravel the complex socio-spatial interactions between migrants and places. Based on the investigation in Shuhe Old Town, a part of Old Town of Lijiang, a World Cultural Heritage site, this study developed a home-city geographies theoretical framework to explore the processes of lifestyle migrants' home making and place negotiation. The study found that: 1) The materiality and imagination of "home" help lifestyle migrants refresh their memories and emotions in different places. They utilize the material culture, spatial form, and embodied experience to construct their familiarity with "home" and then internalize it as an identity. The interaction between place meanings and personal expressions is the intrinsic motivation of domestic material practices. 2) The lifestyle migrants come to take the city as "home" and develop the interwoven experiences of home and city. Their social interactions based on kinship, homeland, and interest promote the domestication of public space and (re)shape the place identities. 3) There are tensions in the overlapping territory of home and city. Multiple actors' continuous conflicts around the economic interests, material spaces, and symbolic boundaries of home demonstrate the unequal power relations between lifestyle migrants and city places. This article depicts the everyday lives of lifestyle migrants to address the intersections between their urban dwellings and constant mobility on multiple scales. We provide an in-depth understanding of the migrant-place interaction mechanism, research the impact of migrants on local society from a micro perspective, and contribute to the mobility governance of urban and rural China.

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    Effects and mechanisms of green gentrification in the context of urban renewal: Taking the greening practices of urban agricultural parks as an example
    LIN Jiahui, ZENG Guojun
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 914-926.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.007
    Abstract289)   HTML16)    PDF (8366KB)(213)      

    With the advent of the post-industrial era, a "green turn" has gradually become the basic principle of global urban renewal. However, green initiatives and practices in urban renewal often focus on environmental sustainability, neglecting the green gentrification that can be triggered at the social level. In the context of urban renewal in China, urban greening practices have emerged with many representations similar to the phenomenon of green gentrification, but this has not attracted the attention of scholars in China. This study adopted a qualitative research method to investigate the effects and mechanisms of green gentrification in the context of urban renewal, taking the greening practices of urban agricultural parks as an example. The study found that: 1) In the context of urban renewal, urban greening practices imply a logic of gentrification in action, and the postmodern aesthetic and experiential landscape it creates becomes a place representation of green gentrification. 2) Greening practices oriented to serve the urban elite have triggered landscape segregation and stratification, but under the guarantee of the Chinese land tenure and management system, the indigenous people are not displaced but receive dividends from the recapitalization of the land. 3) The government, village collectives and residents, and developers have formed green growth alliances to meet their political and economic demands for the purposes of urban governance, land rents, and economic interests, respectively, eventually forming a government-led green gentrification operation mechanism. This study empirically analyzed green gentrification, which originated in western societies, in the institutional and social contexts of China, expanding the connotation and explanatory validity of green gentrification in the context of multiple geographies, and providing new theoretical perspectives and practical insights for understanding the change of human-land relationship in the context of urban renewal in China.

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    Dynamic mechanism of China’s marine economic growth from the perspective of total factor productivity
    SUN Caizhi, LIANG Zonghong, ZHAI Xiaoqing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (6): 1025-1038.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.06.001
    Abstract288)   HTML38)    PDF (3100KB)(130)      

    China's marine economy has entered the stage of high-quality development. Total factor productivity of the marine economy, as an important indicator reflecting the structural optimization, technological progress, and management innovation of marine development, is an important characterization of high-quality development level. The improvement of total factor productivity is not only driven by traditional factors such as capital and labor. Although the system theory and an overall perspective should be adopted to constantly explore and discover new drivers of marine economic growth, most of the existing studies are based on a single or a few limited driving factors. Most of them focus on traditional factors such as nature and material, and lack analysis of the common driving mechanism and effects of natural, intellectual, social, and institutional capitals on economic growth. Therefore, in order to explore the dynamic mechanism of total factor productivity of the marine economy, this study used a Translog-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model based on a transcendental logarithmic production function to measure the total factor productivity of the marine economy in coastal areas from 2000 to 2020, and identified the dynamic mechanism of development by constructing an evaluation indicator system including natural, intellectual, social, institutional, and external environment factors. The results showed that: 1) The average level of capital factor endowment increased steadily with a significant growth rate, and the accumulation rate of various types of capital generally presented a slow-fast-slow growing trend. The regional factor endowment of various types of capital was quite different. 2) The average total factor productivity of the marine economy was on the rise, which is at the medium level. The growth rate was slow, the regional difference was obvious, and growth showed certain path dependence. 3) The total factor productivity of the marine economy was mainly driven by natural capital in 2000-2012 and by intellectual capital in 2013-2020. The total factor productivity of the marine economy in the northern, central, and southern marine economic zones were mainly driven by natural capital from 2000 to 2012 and by natural, social, and institutional capital respectively from 2013 to 2020. The driving force of natural capital was decreasing, and the driving forces of intellectual, social, and institutional capitals were increasing. The research results can be used as a reference in formulating differentiated marine economic development policies.

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    Runoff simulation of the upper Jinsha River Basin based on LSTM driven by elevation dependent climatic forcing
    ZHANG Zifan, LIU Shiyin, MA Kai, ZHANG Xianhe, YANG Yanwei, CUI Funing
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (6): 1139-1152.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.06.009
    Abstract286)   HTML31)    PDF (11899KB)(119)      

    The upper Jinsha River has seen increased variability of stream runoff under the global warming since 1990 and extreme flood events with a 100-year recurrence period have occurred in recent years with flood peaks double or triple that of its normal annual mean flow, which has led to challenges to the utilization of water resources and reservoir operation in the basin. The upper Jinsha River Basin covers a large area but has few observation stations. Compared to the traditional models, the single objective runoff simulation based on machine learning (ML) model has shown advantages in forecasting floods, but the research on runoff prediction of ML model for large rivers originated in alpine mountains is insufficient. In this study, the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network model was used to simulate the annual runoff process in the upper Jinsha River and the model was driven by daily precipitation, mean temperature, and snow cover area extracted from the 500 m elevation bands of GPM, ERA5-Land, and MODIS snow cover products. The model was built with the runoff observation data as the objective. An ensemble model driven by daily means of all above parameters of the whole basin was also built and compared with the LSTM model. Both models used data from 2001-2014 for training and 2015-2019 for validation. The results show that the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of the two models was greater than or equal to 0.80 within 15 days lead-time, the models had similar NSE in adjacent lead-times, and the NSE decreased to about 0.70 for the lead-times of 25 and 30 days, which indicates that the runoff simulation results of the two models are reasonable at the 30 days and shorter lead-times. Better results of runoff simulation were generated by the LSTM model driven by the vertical zonation data for the 1-5 days lead-times as compared to the ensemble model. The advantage of the vertical zonation data-driven model reduced for the 7-13 days lead-time and the simulation results are equivalent for the 15-30 days lead-time. The vertical zonation data-driven model was superior to the ensemble model in simulating flood season runoff. In general, the runoff simulation accuracy of the vertical zonation data-driven model is the highest at the 3 days lead-time, especially for spring and summer floods. We conclude that the developed model driven by the elevation zonation data can provide reliable prediction of floods, which can provide a reference for the operation of the downstream cascade hydropower stations of the middle Jinsha River. However, the improvement of the ML model for extreme spring floods should still be an important direction in future research.

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    Spatial differentiation of rural functions from the perspective ofproduction-living-ecological functions at the township level:A case study of Shandong Province
    XU Kai, FANG Yangang, ZHOU Yuhang
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (4): 644-656.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.003
    Abstract279)   HTML28)    PDF (16543KB)(185)      

    Rural revitalization needs to consider the regional differences in rural development, scientifically grasp the spatial characteristics of rural functions, reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the interaction between rural functions, and explore the unique value and multiple functions of rural areas in great depth. Based on the analysis of the connotation of rural multi-functionality from the perspective of production-living-ecological functions, this study used multi-source data such as points of interest and land use to construct the evaluation indicator system of rural multi-functionality, employed a functional index measurement model, global spatial autocorrelation, Spearman correlation analysis, and geographical weighted regression (GWR) to analyze the spatial pattern of rural production-living-ecological functions and the spatial heterogeneity of their interaction in 1636 towns of Shandong Province, and then classified the spatial differentiation types of rural functions and put forward the corresponding development strategies. The results show that: 1) The spatial pattern of rural production-living-ecological functions has obvious agglomeration distribution and spatial differentiation characteristics. The production function relies on the driving effect of the urban core area, showing a ring structure around the urban core area. The areas of predominately living function are mainly distributed on inland plains. The predominately ecological function areas are mainly distributed in mountainous hills of central and southern Shandong, hilly areas of eastern Shandong, and northern coastal areas of Shandong Province. 2) There are both similarities and differences between the overall and local relationships of production-living-ecological functional interactions, and the local relationships have obvious spatial heterogeneity. From the perspective of overall relationship, production function and living function are significantly positively correlated, production function and ecological function are not significantly correlated, and living function and ecological function are not significantly correlated. 3) According to the theories of rural functional space differentiation, the township-level rural space in Shandong Province was divided into eight functional types, the quantitative differentiation of interactions between different types of functions was revealed, and preliminary recommendations for the future development of different types of rural areas were put forward. The research results provide some reference for building a Qilu Model for rural revitalization, and provide a technical support for the formulation of differentiated collaborative development paths of rural functions.

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    Has the construction of Beijing’s sub-center promoted local high-quality development? Based on the synthetic control method
    YAO Yongling, CHEN Xingtao
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (11): 2071-2083.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.11.001
    Abstract278)   HTML35)    PDF (12805KB)(162)      

    The development of the urban sub-center in Tongzhou District, Beijing involves new city planning and construction that include the relocation of the city's administrative centers. While reshaping the spatial pattern, it also bears the responsibility of high-quality development demonstration. By using the synthetic control method and the panel data from 2002 to 2020, this study examined the impact of Beijing's sub-center construction on the high-quality development of the relocation area from the five dimensions of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing. The results show that the construction of the sub-center has improved the output efficiency of Tongzhou, promoted energy conservation and emission reduction, but reduced the level of medical service supply. The development had no significant impact on the improvement of industrial structure, the utilization of foreign investment, the increase of residents' income, and the increase of education service supply. These heterogenous results indicate that observing high-quality development from different dimensions is more comprehensive than simply evaluating the total economic output. Targeted measures should be taken to address the changing characteristics of different dimensions of high-quality development. First, infrastructure, population migration, industrial planning, and public services should be matched to improve the level of public service supply. Second, the new sub-center should quickly improve the level of modern service industry to provide support for the upgrading of its industries. Third, the sub-center should fully leverage its role as a window for opening up to the outside world, providing a benchmark of openness for other regions.

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    Progress and prospect of the application of the theory of production of space in the study of urbanization in China
    LIU Tianbao, MA Jiaming
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (5): 998-1011.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.05.013
    Abstract277)   HTML16)    PDF (2287KB)(125)      

    Production of space systematically integrates Marxism and spatial theories into a materialistic system with both dialectical and historical thinking, opening up a new horizon for interpreting and analyzing spatial practice processes. Using the CiteSpace bibliometric method and based on publications in China and in the field of production of space, combined with in-depth reading of typical literature, this study examined the progress of the application of the theory of production of space in the field of urbanization research in China, and summarized the overview, highlights, and shortcomings of research. The results indicate that: 1) The rapid development of urbanization in China and the expansion of the dissemination and influence of the Western theory on the production of space have jointly promoted the relevant research in China, which is characterized by diverse objects, broad themes, flexible perspectives, and a combination of practical interpretation and problematic criticism, focusing on the correspondence between foreign theories and local practices. 2) The generalization of spatial patterns of urbanization and the critique of urbanization effects are the two key points of the application of the production of space theory. The former is to apply production of space to sort out diverse and specific localization practices, while the latter is the revelation of contradictions in specific spatial production practices based on human-centered values. There still exist several shortcomings: 1) The lack of attention to the richness of historical practice and the special focus on the logic of capital have led to the suspicion of economic determinism and relatively neglected other important areas such as everyday life. 2) Insufficient attention to the localization of historical practices and the biased dogmatic appropriation of Western theories has limited the growth of critical theoretical innovation. 3) Insufficient attention has been paid to the need to guide practice, and the value of Marxism for guiding practice is still limited. 4) From the standpoint of historical materialism, the outlook of theory application was proposed in the light of the specific trends and needs of high-quality development of urbanization in China, that is, from productive space analysis to living space concern, from spatial problem analysis to the construction of a Chinese system of theories, and from the interpretation of spatial theory to the guidance of spatial practice.

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    Spatiotemporal changes and correlation of the new urbanization and urban-rural income gap in Sichuan Province
    LI Jing, LIAO Heping, LIU Yuanli, ZHANG Jie
    PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY    2023, 42 (4): 657-669.   DOI: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2023.04.004
    Abstract272)   HTML22)    PDF (3987KB)(145)      

    As an important measure to improve the institutions and mechanisms for coordinated regional development, the new urbanization is of great significance for reversing the unbalanced development between urban and rural areas and between different regions, and promoting high-quality economic development. Taking Sichuan Province as the research object and adopting the spatial autocorrelation analysis method, the spatial econometric model, and the threshold panel model, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal change of the new urbanization and urban-rural income gap, discussed the relationship between them, and verified other influencing factors of urban-rural income gap. The conclusions are as follows: 1) In 2009-2019, the level of new urbanization was rising year by year, and annual urban-rural income gap were continuously narrowing. Urban-rural income gap in each year showed significant spatial autocorrelation, with the low value areas concentrated in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic corridor, and the high value areas concentrated in western Sichuan and the Qinba Mountains area in the northeast. 2) The new urbanization had a nonlinear impact on urban-rural income gap, showing an inverted U-shaped relationship, the main reason of which was that the new urbanization and agricultural modernization were not coordinated and synchronized. Only when the level of agricultural modernization crossed the threshold, would the new urbanization curb the widening of urban-rural income gap. 3) Degree of regional economic imbalance, scientific and technological innovation, and human capital level were also significant factors that affect urban-rural income gap. The research results may provide theoretical support to steadily promote new urbanization and to narrow the urban-rural income gap effectively.

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