Original Articles

The Environmental Evaluation of Human Settlement as a Tool for Urban Planning and Urban Policy Studies

  • Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China

Online published: 2010-01-25


From a theoretical perspective, the author argues that evaluation of the environments of human settlement has become an essential tool for urban planning and urban policy studies. In practice, it has three folds of functions: First, it provides a spatial expression tool for describing the current situation of the environments with comparison to that of other places and cities; Second, it helps communicate and get consensus among people and stakeholders in terms of how to improve the environments of human settlement; Third, it is an effective tool for policy analysis and for decision making. The objectives, contents, and principles of the evaluation out of each of the three functions are elaborated. Within this framework, the progress and trends of relevant research were discussed reviewing the English and Chinese literature. It is argued that domestic research on the evaluation of urban and rural environments is inadequate in that most of the current work have focused on the spatial expression of the environments, whereas only a few have put emphasis on the roles for communication and consensus, and policy analysis and decision making. Due to this shortage, the application of the research outcome in urban planning and urban policies is limited. To enhance the policy significance of the studies on the evaluation of human settlement environments, it is necessary to shift the focus point of the study. In particular, the valuation of environments and analysis of policy effects should be strengthened.

Cite this article

GAO Xiaolu . The Environmental Evaluation of Human Settlement as a Tool for Urban Planning and Urban Policy Studies[J]. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2010 , 29(1) : 52 -58 . DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.01.007


[1]  Maler K G. Environmental Economics: A Theoretical Inquiry. Resources for the Future, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.

[2]   Zube E H. Environmental Evaluation: Perception and Public Policy. Wadsworth, Inc., Belmont, California, 1980.

[3]  Berndt E R. The Practice of Econometrics: Classic and Contemporary. Addison-Wesley, 1991.

[4]   Dipasqual D, Wheaton W. Urban Economics and Real Estate Markets. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1996.

[5]   Cheshire P, Mills E S. Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics. Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, 1999.

[6]   大野栄治. 環境経済評価の実務.  東京: 劲草書房,2000.

[7]   見泰司. 住環境評価方法と理論.  東京: 東京大学出版社,2001.

[8]   Boardman A E, Greenberg D H, Vining A R, Wermer D L. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice. Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey, 2001.

[9]   Harvey D. Social Justice and the City. Blackwell Publisher, 1980.

[10] Gregory D E. Ideology, Science and Human Geography. London: Jutchinson, 1978.

[11] Rosen S. Hedonic prices and implicit markets: Product differentiation in pure compensation. Journal of Political Economy, 1974, 82(1): 34-55.

[12] Kain J F, Qingley J M. Evaluating the quality of the residential environment. Environment and Planning A, 1970, 2(1): 23-32.

[13] Blomquist G, Worley L. Hedonic prices, demands for urban housing amenities and benefit estimates. Journal of Urban Economics, 1981, 9: 212-221.

[14] Kanemoto Y, Nakamura R, Yazawa N. Using hedonic approach to estimate the value of environment. Proceedings of Environmental Science, 1989, 2(4): 251-266.

[15] Li M M, Brown, H J. Micro-neighborhood externalities and hedonic housing prices. Land Economics, 1980, 56: 125-141.

[16] Geoghegan J. The value of open spaces in residential land use. Land Use Policy, 2002, 19(1): 91-98.

[17] Morancho A B. A hedonic valuation of urban green areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2003, 66(1): 35-41.

[18] Tajima K. New estimates of the demand for urban green space: implications for valuing the environmental benefits of Boston’s Big Dig project. Journal of Urban Affairs, 2003, 25(5): 641-655.

[19] Mark J H, Goldberg M A. A study of the impacts of zoning on housing values over time. Journal of Urban Economics, 1986, 20: 257-273.

[20] Pasha H A. Maximum lot size zoning in developing countries. Urban Studies, 1992, 29(7): 1173-1181.

[21] Pogodzzinski J M, Sass T R. Measuring the effects of municipal zoning regulations: A survey. Urban Studies, 1991, 28(4): 597-621.

[22] Shilling J D, Sirmans C F, Guidry K A. The impact of state land-use controls on residential land values. Journal of Regional Science, 1991, 31: 83-92.

[23] Gao X, Asami Y. The external effects of local attributes on living environment in detached housing blocks in Tokyo. Urban Studies, 2001, 38(3): 487-505.

[24] Gao X, Asami Y. Hedonic analysis of micro-scale residential environment. Journal of Property Assessment Policy, 2005, 7(2): 30-35.

[25] Adair A S, Berry J N, McGreal W S. Hedonic modeling, housing submarkets and residential valuation. Journal of Property Research, 1996, 13: 67-83.

[26] Goodman A C, Kawai M. Permanent income, hedonic prices, and demand for housing: new evidence. Journal of Urban Economics, 1982, 25: 81-102.

[27] Schnare A B, Struyk R J. Segmentation in urban housing markets. Journal of Urban Economics, 1976, 3: 146-166.

[28] Galster G C. Residential segregation and interracial economic disparities: A simultaneous-equations approach. Journal of Urban Economics, 1987, 21: 22-44.

[29] Harsman B, Quigley J M. The spatial segregation of ethnic and demographic groups: comparative evidence from Stockholm and San Francisco. Journal of Urban Economics, 1995, 37: 1-16.

[30] Schnare A B. Trends in residential segregation by race: 1960-1970. Journal of Urban Economics, 1980, 7: 293-301.

[31] Goodman A C, Thibodeau T G. Housing market segmentation. Journal of Housing Economics, 1998, 7: 121-143.

[32] Ge J, Hokao K. Research on residential lifestyles in Japanese cities from the viewpoints of residential preference, residential choice and residential satisfaction. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2006. 78:165-178.

[33] 早川玲理, 見泰司. 居住者タイプに応じた住環境適地マップの構築. 都市住宅学, 2004, 47: 148-153.

[34] 吴良镛.关于人居环境科学.  城市发展研究, 1996, (1): 1-5.

[35] 吴良镛. “人居二”与人居环境科学. 城市规划, 1997(3): 4-9.

[36] 吴良镛. 人居环境科学导论. 北京: 中国建筑工业出版社, 2001.

[37] 宁越敏, 查志强. 大都市人居环境评价和优化研究: 以上海市为例. 城市规划, 1999, 23(6): 15-21.

[38] 宁越敏, 项鼎, 魏兰. 小城镇人居环境的研究: 以上海市郊区三个小城镇为例, 城市规划, 2002, 26(10): 31-35.

[39] 吴志强, 蔚芳, 等. 可持续发展中国人居环境评价体系. 北京: 科学出版社, 2003.

[40] 陈浮. 城市人居环境与满意度评价研究. 城市规划, 2000, 24(7): 25-27.

[41] 谢让志. 中国城市住区环境质量综合评估及其可持续发展研究. 城市, 1997,(3): 38-40.

[42] 宋永昌, 戚仁海, 由文辉, 等. 生态城市的指标体系与评价方法. 城市环境与城市生态, 1999, 12(5): 16-19.

[43] 顾传辉, 陈桂珠. 生态城市评价指标体系研究. 环境保护, 2001, (11): 24-25.

[44] 吴琼, 王如松, 李宏卿, 等. 生态城市指标体系与评价方法. 生态学报, 2005, 25(8): 2090-2095.

[45] 李斌. 兰州城市人居环境建设质量评价研究. 生态经济, 2005(5): 34-37.

[46] 胡武贤, 杨万柱. 常德市人居环境评价与优化研究. 湖南社会科学, 2004(3): 94-95.

[47] 黄丽雅,邹骥,曹颖, 等.北京环境改善经济价值评估的初步研究.(2004-12-16)