Original Articles

Measur ement and Analysis on City Residents'Cognitive Distance Distor tion—A Case Study of Beijing

  • Institute of RS and GIS, Peking University, Beijing 100871

Received date: 2008-01-01

  Revised date: 2008-02-01

  Online published: 2008-03-25


Through generalizing related literature, we summarized some properties of cognitive distance and reduced all research on this concept into two aspects: pure value, and real cognitive distance. Further, we proposed a Distance Estimate Index (DEI) to quantify the scalar cognitive distance distortion. As far as vector cognitive distance distortion is considered, the Distortion Index (DI) computed by bi- dimensional regression is adopted to descript the degree of vector cognitive distance distortion. Based on these quantification methods, we conducted a survey on sampled Beijing residents, requesting the subjects to estimat the pairwise distances between 8 landmarks. And then we calculated the distortion of the two types of cognitive distances respectively by using linear regression and multidimensional scaling methods. Further, through ANOVA, we analyzed the factors that would possibly have influence on such distortion, like age and neighborhood. The result shows that the years of residence and the resident districts are the demographic variables that could influence an individual's accuracy in cognitive distance.

Cite this article

XUE Lulu,SHEN Si,LIU Yu,ZHANG Yi . Measur ement and Analysis on City Residents'Cognitive Distance Distor tion—A Case Study of Beijing[J]. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2008 , 27(2) : 96 -103 . DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.02.013


[1] Lloyd R. Spatial Cognition - Geographic Environments. Dordecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

[2] Mennis J L. Cognition & Semantic Database Representation in GIS
[D]. The Pennsylvania State University, 2001.8.

[3] Piaget J, Inhelder B. The child's conception of space. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1956.

[4] Montello D R. The geometry of environmental knowledge. In A. U. Frank, I. Campari, & U. Formentini (Eds.), Theories and methods of spatio - temporal reasoning in geographic space. Berlin: Springer, 1992, 136~152.

[5] Ishikawa T, Montello D R. Spatial knowledge acquisition from direct experience in the environment: Individual differences in the development of metric knowledge and the integration of separately learned places, Cognitive Psychology, 2006, 52:93~129.

[6] 顾朝林, 宋国臣. 北京城市意象空间及构成要素研究. 地理学报, 2001, 56(1):64~74.

[7] Cadwallader MT. Problems in cognitive distance: Implications for cognitive mapping. Environment and Behavior, 1979, 11:559~576.

[8] Golledge R G, Stimson R.J. Spatial behavior: A geographic Perspective. New York: The Guilford press, 1997.

[9] Friedman A, Montello D R. Global - Scale location and distance estimates: common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments, Journal of experimental psychology learning, memory and cognition, 2006, 32 (3):333~346.

[10] Stevens S S. The direct estimate of sensory magnitudes - loudness. American journal of psychology, 1956, 69:1~25.

[11] Crompton A. Perceived distance in the city as a function of time. Environment and Behavior, 2006, 38:173~182.

[12] Qi C, Shu H, Xu A. Formal Properties of Cognitive Distance in Geographical Space," in 16th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence- -Workshops (ICAT'06), 2006: 408~412.

[13] Lee T R. Brenman's law of shopping behavior. Psychological Reports, 1962, 11:662.

[14] Paskin J. Are differences in children's travel reflected in their cognitive maps? In Underwood G. (Eds.) Traffic and transport psychology: Theory and Application, London, Elsevier, 2005:49~62.

[15] Xiao D, Liu Y. Cross - culture study of biases in location judgments, in: Winter S., Duckham M., Kulik L., Kuipers B. (Eds) COSIT'07, Lecture notes in computer science 4736, Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 2007, 20~31.

[16] Montello D R. The perception and cognition of environment distance: direct sources of information, in Hirtle S. C., Frank A.U. (Eds.) COSIT'97. Lecture notes in computer science 1329, Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 1997, 1329: 297~311.

[17] Buttenfield B SIG. Comparing distortion on sketch maps and MDS configurations, Professional Geographer, 1986, 38(3): 238~246.

[18] Schiffman S S, Reynolds M L. Introduction to multidimensional scaling: theory, methods, and applications, Burlington: Academic press, 1981.

[19] Friedman A, Kohler B. Bidimensional regression: Assessing the configural similarity and accuracy of cognitive maps and other two dimensional data sets, Psychology methods, 2003, 8(4):468~491.

[20] Nobbir A, Miller, H J. Time- space transformations of geographic space for exploring, analyzing and visualizing transportation systems, Journal of Transport Geography, 2007, 15:2~17.

[21] Kruskal J B, Wish M. Multidimensional Scaling, London: Sage Publications, 1978.

[22] Tobler W R. Bidimensional regression, unpublished manuscript, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1978.