Original Articles

Spatial Organization of Manufacturing and Service Industries: A Case Study of Beijing

  • College of Urban and Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Received date: 2010-01-01

  Revised date: 2010-07-01

  Online published: 2011-02-25


The spatial organization of industries is the main force in shaping the urban spatial structure and is the result of balance between forces of agglomeration and dispersion. With the knowledge of spatial organization of urban industries, the underlying mechanism of the evolution of the urban spatial structure can be better understood, and proper urban planning or zoning can be achieved. However, the characteristics of the spatial organization of industries have not been discussed in depth. This paper aimed at the classification and characteristics of the industrial spatial organization in cities with two considerations: industrial concentration and geographical agglomeration. Industrial concentration reveals the extent to which the market of industries is competitive, which in a way contributes to the geographical concentration of industries. Geographical agglomeration is attributable to the external economies of scale which is the main force for the formation of industrial clusters. In methodology, this paper measures industrial concentration by Herfindal-Herschman index (HHI), which provides a complete picture of industrial concentration by calculating the sum of squared employment shares. Geographical agglomeration is measured by MS index based on the probabilistic model of location choice developed by Maurel and Sedillot. The study case is Beijing which is divided into 1049 geographical units (4 km ×4 km) for spatial research. With the economic census data of Beijing in 2001, this paper examines the patterns of spatial organization of industries by analyzing two aforementioned dimensions. This paper classifies 29 2-digit manufacturing industries and 40 2-digit service industries into 6 patterns of oli-cluster, oli-disperse, leading-cluster, leading-disperse, competing-cluster and competing-disperse. The oli-cluster pattern features oligopolistic market and geographical agglomeration. The oli-disperse pattern features oligopolistic market and geographical dispersion. The leading-cluster pattern features less competitive market and geographical agglomeration. The leading-disperse pattern features less competitive market and geographical dispersion. The competing-cluster pattern features competitive market and geographical agglomeration. The competing-disperse pattern features competitive market and geographical dispersion. Sample industries from every pattern are analyzed, and factors responsible for each pattern are discussed in short. Finally, a comparison between manufacturing industries and service industries was made regarding patterns of spatial organization, and the findings include that manufacturing industries and service industries have similar structure of industrial concentration while a larger proportion of manufacturing industries is geographically dispersed compared to service industries. Moreover, the mean values of HHI from manufacturing industries across three classifications types are close to that from service industries while the mean values of MS index from manufacturing industries across two classification types are significantly higher than that from service industries.

Cite this article

MENG Xiaochen, WANG Tao, WANG Jiaying . Spatial Organization of Manufacturing and Service Industries: A Case Study of Beijing[J]. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2011 , 30(2) : 186 -197 . DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.02.008


[1] Joe B S. Industrial Organization. New York: Wiley, 1959.

[2] Ohlin B. Interregional and International Trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957.

[3] Krugman P. Scale economies, product differentiation, and the pattern of trade. American Economic Review, 1980, 70(5): 950-959.

[4] Porter M. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Basic Books, 1990.

[5] Marshall A. Principles of Economics. London: Macmillan & Co, 1890.

[6] 马建堂. 中国行业集中度与行业绩效. 管理世界, 1993(3): 125-130.

[7] 沈蕾. 北京市现代制造业的产业组织结构分析. 北京社会科学, 2007(3): 27-31.

[8] 贺灿飞, 刘洋. 产业地理集聚与外商直接投资产业分布: 以北京市制造业为例. 地理学报, 2006, 61(12): 1259-1270.

[9] 路江涌, 陶志刚. 中国制造业区域聚集及国际比较. 经济研究, 2006(3): 103-114.

[10] 吴学花, 杨蕙馨. 中国制造业产业集聚的实证研究. 中国工业经济, 2004(10): 36-43.

[11] 罗勇, 曹丽莉. 中国制造业集聚程度变动趋势实证研究. 经济研究, 2005(8): 106-127.

[12] 范剑勇. 市场一体化、地区专业化与产业集聚趋势: 兼谈对地区差距的影响. 中国社会科学, 2004(6): 39-51.

[13] 金煜,陈钊,陆铭. 中国的地区工业集聚:经济地理、新经济地理与经济政策. 经济研究, 2006(4): 79-89.

[14] Holmes T J, Stevens J J. Geographic concentration and establishment scale. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 2002, 84(4): 682-690.

[15] 白重恩, 杜颖娟, 陶志刚, 等. 地方保护主义及产业地区集中度决定因素和变动趋势. 经济研究, 2004(4): 29-40.

[16] 贺灿飞, 谢秀珍. 中国制造业地理集中与省区专业化. 地理学报, 2006, 61(2): 212-222.

[17] 贺灿飞, 潘峰华, 孙蕾. 中国制造业的地理集聚与形成机制. 地理学报, 2007, 62(12): 1253-1264.

[18] Hirschman A O. The paternity of an index. American Economic Review, 1964, 54(5):761.

[19] Maurel F, Sedillot B. A measure of the geographic concentration in French manufacturing industries. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 1999, 29(5): 575-604.

[20] 贺灿飞, 潘峰华. 产业地理集中、产业集聚与产业集群: 测量与辨识. 地理科学进展, 2007, 26(2): 1-13.