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      ZHANG Chun, MA Chang
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      In recent years, inter-city commuting at the mega-region scale in China is becoming increasingly frequent. Compared to the commuting circles of international mega-cities, the characteristics of inter-city commuting and influencing factors in mega-regions remain to be cleared. Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei mega-region as an example, this study used origin-destination (OD) analysis and spatial statistical analysis based on GIS to investigate the spatial distribution of inter-city commuting with the location data of twin city commuting of Beike Net renters. Assisted by ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models with individual commuting time as the dependent variable, this study revealed the impact mechanisms under the combined effect of spatial variables and personal social attributes. The analyses showed that: 1) The inter-city commuting of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei mega-region is evidently along some corridors, concentrated in the east, southeast, and southwest commuting corridors. At the city level, Langfang and Tianjin are the main origins, while at the county level, the main commuting corridor is from the Yanjiao high-tech zone to Beijing urban area. 2) The average inter-city commuting distance has exceeded the general metropolitan area boundary of 30-50 km. 3) The inter-city commuters account for more than 20% of the total commuting population located in the Yanjiao high-tech zone of Langfang City, Gu'an County, and Zhuozhou of Baoding City, forming a high-frequency commuting area—the Beijing commuter belt. 4) The GWR showed that spatial factors such as the difference in housing and salaries between the workplace and residential areas and the distance from the residence to the high-speed rail station have spatial heterogeneity effects on commuting time. The research found that the motivation for long-time inter-city commuting differs between cities. Some commuters in Tianjin are motivated by improving living quality and salaries, while some commuters in Langfang and Baoding are motivated by improving salaries and saving rent. The impact of individual attributes showed that the younger the age, the longer the commuting time. The results of this research provide a reference for the coordinated optimization of urban space layout and comprehensive transportation in mega-regions under the new urbanization strategy.

    • Articles
      WANG De, HAN Binli, ZHANG Tianran, YOU Zhimin, LI Xintian
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      Traditional household travel survey provides the basic data for urban traffic planning and the most authoritative record of urban residents' travel behaviors. With the development of information technology, position data represented by mobile signaling data have shown great potential in the field of temporal-spatial behavior research. However, whether the mobile signaling data can replace the travel survey data is controversial because the travel data accuracy of mobile signaling data is difficult to assess. How credible the identification results are and whether the travel characteristics of residents can be accurately measured remains to be answered. In this study, the travel survey data of Shanghai residents and mobile signaling data with similar dates were used to compare the differences in intensity, time, spatial distribution, purpose, and other characteristics of travels. This study also analyzed the degree of deviation and summarized the causes of errors. The research revealed that the mobile signaling data are more accurate in describing the per capita travel times of the travel population and the travel origin-destination (OD) distribution at the scale above the street, but less accurate in describing the travel time distribution and travel purposes. Our research suggests that the main reasons for the deviation in mobile phone data are the impact of incomplete location records on data quality, the impact of retention time thresholds, spatial thresholds, and home and workplace identification. Due to the above systematic errors, mobile signaling data cannot replace household travel survey data. Nevertheless, the accuracy of mobile signaling data analysis can be improved by sample screening, trip chain data recovery, and improvement of identification methods.

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      ZHUANG Rulong, YANG Jie, MI Kena, ZHANG Chaoyang, ZHI Menglu
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      With the continuous improvement of people's living standards and increasing income, household energy consumption has become an important growth point of energy consumption in China. Grasping the spatiotemporal characteristics of household energy consumption and identifying the influencing factors and development trends of household energy consumption will help to accelerate the construction of a modern energy system, promote low-carbon energy transformation, and achieve the dual carbon goals. This study took household energy consumption as the research object and systematically explored its spatiotemporal evolution characteristics in China. Furthermore, it used the spatial econometric models, grey prediction, and scenario analysis to examine the influencing factors and development trends of household energy consumption. The study found that: 1) From the perspective of spatiotemporal characteristics, household energy consumption showed an upward trend from 1995 to 2021. Meanwhile, the gap in energy consumption between urban and rural households was gradually widening, but their per capita household energy consumption showed a trend of convergence. 2) From the perspective of proportion and structure, household energy consumption accounts for about one tenth of the total energy consumption, and the household energy consumption structure showed a trend of diversification and clean development. 3) From the perspective of influencing factors, energy intensity, population size, household size, education level, economic development, urbanization rate, and car ownership were important influencing factors for household energy consumption, but the degree of impact varied. 4) From the perspective of future trends, China's household energy consumption will continue to grow by 2040, and under the scenario of steady development, the growth rate is slower, indicating that the implementation of government policies and the popularization of green consumption concept among residents have a positive effect on controlling the growth of household energy consumption. Based on the results of this research, this article argued that the energy consumption structure should be adjusted by increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption, the energy consumption structure of rural households should be optimized, and the energy development policy should be further improved and the consumption concept of residents should be changed to control the excessive growth of household energy consumption.

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      WANG Yahui, YANG Aoxi, LIU Yan, YANG Qingyuan
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      The integrated development of urban and rural areas is an important measure for achieving comprehensive rural revitalization in China, and policymakers are particularly concerned about this issue. The initial intention of establishing the land bill system in Chongqing Municipality was to promote coordinated and integrated development between urban and rural areas, but there has been a lack of corresponding evaluation. Based on the panel data from 70 cities between 1998 and 2020, land bill transaction data from 2008 to 2020, and a survey of farming households in outflow areas of land bill, this study systematically evaluated the impact of the land bill system in Chongqing Municipality on the integrated development of urban and rural areas through spatial analysis and synthetic control methods. This study found that the land bill system promoted urban-rural integration in Chongqing, manifested by an increase in the per capita disposable income in rural areas, the supply of urban construction land, the supply of the non-agricultural labor force, and regional per capita GDP. The pressures of farmland loss and income disparity between urban and rural residents have significantly decreased. The land bill, as a "lever", couples the elements of people-land-industry-capital in rural areas, which is conducive to building interactive relationships among the internal elements of the urban-rural regional system, and further promotes the integrated development of urban and rural areas. Considering that the land bill system has been piloted in many parts of the country, it is necessary to further explore ways to improve the linkage between collective-operated construction land near cities and the land bill system in remote suburbs, in order to promote the balanced adjustment of urban and rural integrated development. At the same time, the government should actively expand the service functions of the land bill system in rural revitalization and ecological restoration, moderately increase land supply, and restore rural idle land to ecological land, thereby synergistically promoting the development of ecological civilization.

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      GU Lei, FENG Yingbin, FENG Dedong, LI Jingjing, WU Shuang, YANG Xiyuan
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      The diagnosis and identification of farmland marginalization are intricately linked to establishing a delicate equilibrium between food security and ecological security. This study constructed a comprehensive analytical framework of "temporal diagnosis, explicit and implicit factor interaction, and spatial distribution" by categorizing farmland marginalization types and integrating traditional diagnostic concepts. Using Shepeng Village, the birthplace of the "three changes" reform, as a case study, we conducted an investigation into the spatial and temporal distribution and characteristics of different types of arable land employing standard deviation ellipse, 3D kernel density, and other spatial analysis methods. The findings indicate that: 1) The temporal diagnosis of farmland marginalization can be done through the interannual variation of net income as a key indicator and can be manifested spatially by the trend of farmland conversion to other land use types. 2) Between 2000 and 2020, farmland in Shepeng Village displayed two prominent marginalization phenomena, occurring in 2013-2014 and 2016-2017, with the latter being more pronounced. 3) During 2010-2015, farmland marginalization in Shepeng Village exhibited explicit and implicit characteristics prominently. The physical, natural, and economic marginalization of farmland as explicit features amounted to 7.13 hm2, 0.99 hm2, and 33.27 hm2 respectively. The degree of marginalization in implicit features demonstrated more significant changes before and after the "three changes" reform, displaying characteristics of mutual fusion and alternating changes. Policy recommendations centered around the concept of food security, economic development, and ecological protection were proposed to provide guidance for promoting the protection and sustainable use of farmland in mountainous areas.

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      LIU Wenhui, SONG Xiaoqing, XU Huixiao, GAO Houxing
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      An in-depth understanding of the transition of freshwater aquacultural water surfaces is significant for implementing the new development concept and macro view on food and for promoting global sustainable development. However, studies on the structural transition of aquacultural water surfaces and its driving mechanisms are still very limited. As socioeconomic development progresses, there are significant impacts of the growing market demand of freshwater products and water control policies such as the lake chief system on aquacultural water surfaces. Using the Simpson index method, center of gravity model of geographic factors, and panel regression models, we took the Jianghan Plain as an example to reveal the structural transition characteristics of aquacultural water surfaces from the perspectives of type structure and spatial structure by focusing on the mechanisms under the combined effects of market-induced changes and policy control. The results show that: 1) From 2001 to 2020, the freshwater aquacultural water surfaces on the Jianghan Plain experienced a transition from rapid expansion to slow expansion; the type structure experienced a transition of "large water to small water, small water refinement, and comprehensive breeding dominance"; the spatial structure experienced a transition of "large water climbing, small water towards the river". 2) Market-induced type substitution mechanism, that is, the bottom-up market-induced substitution of aquacultural water surface types driven by the pursuit of labor productivity maximization, combined with the policy compulsory structural adjustment mechanism, that is, the top-down water control policy implementation such as the lake chief system, has driven the structural transition of aquacultural water surfaces on the Jianghan Plain. In addition, this article proposed policy recommendations to strengthen the regulation of structural transition of aquacultural water surfaces. This study is important for promoting the expansion of land use transition research to aquacultural water surfaces and deepen the analysis of structural evolution.

    • Articles
      LI Xiaoyue, YU Bin, WANG Binyan
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      Urban-rural economic circulation is an important part of the macro economic circulation in China. Optimizing urban-rural economic circulation is a fundamental project for building a new development pattern. This study analyzed the connotation of urban-rural economic circulation from four dimensions: supply and demand relationship, industrial linkage, factor flow, and circulation carrier, and constructed an evaluation index system, taking 2010-2020 as the study period and the Jianghan Plain as the case study area. It comprehensively applied the entropy weighting method and the obstacle degree model to reveal the characteristics of change of the spatiotemporal pattern of urban-rural economic circulation in the study area, and explored the path of its optimization. The results show that: 1) During the study period, the level of urban-rural economic circulation in the Jianghan Plain region was low but continued to grow unevenly. The composite and sub-dimensional indices (supply and demand relationship, industrial linkage, factor flow, and circulation carrier) of urban-rural economic circulation grew from 0.2164, 0.0616, 0.0534, 0.0641, and 0.0373 to 0.4095, 0.1308, 0.0850, 0.0990, and 0.0947, with an average annual growth rate of 8.92%, 11.24%, 5.93%, 5.45%, and 15.35%, respectively. 2) During the same period, the urban-rural economic circulation in the study area generally showed a low level of aggregation, regional differences increased slightly, and the spatial coefficient of variation increased from 0.2055 to 0.2126. The high-value areas of supply and demand relationship and circulation carrier index of the urban-rural economic circulation gradually aggregated to the main transportation arteries and the urban areas along the routes, and the spatial coefficient of variation decreased from 0.3166 and 0.5665 to 0.2636 and 0.4705, but the industrial linkage and factor flow spatial distribution characteristics were not as distinct. 3) The obstacle degree of urban-rural economic circulation in the study area showed a decreasing trend year by year, and the sub-dimension obstacle degree ranked as industrial linkage (28.20%) > circulation carrier (27.89%) > factor flow (23.98%) > supply and demand relationship (19.93%), and the top four indicator obstacle degree ranked as night-light index (11.23%) > proportion of built-up area (10.79%) > output value of agricultural services (10.65%) > loan balance of financial institutions per unit of GDP (9.82%). 4) The optimization of the urban-rural economic circulation in the Jianghan Plain region can be divided into three types and six sub-districts, including single obstacle type, double obstacle type, and triple obstacle type, and according to the different types of obstacles in each district, the appropriate development strategies for the optimization of the urban-rural economic circulation were proposed respectively. The results of this study can provide some theoretical guidance and practical inspiration for the development of urban-rural economic circulation in the new era.

    • Articles
      MA Mengyao, TANG Jianxiong
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      Tourism urbanization is a new paradigm and type of development in the new urbanization process, which is of great significance for addressing the imbalance between urban and rural development and comprehensively promote rural revitalization. Taking 71 counties (cities and districts) in the Wuling Mountain area as an example, this study constructed a panel smooth transition model (PSTR) to explore the nonlinear effects of tourism urbanization on rural revitalization in mountainous areas and spatial heterogeneity from 2015 to 2020. The results show that: 1) The development level of tourism urbanization in mountainous areas is ahead of rural revitalization. Mountain cities with high-level development of tourism urbanization have the greatest radiation driving effect on the surrounding areas and the strongest resistance to external environmental impact. However, the pace of rural revitalization and development in mountainous areas is slow and the task is still challenging. 2) The spatial polarization of tourism urbanization in mountainous areas is serious, and there is a locking effect of high-value mountain cities. The spatial agglomeration effect of rural revitalization is significant, and the development difference between regions is small. The focus of tourism urbanization and rural revitalization is gradually shifting to mountain cities with rich tourism resources and strong economic and transportation complementarity. 3) Tourism urbanization is an effective way to promote rural revitalization in mountainous areas, and there is a significant nonlinear relationship between the two. The threshold value of tourism urbanization of 2.490 is an important turning point for tourism urbanization to drive rural revitalization and development in mountainous areas. When the threshold is completely crossed, the nonlinear driving effect of tourism urbanization continues to strengthen. 4) There is a regional heterogeneity in the nonlinear effects of tourism urbanization on rural revitalization in mountainous areas, and the threshold effect of tourism urbanization is the main reason for the regional differences in the nonlinear effects. In the future, mountainous areas should promote the development of tourism urbanization in stages, with spatial differentiation and high quality, and take the route of rural revitalization led by the government, driven by cultural and tourism resources, and involving rural residents, tourists, and tourism enterprises.

    • Articles
      GUO Siqi, SHI Chunyun, QIAN Yuexiang, LI Fan
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      Understanding the degree of rural tourism gentrification, balancing the relationship between stakeholders such as native rural residents, new rural residents, and returned rural residents, and truly realizing the sharing of development dividends are the key to achieving the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural tourism sustainable development. As one of the important representations of rural space value reshaping, tourism-driven rural gentrification has attracted great attention in the context of rural revitalization. From the perspective of the influencing effect of rural tourism gentrification, this study analyzed the spatial restructuring characteristics of Hanwang Village in different periods of tourism gentrification development based on field research data and spatial interpretation results. Combined with the semi-structured interview data, this study also analyzed the mechanism of spatial restructuring by using the actor-network theory. The results show that: 1) According to the tourism construction and development process, the tourism gentrification process in Hanwang Village can be divided into four stages, including traditional agriculture transformation, sightseeing agriculture exploitation, rural tourism development, and cultural and tourism integration transition. Different stages of spatial restructuring present different characteristics. 2) The process of tourism-driven rural gentrification has successively changed the land use distribution, industrial structure, population composition, and cultural atmosphere of Hanwang Village, and alleviated some of the problems of rural hollowing, which had a profound impact on the village space. 3) The transformation of the interests and goals of heterogeneous actors, such as governments at all levels, village residents, tourists, investors, art practitioners, and tourism resources, as well as the connection and cooperation between them, have an effect on the spatial restructuring of Hanwang Village. This study took Hanwang Village in Xuzhou City as a case study, and mainly focused on the impact of tourism-driven rural gentrification development on rural spatial restructuring, the behavioral logic of various stakeholders in the process of spatial restructuring, and the relationship with rural hollowing, so as to provide theoretical and empirical references for the study of tourism-driven rural revitalization development and rural gentrification effect, and solving the problems of hollow villages.

    • Articles
      ZOU Xiaodan, CAI Xiaomei
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      In recent years, the cultural economy has become an important means of urban reengineering, reshaping the post-industrial path of urban transformation and development. Taking Dongguan Tea Warehouse as the research object, this study interpreted the process and mechanism of urban place making from the perspective of cultural, economic, and geographical factors. The research found that: 1) Dongguan Tea Warehouse place making has gone through four stages of development: The popular tea drinking culture, the chaotic tea culture in the absence of government intervention, the economic value of tea given by capital, and the economic attributes of tea culture constructed by multiple subjects. In this process, Dongguan Tea Warehouse's material environment, functional activities, and symbolic significance have changed accordingly. 2) Territory in the spatial dimension, value in the temporal dimension, and meaning in the subject dimension of the Dongguan Tea Warehouse jointly constructed the mechanism of place making. The three dimensions are intertwined with each other and influence each other, and the cultural and economic attributes of the tea warehouses are more prominent when based on these three dimensions. 3) Dongguan Tea Warehouse place making is essentially a process of moving from culture to culture and economy, the cultural and economic attributes of tea and the significance and value of place making are mutually constructed, and the process of developing culture and economy is the process of place making in the city. Overall, this study focused on specific cases in a more macro political, economic, and cultural context, using a micro perspective to examine the transformation and development of cities through an organic combination of macro and micro perspectives. In theory, it innovatively analyzed the explanatory power of cultural and economic geography in urban place making, and in practice, it provided a practical reference path for the place making of other industrial and resource-based cities during the transformation period.

    • Articles
      TANG Shuangshuang, ZHOU Jing, XU Qiqi, LIN Liyue, DENG Yinghui
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      In recent years, under the background of a series of national development strategies and the transformation of economic geography patterns, the connections between cities, towns, and rural areas in China have become increasingly close, bringing about a more diversified population distribution than before. However, there are still few studies that simultaneously involve the spatial analysis of cities, towns, and rural areas, as well as the evolution patterns and underlying mechanism of population distribution in regions with different levels of development. Based on the data of the sixth and seventh national censuses (provincial data of Jiangsu Province), this study explored the spatiotemporal evolution of city, town, and rural population distribution and revealed the influencing factors of the comprehensive attraction of city-town-rural areas to the floating population in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2020. The results show that: 1) In the past 10 years, Jiangsu Province maintained a population spatial distribution pattern of dense in the south and sparse in the north, but the changes in the size of the resident population and floating population have shown noticeable geographical differences, which is manifested in the continued high growth rate of resident population in south Jiangsu, but the high growth rate of floating population is concentrated in central and north Jiangsu. 2) In the past 10 years, the high-value area of the ratio of floating population to resident population was still concentrated in south Jiangsu. The proportion increased in all cities and some towns in central and north Jiangsu, as well as slightly in some rural areas in south Jiangsu. 3) Comprehensive exploration of changes in the population distribution of the city-town-rural areas has found that although the trend of common growth of resident population in the three types of space was not obvious, the ratio of floating population to resident population in more than half of counties and cities showed the characteristics of city-town-rural area common growth. The increase in the comprehensive index of city-town-rural area attraction to floating population in central and north Jiangsu exceeded that of south Jiangsu. 4) Public affair investment of the government and regional industrial development had a significant positive impact on the comprehensive attraction of city-town-rural areas to floating population, which had a stronger effect in economically developed areas and areas with stronger industrial base. In contrast, advanced industrial structure only had a positive effect in south Jiangsu. Based on the correlation between the change in population distribution and the level of regional urbanization, as well as the analysis of its spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors in city-town-rural areas, this study put forward specific suggestions for the urban-rural integrated development of the population in different counties and cities.

    • Reviews
    • Reviews
      NIU Yue, ZHEN Feng, XI Guangliang, CHANG Enyu, XU Jingtian
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      In the context of a new technological revolution and the rise of public health awareness, wearable technology has experienced rapid development and widespread adoption, deeply integrating into the practice of urban resident leisure-time physical activities. However, the current theoretical exploration on the spatiotemporal effects and mechanism of residents' activities lags far behind the actual development needs. From an interdisciplinary perspective, this study focused on the comprehensive and systematic theoretical research of geography. The initial step of this study involved a quantitative analysis of the literature using the CiteSpace 5.7 software, providing insights into the general research trend and direction in the field. Then, the study summarized the changes in urban resident leisure-time physical activities under the influence of wearable technology from three perspectives: digital decision making, new spatiotemporal characteristics, and diversified experiences. The research implications underscore the need to deepen the understanding of the decision-making mechanism of resident leisure-time physical activity, strengthen the analysis of complex spatiotemporal rules of leisure-time physical activity, and emphasize research on satisfaction with leisure-time physical activity experiences in multiple situations. Furthermore, the article proposed a research framework for urban resident leisure-time physical activity under the influence of wearable technology. It stressed the importance of the crossover and integration of multidisciplinary theories, with a call to enrich analyses across five dimensions: research subject, technology, activity, space, and time. Additionally, the article argued for innovating research methods, expanding research content, and strengthening the application of health-oriented spatial planning practices. This comprehensive approach may enhance the understanding of the dynamic relationship between wearable technology, urban spaces, and resident leisure-time physical activities, and provide valuable references for urban spatial planning practices guided by residents' activity needs in the digital health era.

    • Reviews
      HE Jinliao, CHEN Yifei, LI Wei
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      Music geography is an interdisciplinary subject between geography, musicology, culture studies, and other disciplines. Compared with the well-established music geography in Western countries, music geography in China is still in the embryonic phase. This study attempted to provide a literature review for the progress of music geography research outside China by having a close look at its origin, development paths, essential debates, frameworks, and approaches, based on an in-depth bibliometric analysis. First, this study found that international research on music geography has extended its scope from the perspective of cultural geography to an interdisciplinary discourse and received great attention from economic geography, political geography, and urban geography. Second, the core themes of international music geography research can be generally classified into five branches: music regions and cultural diffusion, industrial clusters and networks, temporal-spatial phenomena and influences of music performance, music-based identity and cultural politics, and music geography as a special urban soundscape. In terms of theories and approaches, international music geography research can be divided into four main branches: cultural geography, geopolitics, economic geography, and urban geography, which are respectively influenced by the non-representational theory of new cultural geography, popular geopolitics and the relational turn of economic geography, and other important trends. Lastly, this article proposed that there is a great necessity to pay more attention to music research by Chinese geographers as it serves as an ideal case and instrument to inquire into geographical issues such as local identity, authenticity, and sense of place, local-global connections, creative production networks, temporary projects, urban planning, and social well-being.

    • Geographer
    • Geographer
      ZHANG Ruihua, FENG Jian
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      The development of information and communication technology and the penetration of mobile smart devices enable information dissemination and social interaction to overcome the barriers of geographical distance, greatly expanding the scope and depth of interaction between individuals and space. The fusion of real and virtual spaces has led to a new paradigm of individual behavior patterns and research on cyber-mobility. The study of personal mobilities in both physical and virtual spaces has received growing attention by contemporary scholars in geography, sociology, and economics. This article reviewed the geographical research on cyber-mobility from the geographical societal perspectives by Aharon Kellerman, a professor of human geography at the University of Haifa. Based on advanced research and understanding of the time-space framework of personal mobility and geographical interpretations of cyberspace, Kellerman delved into exploring the ways of personal mobilities and spatiotemporal behavior patterns of individuals in the process of using the internet from the dual perspectives of individual "social people" and "incarnations", and further participated in the research in the fields of human behavior patterns, virtual community, virtual activity space, and so on. His theory and empirical research help Chinese scholars to deepen their understanding of the role of virtual space and network technology from both micro and macro perspectives, and the relationship between real and virtual spaces, and to further explore the interactions between individuals and real space and cyberspace and urban space reconstruction.