地理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 245-256.doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2021.02.006

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土丘陵沟壑区乡村社区恢复力时空演变及影响因素研究——以陕西省米脂县高渠乡为例

杨涛1, 陈海1,*(), 刘迪1, 张行2, 史琴琴1   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院/陕西省地表系统与环境承载力重点实验室,西安 710127
    2. 浙江财经大学土地与城乡发展研究院,杭州310018
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-25 修回日期:2020-06-11 出版日期:2021-02-28 发布日期:2021-04-28
  • 作者简介:杨涛(1995— ),女,山西吕梁人,硕士生,主要从事乡村社区恢复力研究。E-mail: yangxx0119@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971271);国家自然科学基金项目(41871185)

Spatiotemporal change of rural community resilience in loess hilly-gully region and influencing factors: A case study of Gaoqu Township in Mizhi County, Shannxi Province

YANG Tao1, CHEN Hai1,*(), LIU Di1, ZHANG Hang2, SHI Qinqin1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences / Shannxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. College of Land and Urban-rural Development, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
  • Received:2020-03-25 Revised:2020-06-11 Online:2021-02-28 Published:2021-04-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41971271);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41871185)

摘要:

乡村人口与土地利用方式变革压力下,构建恢复力已成为保障区域社会—生态系统可持续发展的有效举措。以陕西省米脂县高渠乡为研究区,从社会、经济、制度、生态4个维度,运用熵权TOPSIS法对黄土丘陵沟壑区20个乡村的社区恢复力进行测度,探讨了2015—2019年社区恢复力的时空演变;利用障碍度模型分析了社区恢复力关键影响因子作用机制,并通过比较当前关键影响因子所处维度,将社区划分为不同类型,实现社区的分类治理。结果表明:①(① “四会”指村民议事会、红白理事会、道德评议会、禁毒禁赌会。) 研究期间社区恢复力由0.171提升到0.318,其中经济恢复力上升较为明显,制度、生态恢复力呈小幅提高,而社会恢复力则表现为下降;社区恢复力空间分异更加显著,呈现为“中部高、边缘低”的分布格局。② 研究期末社区恢复力关键影响因素中,经济维度有养殖业发展水平、种植业发展水平、农业产业化带动农户数、农民人均收入;制度维度为基层领导平均受教育年限、公平性管制、村民参与决策机会;社会维度为乡村公共空间比例、流动人口比例;生态维度为“三田”面积占比。③ 通过当前社区恢复力关键影响因子各维度障碍度大小排序,依次识别经济、制度、社会、生态恢复力低值区,最终将高渠乡20个乡村社区划分为3类,结合不同类型乡村社区的特点提出相应对策建议,以期为精准化、差异化管理提供决策参考。

关键词: 社区恢复力, 乡村社区, 时空演变, 障碍度, 黄土丘陵沟壑区

Abstract:

Under the pressure of rural population and land-use change, the building of resilience has become an effective measure to ensure the sustainable development of regional social-ecological systems. Taking Gaoqu Township in Mizhi County of Shaanxi Province as the research area and using entropy weight TOPSIS method, this research measured the community resilience of 20 villages in the loess hilly-gully region from four dimensions of society, economy, institution, and ecology. The spatiotemporal change of community resilience from 2015 to 2019 was discussed; the impact mechanism of key influencing factors of community resilience was analyzed by using the obstacle degree model, and the dimensions of the current key factors were compared to divide the case study communities into different types for differentiated governance. The results show that: First, community resilience increased from 0.171 to 0.318 during the research period. Economic resilience increased significantly, institutional and ecological resilience increased only slightly, while social resilience decreased. The spatial variation of community resilience became more significant and shows a distribution pattern of "high in the middle and low in the peripheries". Second, the key influencing factors of community resilience at the end of the research period include the development level of animal husbandry and cropping, the number of farming households participated in agricultural industrialization, and per capita income of farmers in the economic dimension; the average years of education of local leaders, fairness in governance, and farmers' opportunity of participating in decision making in the institutional dimension; the proportion of rural public space and the proportion of migrant population in the social dimension; and the proportion of the area of irrigated land, terrace, and dammed land in the ecological dimension. Third, according to the obstacle degree ranking of the dimensions of the key influencing factors, the low-value communities of economic, institutional, social, and ecological resilience are identified successively. Finally, the 20 rural communities in Gaoqu were divided into three types, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were put forward according to the characteristics of the different types of rural communities, aiming to provide a reference for the decision making of precision and differentiated management.

Key words: community resilience, rural community, spatiotemporal change, obstacles, loess hilly-gully region