Table of Content

    28 May 2022, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China’s automobile production network from the perspective of “global-local”: A case study of FAW-Volkswagen
    ZHAO Ziyu, WANG Shijun, CHEN Xiaofei, HAN Zhonghui
    2022, 41 (5):  741-754.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.001
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    Under the background of global production network development, the research on "global-local" cross-regional relatedness of production organizations has important theoretical significance. The cross-regional network characteristics and geospatial representations of China's joint venture automobile production network have been explored in the global-local interactive situation. Based on the perspective of global-local production relatedness and multi-scale integration and using primary supply data of automobile manufacturing, this study analyzed the cross-regional relatedness and influencing factors of China's joint venture automobile production network represented by FAW-Volkswagen. The results show that: 1) The global-local multi-scale integration provides a good perspective for understanding the industrial transfer footprint of multinational corporations in building global production networks. The German company Volkswagen is embedded into China's automobile manufacturing system by building global production network, and the structure of the production network shows a typical characteristic of global-local relatedness. 2) The spatial distribution of local primary suppliers in the FAW-Volkswagen automobile production network is highly consistent with the "T"-shaped pattern of China's territorial development strategy. Investment type / technology control of automobile suppliers presents a regional organization model of the same type of spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration degree presents the characteristic of sole proprietorship ≈ joint venture > local investment business. 3) Through the production transfer of automobile assembly plants and the procurement by cross-regional supply chains, the production organization of FAW-Volkswagen has formed a cross-regional cluster network structure with the core of cities where the automobile assembly plants are located and are restricted by geographical boundaries. 4) Spatial and temporal constraints, location advantages and agglomeration effects, technological innovation represented by modular production, venture strategies of multinational groups, and foreign investement club strategies jointly influence the spatial organization structure of the FAW-Volkswagen production network. Through a typical case study, this study provides theoretical and practical bases for understanding the organizational structure of China's key industrial production networks under the global-local multi-scale.

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    Change of the global grain trade network and its driving factors
    GUAN Jing, SONG Zhouying, LIU Weidong
    2022, 41 (5):  755-769.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.002
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    Based on the panel data of 238 countries and regions, this study examined the change of the spatial pattern of the global grain trade network at different scales from 1988 to 2018. The zero-inflated negative binomial was introduced to construct the gravity model for analyzing the driving factors of the global grain trade network. The results show that: 1) The scale of the global grain trade showed a rapid fluctuating rising trend, while the growth rate of trade fluctuated greatly between years. The structure of trade commodities was constantly diversified but is still dominated by wheat, corn, and barley. 2) The density of the global grain trade network is increasing, with polarization of some core nodes and increasing diversification of the overall trade network. For example, the position of North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and so on, in the grain trade network is relatively declining, while the position of Eastern Europe, South America, and so on, has increased. On the national scale, the interaction of grain trade among countries and regions has enhanced, as the structure of the grain trade network has changed from an "east-west axis" to "multi-point radiation" with a gradual shift from polarization to pluralism. Although the number of core nodes in the grain export network is increasing, regional grain export networks are still dominated by only several key countries and show a strong local polarization phenomenon, while the centralized characteristics of import networks are gradually weakened and more balanced. 3) Natural endowment of land resources, the structure of agriculture, and the degree of opening up to the outside world are the core driving factors for countries and regions to participate in the global grain trade network. The levels of price differences, language proximity, spatial distance, and societal governance also have a certain impact on the participation of countries and regions in the global grain trade network. The influence of other factors is relatively small.

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    Effects of related variety and unrelated variety on China’s export market diversification
    JIANG Sheng, HE Canfei
    2022, 41 (5):  770-784.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.003
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    Under the background of export depression, export market diversification is not only a useful strategy to resist external shocks, but also an important policy agenda. Recently, effects of industrial diversification on export extension have received plenty of attention from academic researchers. This study examined the effects of related and unrelated variety on regional export market diversification at HS 4-digit industry level based on China Customs data during 2002-2016 and explored the mechanisms of industrial diversification. In addition, heterogeneous effects of related and unrelated variety across different industries were empirically examined. Based on entropy proxy, this study constructed the proxies of export market diversification, related variety, and unrelated variety and found that both related and unrelated variety can enhance export market diversification. This study also constructed three mediating variables to capture the mechanisms of industry diversification and found that both related and unrelated variety can promote export market expansion by reducing firms' export sunk costs, but impede export market expansion by damaging firms' productivities and innovation capabilities. This study classified all the 4-digit industries into three types, including labor intensive industries, capital intensive industries, and knowledge intensive industries and found that labor intensive industries benefit from both related and unrelated variety; capital intensive industries benefit from related variety, but are negatively affected by unrelated variety; and knowledge intensive industries benefit from related variety, but not affected by unrelated variety. The results of this study not only afford a new perspective for trade policy making, but also provide new evidence and analysis for the research of industry diversification and export market diversification.

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    Spatial effect and driving mechanism of the integrated development of culture-tourism industries in the middle Yangtze River Basin urban agglomeration
    ZHU Yuanyuan, ZHOU Xiaoqi, GU Jiang, CHEN Jing
    2022, 41 (5):  785-796.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.004
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    The integrated development of culture-tourism industries enables the high-quality transformation of regional industrial structure, overall spatial optimization, and improvement of regional economic resilience. Based on the theory of integrated development of culture-tourism industries in urban agglomerations incorporating the macro, meso, and micro scales, this study constructed the evaluation indicator system of integrated development of culture-tourism industries of urban agglomerations, and the middle Yangtze River Basin urban agglomeration was taken as the research object. The coupling coordination model and polarization index model were used to calculate the integrated development level of culture-tourism industries in the urban agglomeration from 2010 to 2019, and the spatial effect was analyzed. The driving mechanism of integrated development of culture-tourism industries was also explored. Four highlighted results are unveiled: 1) There is a strong interactive relationship between the subsystems of the integrated development of culture-tourism industries in the urban agglomeration. Most cities have not reached a benign development state. 2) During the study period, the spatial effect of the integrated development of culture-tourism industries in the region was characterized by polarization, while the "return effect" and "diffusion effect" were weak. 3) A core-periphery structure with Wuhan-Changsha-Nanchang as the cores was present. 4) The integrated development of culture-tourism industries in the region was jointly driven by six factors: Resource endowment, consumption demand, infrastructure support, scale efficiency, economic development, and human resource potential. According to the status of the integrated development of culture-tourism industries in the urban agglomeration, this article put forward specific recommendations of strengthening regional linkage and targeting the core driving factors to promote the regional integration construction and high-quality development of local economy in the middle Yangtze River Basin urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial structure and accessibility mode of entertainment industries in Xi’an City
    LI Yuxin, XUE Dongqian, ZHANG Pingyu, SONG Yongyong
    2022, 41 (5):  797-811.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.005
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    Entertainment industry is increasingly becoming the spatial carrier of residents' modern lifestyle and important symbol of societal transformation. Taking 63 subdistricts in seven districts of Xi'an City as research units, the morphological characteristics, agglomeration level, and hierarchical structure of entertainment space in the city were explored by using kernel density estimation and Ripley's L(d) function. By using the path planning function of the Gaode Map API, the "time-space circle" of different levels of entertainment industry core areas was constructed based on three modes of travel—walking, cars, and public transportation, thus revealing the spatial pattern of entertainment industries in Xi'an based on accessibility. The results show that: 1) On the whole, the entertainment industries in Xi'an showed a spatial distribution pattern of "block agglomeration-axial extension-circular hierarchy". The density hotspots of entertainment space in the main urban area are mainly located in the central area of Zhonglou and Qujiang-Xiaozhai Districts. Cafe and teabar, cinema and theater, and dance hall and bar have significant spatial centrality, and the core area is located in the traditional business district of the central city; Internet cafe, park and amusement park, and fitness center are inlaid by leaps and bounds between the second and third ring roads of the city. 2) The hierarchical structure of entertainment industry center system in Xi'an forms a multi-core development structure with the first-level cores as the main areas, and the core areas of different levels are adjacent to transportation networks. 3) The traffic accessibility circle of entertainment industry core areas extends outward along the traffic corridor, showing a "hub-spoke" expansion trend in different directions, resulting in different levels of scale effect and circular structure. 4) The spatial accessibility modes of various entertainment industries in Xi'an are characterized by "axial symmetry", "hub symmetry", and "overlap-attachment". The development of entertainment industries in the northeast and southwest of the city has lagged behind the process of urban space expansion and population suburbanization.

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    Spatial differentiation of housing prices and mechanism of influence in a shrinking city: A case study of Hegang
    HAO Jingyan, LIU Yanjun
    2022, 41 (5):  812-824.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.006
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    Social and economic problems of shrinking cities are becoming increasingly serious. The development of housing market presents a negative trend, and the change of housing prices has become the focus of public attention. Taking Hegang, a typical shrinking city in Northeast China, as a case and based on the data of residential quarters, nighttime light, and points of interest (POI), this study used Kriging interpolation, bivariate local Moran's I, and multiscale geographically weighted regression model to analyze the spatial differentiation characteristics and mechanism of influence of housing prices in combination with the spatial growth and shrinkage of the city in 2019. The results show that: 1) The housing prices of Hegang present a concentric zonal structure. There are great differences in housing prices between the core and the peripheral areas. High housing prices are concentrated in the core area and the scale of distribution is small. The diffusion trend of medium and high value zones is weak. The shrinkage of mining and industry-based areas is relatively serious and the housing prices in these areas are low and fluctuate less. 2) There is a spatial correlation between city development state and the level of housing prices. The differences of macro factors such as economic development situation, income level of residents, population change, population structure, and welfare-oriented housing construction in areas with different shrinkage conditions affect the overall differentiation of housing prices. 3) The growth or shrinkage of urban inner space affects the effects of micro factors. Location advantages of the development center have a stronger positive effect on the housing prices in the growing areas. High-level public services have obvious positive effects on the growth of housing prices in the core and northern shrinking areas of the city. The concentration of enterprises and factories has a stronger negative effect on housing prices in the growing areas. Various factors are interrelated and interact to jointly promote the spatial differentiation of housing prices.

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    Spatial restructuring of rural residential land in characteristic protection villages
    FENG Dedong, FENG Yingbin, ZHAO Linglong, LONG Hualou, XU Yuli
    2022, 41 (5):  825-837.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.007
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    In the process of rapid urbanization, rural settlement space in China is undergoing drastic differentiation and reorganization, and the spatial optimizing and restructuring of rural residential land is conducive to rural transition and development. Based on the theory of system science, this study analyzed the spatial system formation mechanism of rural settlements in characteristic villages, put forward the restructuring framework of "orderly development, focusing on cultural heritage, and based on material conditions". Taking Bamei Village of Jiangkou County, Guizhou Province as an example and using the methods of scale index, gene analysis, and spatial analysis, the internal and external characteristics of the rural settlement system at the village level was identified, and the restructuring modes were proposed. The study found that: 1) The agents of action, cultural genes, and residential buildings constitute the internal system of rural settlements in Bamei Village, and show the characteristics of "multiple agents of action-induced spatial changes, rich cultural genes but poor continuity, and diversified land use structure and function". 2) The external characteristics of the rural settlement system in Bamei Village are reflected in the constraining and guiding role of the external environment to settlement development, which is manifested as distance-attenuation from point or linear infrastructure sites and rivers—the shorter distance to these spatial features, the larger the number and scale of settlements in the village. 3) Based on the feature cognition and restructuring framework and the partition-classification method, this study divided the village into four zones of management including the core zone, the key zone, the promotion zone, and the conservation zone, as well as four residential upgrading types of intact, damaged, missing, and distorted, and proposed the spatial restructuring strategy of rural settlements under two organizational modes.

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    Spatial pattern and change of e-commerce specialized villages and influence factors based on the data of Taobao villages in China from 2015 to 2020
    WANG Mingjie, YAN Zihan, YU Bin, ZHUO Rongrong, GUO Xinwei
    2022, 41 (5):  838-853.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.008
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    E-commerce specialized village is a new mode of transformation and upgrading of rural industry in the era of digital economy. Based on the spatial data of Taobao villages in China from 2015 to 2020, the spatial pattern and change of e-commerce specialized villages were explored by using GIS spatial analysis and geographical detector methods, and the mechanism of impact of different influencing factors was revealed. The results show that: 1) The overall spatial distribution pattern of Taobao villages was highly consistent with the basic geographic pattern of China, and the spatial and temporal change of Taobao villages was characterized by gradual spreading from the center to the periphery. 2) Taobao villages presented significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, with the intensity of spatial agglomeration increasing and range of high-intensity agglomeration expanding year by year. High-intensity Taobao village agglomeration areas appear in the traditional agricultural areas of the North China Plain. 3) The spatial clustering distribution of Taobao villages was relatively stable, and the high-high clusters were concentrated in southern Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province, Quanzhou and Putian in Fujian Province, and the Yangtz River Delta urban agglomerations. 4) Various influencing factors on the Taobao village spatial pattern change has different explanatory power—industrial foundation and geographic conditions were high impact factors, the influence of government behavior was steadily rising, social and economic influences showed an U-shaped trend of change, and the impact of the added value of the primary industry and the influence degree of the rural residential population in the third level factors were on the decline. The research results have important theoretical significance and practical value for deepening the theory of rural development, promoting the development of e-commerce specialized villages, and facilitating rural revitalization.

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    Influencing factors of educational tourist satisfaction in traditional ancient villages:The case of Xidi and Hongcun, China
    ZHOU Bin, CHEN Yuanyuan, YU Hu, LIU Siyi, XIONG Qihao, WANG Lilong
    2022, 41 (5):  854-866.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.009
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    Educational tourism is one of the new tourism models in China. For traditional ancient villages, the development of educational tourism is of great significance to innovate and enrich the tourism model, promote the transformation and upgrading of tourism products, and build a people-oriented educational tourism supply system. Taking Xidi and Hongcun—typical ancient villages in southern Anhui Province and World Heritage Sites and national 5A scenic spots—as the study sites and educational tourism tourists (mainly primary and middle school students) as respondents, and based on 547 samples of questionnaire data, this study constructed a structural equation model of the influencing factors of educational tourism tourist satisfaction from the perspective of tourist experience, and conducted a cross-sample stability test of the model. The results show that: 1) The factors that influence the tourist satisfaction on study travel to traditional ancient villages include cultural cognition, emotional experience, aesthetic experience, and learning cognition. Among these factors, tourists have the deepest perception of learning cognition (4.026), followed by aesthetic experience (4.033), cultural cognition (3.884), and emotional experience (3.801). 2) The results of the structural equation model show that cultural cognition, emotional experience, aesthetic experience, and learning cognition of educational tourism tourists in Xidi and Hongcun all have a significant positive impact on the satisfaction of these tourists. In terms of the magnitude of path coefficient, cultural cognition is the primary factor affecting the satisfaction of educational tourism tourists, with a path coefficient of 0.510; emotional experience is the second most influential factor, with a path coefficient of 0.340; aesthetic experience and learning cognition rank third and fourth, with path coefficients of 0.224 and 0.212 respectively. 3) The model has good cross-sample stability. Three nested models were obtained by gradually adding parameter constraints to the benchmark model, and the results show that the chi-square increment and fitting index are generally good, which further supports the research hypothesis. The research results can provide decision-making reference for the scientific development of educational tourism products in Xidi and Hongcun and the high-quality development of educational tourism industry in traditional ancient villages.

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    Intergenerational power and territorial structure in tourism commercialization home space: A case study of Daizuyuan Garden, Xishuangbanna
    HUANG Feng, BAO Jigang
    2022, 41 (5):  867-879.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.010
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    From the perspective of human geography, home space may be viewed as containers, where individuals' lives and their family relations are constructed. Based on semistructured interviews and secondary data collected from Daizuyuan Garden, Xishuangbanna, this study explored the micropolitics of territory in tourism commercialization home space from the perspective of power-space interaction, with a particular focus at the intergeneration relationships. The study unpacked that tourism commercialization home spaces might be significant in terms of reinforcing and negotiating family relationships, which, in a way, are organized around distributing and using resources. 1) The first generation of these small tourism businesses is responsible for establishing the family business. Therefore, they have collectively gained more economic and social resources. Compared to their successors, they have more power in decision making and division of labor in domestic arena. Their roles in the family are embodied by the "territorialization" of home spaces. That is, they have more power in making decisions about the setup of physical space, the spatial exclusion of social space, as well as the domestic labor divisions of economic space. 2) The younger generation or the successors have opportunities to seek education and career outside the village. They work hard to accumulate human resources, which are beneficial to their family businesses. Their family power of independence was mirrored in the practices of "de-territorialization" and "re-territorialization" of home spaces. Specifically, they pursue the separation of living spaces, the independence of private lives, and the self-determination on family business arrangements, to negotiate their role as the operator of family business and the independent individual of family life. This study outlined an analytical framework of family relation from the perspective of power-space relation. It contributes to the existing literature of territorialization theory by focusing on various forms of territorial strategies practiced by different subjects in moderate tourism commercialization home spaces, and its positive effects in maintaining intergenerational solidarity. In addition, it provides practical implications for the sustainable development of small tourism businesses in rural areas.

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    Logic of production of space of the Hainan Free Trade Port
    ZHANG Hui, GUO Qingbin
    2022, 41 (5):  880-895.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.011
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    Developing free trade ports with Chinese characteristics is a strategy of the Communist Party of China Central Committee to deepen reform and expand opening up in the new era. The Hainan Free Trade Port is the product of promoting the spatial production of the new pattern of comprehensive opening up. Based on Lefebvre's spatial trivariate dialectics, this study analyzed the logic of spatial production of the Hainan Free Trade Port. Lefebvre's framework can be visualized as the three-dimensional logic of "capital-power-strategy". From the perspective of the logic of capital, the Hainan Free Trade Port has the characteristics of spatialization of capital and capitalization of space. Under the influence of the space of flow, its three-level capital circulation process is conducive to promoting the Hainan Free Trade Port to build a new highland of open economy and an international tourism and consumption center. From the perspective of the logic of power, the Hainan Free Trade Port can regulate the government power by means of constructing institutional space, and promote Hainan to build a pilot zone for deepening reform and opening up, and a pilot zone for national ecological civilization. From the perspective of the logic of strategy, the Hainan Free Trade Port is a form of "new national space", representing the strategic significance of the national major strategic service support base, the South China Sea maritime community with a shared future, and the global governance plan of China. From the theoretical point of view, using the framework of space production to analyze the geographical logic of free trade ports with Chinese characteristics can enhance people's understanding of China's reform and opening-up practice, and has reference value for further deepening the reform and opening up.

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    Progress of research on the transformation and restructuring of rural development in China
    ZHANG Jing, YU Haozhe, QIAO Wei, XU Zengrang, CHENG Shengkui
    2022, 41 (5):  896-904.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.012
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    Transformation and restructuring of rural development is an important starting point to solve the problem of rural decline, and rural revitalization is an important strategic deployment for China to address the "sannong issues" in the new era. This article summarized the progress of research on the transformation and restructuring of rural development from four aspects: research paradigm, evolution process analysis, mechanism analysis, and path exploration. It is found that the research on the transformation and restructuring of rural development took interdisciplinary research perspectives and covered diversified and integrated research contents and used comprehensive and diverse research methods and approaches. In the future, it is necessary to pay attention to the research of local culture in rural development of different villages, strengthen the empirical research on rural development of different villages in the west, innovate the theory and research methods of transformation and restructuring of rural development, and optimize the path of rural transformation and restructuring under different development modes.

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    Revisiting the concept of border effect and its application and development in tourism research
    WANG Jie, ZHANG Qinyue
    2022, 41 (5):  905-921.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.013
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    Under the background of globalization and anti-globalization, "border" has been associated with the characteristics of demarcation and re-demarcation, and the border effect theory has attracted much attention of researchers. Tourism is a process of tourists moving across borders. Because of the mobility, tourism promotes regional development and cooperation. But in the process, cross-border tourism activities also bring about a series of problems, such as border penetration, tourism flow, spatial imbalance, and insecurity. These practical problems force the continuous development of the theory and connotation of border effect. Currently, border effect has become an important point in economics and geography to explain the impact of cross-border behavior, but there are still key questions in tourism research applications, including the barriers caused by the border to the flow; the different changes brought by the border; the impact of the border on a certain element; and the ineffectiveness of a certain factor beyond the border. Border effect in tourism is widespread and unique. Borders influence tourist flow through encouraging tourist motivation, shape the border region through transforming tourism economy and culture, and strengthen national relationships through advancing collaboration and exchanges. In tourism research, border is separation, attraction, infiltration, and transition and border effect is manifested as peripheral tourism area, tourism integration, and border tourism community. Although border effect research has achieved development in evaluation, intervention, and utilization, most of the current research on the border effect theory of tourism still focus on the relationships between borders and tourism, and have many limitations, such as vague concept, single method, and insufficient research. In the future, more attention needs to be paid to the border effects of complex national borders and how to avoid risks and make good use of the border effects of tourism.

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    A review of elderly migration research and implications
    WAN Siqi, QIN Bo
    2022, 41 (5):  922-934.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.014
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    With the acceleration of population aging in China, the scale of the elderly migration is gradually increasing. Elderly migration might exert a significant impact on personal well-being, regional age structure, and the development of the society and economy. However, academic and policy studies focusing on this phenomenon are few. This article reviewed the relevant literature from three aspects of elderly migration: spatial pattern, the decision-making mechanism, and impact. The study revealed that: 1) In terms of spatial pattern, four main types are identified—long-distance migration to small cities, long-distance migration to big cities, short-distance migration to the suburban areas, and short-distance migration to central urban districts. Different countries show different characteristics. 2) In terms of the decision-making mechanism, elderly migration is driven by the needs of economic support, health care, comfort, and sense of belonging, while personal physiological, economic, and social factors affect the ability to migrate. 3) In terms of impact, elderly migration exerts influence on individual physical and mental health, social integration, regional economic and social development. Future study needs to consolidate abundant research data and methods, construct an effective theoretical framework, thus provide a scientific basis for the implementation of population aging strategy and the construction of an age-friendly city.

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    A review of community-based social-ecological system adaptation pathways
    WANG Yijia, LIU Yanxu, SONG Shuang, YAO Ying, FU Bojie
    2022, 41 (5):  935-944.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2022.05.015
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    In the context of global change, the community, as the basic unit of a social-ecological system, is facing potential or existing shocks and trends in the structure and function of the system. Community-based adaptation (CBA) provides an effective way for communities to mitigate change and even seize the opportunity for transformation. In order to understand the mechanisms of current CBA pathways, a review of research on CBA over the past 20 years is presented. In the CBA process, funding agencies, authorities, research institutions, and implementers are the agents engaged in action. The objects to which the adaptation agents adapt have shocking first-order impacts as well as concomitant second-order impacts. The adaptation pathway has a hierarchy, which corresponds to the eight steps of clarifying adaptation objects, liquidating adaptation assets, assessing adaptation capabilities, clarifying adaptation needs, setting adaptation purposes, dividing adaptation stages, designing adaptation measures, and implementing adaptation measures. The negative effects of physical, resource, and social barriers can induce maladaptation. Thus, we propose a prospective direction for optimizing community-based adaptation, including improving monitoring and evaluation systems to build an indicator framework for long-term community adaptation, using social-ecological networks as a tool to strengthen multiple-agent decision making, and promoting nature-based solutions to enhance social-ecological system adaptation.

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