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Table of Content

    28 January 2019, Volume 38 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Specical Column: Coordinated Development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    A review and prospect of regional governance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    Dan CUI, Hao WU, Dianting WU
    2019, 38 (1):  1-14.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.001
    Abstract ( 650 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1472KB) ( 443 )   Save

    Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional governance is a series of effective measures and is associated with governments' collaborative development process that has changed from the government level control to various stakeholders coordinated governance, from top-down competition and cooperation to synergistic collaboration of all levels. After more than 30 years' efforts, the academic community and the government have obtained a rich set of research achievements in the regional governance of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. In order to improve the regional governance effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, this article compiles the relevant regional studies since 1984 and attempts to clarify the context and changes of regional governance research of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from the spatial and temporal aspects, and analyzes the governance model, coordination system, and development strategy of the current Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional governance approach. The process of coordinating the governance of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is the interaction and integration of academia and the government, and the role of the government has been dominant. Future research will deepen and refine the understanding on the governance subjects, governance mechanisms, governance effectiveness evaluation, and coordinated development of culture, health care, and pension system.

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    A comparative study on the regional governance models of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and several foreign metropolitans
    Lixin SU, Changchun FENG
    2019, 38 (1):  15-25.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.002
    Abstract ( 322 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (4350KB) ( 480 )   Save

    With regional integration continuously developing, it has become essential to establish good governance mechanism in regional development. Due to the strategic status of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, its collaborative governance has been even more important, but the region is also facing a number of challenges. In order to understand better the characteristics of regional governance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to propose some optimization approaches that can support the implement of regional planning, this study conducted a comparative analysis and built a three-dimensional research framework including participants, means of governance, and cooperation mechanisms. On the basis of this, we summed up the characteristics and pattern of change of regional governance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Berlin-Brandenburg region, the Tokyo metropolitan area, and the Paris metropolitan area, especially with regard to their differences. The three conclusions are as follows: 1) Multi-subjects participation has been the essential characteristics of regional governance, whose authority-responsibility relationships must be unambiguous. In practice, multiple players have participated in the regional governance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, but the relationships among them need to be clarified. Founding a regional institution would be a good chance to straighten these relationships. 2) Only when the administrative means, market mechanisms, and legislation are interrelated and interact positively, can regional governance be effective. However, the governance structure of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which consists of good administrative means, limited market mechanisms, and inadequate legislation, shows some limitations. To fix the problems, enhancing legislation system shall be the priority and this in turn can promote the interaction between the government and the market. 3) An efficient multilateral consultation mechanism is indispensable, which could support decision making and dispute arbitration. In this respect, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has already had a good decision-making mechanism, but there are some inadequacies in dispute arbitration and supervision. It is necessary to speed up and improve the overall coordination mechanism, which can be applied to all aspects of the governance practice.

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    Optimal allocation of land use types in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration based on ecological and economic benefits trade-offs
    Bingying MA, Jiao HUANG, Shuangcheng LI
    2019, 38 (1):  26-37.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.003
    Abstract ( 483 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (21187KB) ( 467 )   Save

    In order to achieve harmonious ecological and economic development in urban agglomerations, it is important to explore the trade-offs between environmental protection and economic development, and use this knowledge to optimize land use allocation. This study aimed to simulate land use changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration with different goals and under different scenarios in 2025 to identify the optimal land use allocation strategies based on the trade-offs between ecological and economic benefits. In order to meet the land use demands for environment-friendly development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, we developed two optimization goals—ecosystem services value maximization and economic value maximization, and four land use scenarios—environmental protection, balanced development, food security, and economic development focus. A CLUE-S model was built to simulate and predict the optimal land use allocation strategy. The results show that the optimal land use allocations with the ecosystem services maximization goal were very different comparing to that with the economic value maximization goal. The ecosystem services value is estimated to be approximately 1442.36 billion Yuan with the ecosystem services maximization goal and under the environmental protection scenarios, more than that with the economic value maximization goal and under the same scenario. Spatially, the increase of ecologically beneficial land-use types, including forest land and grassland, is more often seen in the Bashang Plateau, Yanshan Mountains, and Taihang Mountains. The increase of water areas often occurs in coastal regions in the east. There are significant trade-offs between ecosystem services value maximization and economic value maximization. The results of this trade-off analysis can provide a basis for future ecological projects in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration.

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    Monofractal, multifractals, and self-affine fractals in urban studies
    Yanguang CHEN
    2019, 38 (1):  38-49.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.004
    Abstract ( 321 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (3134KB) ( 549 )   Save

    Fractal geometry provides a powerful tool for scale-free spatial modeling and analyses in geography. However, a number of basic concepts are puzzling. The three common fractals, that is, monofractal (unifractal), multifractals, and self-affine fractal, are often misunderstood by students of geography. This article clarifies some confusing fractal concepts for urban fractal modeling and fractal dimension analysis. Using simple mathematical models based on three growing fractals that bear an analogy to urban growth, we can distinguish the three types of common fractal structure. The similarities and differences between monofractal, multifractals, and self-affine fractal are as follows: 1) A monofractal is a simple self-similar fractal that bears only one scaling factor (scaling ratio), and a multifractal object is a complex fractal system that bears at least two scaling factors for different parts. Each scaling factor dominates all different scales and is independent of directions and levels. 2) A self-affine fractal bears different scaling factors in different directions of growth or at different levels of scales. The basic feature of self-affine growing fractal is anisotropy, which differs from the isotropic self-similar growing fractals. 3) Both self-affine fractal and multifractals may possess two scaling factors, but there are essential differences between self-affine fractals and multifractals. A self-affine fractal often takes on the form of bi-fractals, which can be reflected by two scaling ranges on a log-log plot. However, there is only one scaling range for a multifractal pattern. As an example, two-scaling fractal modeling is applied to the rank-size distributions of cities to illustrate the concept of urban multifractals. By comparison with these multifractal models, we can better understand monofractals and self-affine fractals in geographical research.

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    Multifractal spectral analysis of land use structure of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban system
    Linshan HUANG, Yanguang CHEN, Shuangcheng LI
    2019, 38 (1):  50-64.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.005
    Abstract ( 343 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (10371KB) ( 476 )   Save

    Cities and urban systems both bear scale-free properties, from which no characteristic scales can be found for mathematical modeling and quantitative analysis. Therefore, fractal geometry is useful for making scaling analysis. Complex urban systems cannot be effectively described by simple fractal models, but can be characterized by multifractal theory. This paper is devoted to exploring the spatiotemporal features of urban change in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1995 to 2013. Using multifractal parameter spectrums, we can reveal the spatial dynamics of urbanization from the aspects of urban form and urban system. The main findings are as below: 1) The spectral curves of global fractal dimension are abnormal. If q>1 and q→∞, the spectral lines quickly converge to horizontal lines; when q<0 and q→-∞, the spectral lines quickly surpass the upper limit of fractal dimension, 2, which represents Euclidean dimension of embedding space. 2) The spectral curves of local fractal dimension are also not entirely normal. The peaks of the f(α) curves incline to the left, and the left ends of the curves are higher than the right ends. The problem lies in that the curves go beyond the maximum value of 2. 3) Fractal dimension growth curves can be described by the quadratic logistic function. Capacity parameters and inflection points of different fractal dimension growth curves are different. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The urban fringes are disorderly developed, while the central areas of the main cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is overfilled with construction land, leaving little buffer space. 2) The main mode of urban growth is to expand to the outside region, but there are signs of central agglomeration in the total construction land of Hebei Province. 3) Land use of the main cities is close to saturation, and the speed of land expansion has peaked for Beijing and Tianjin, but not in Hebei Province yet. In short, it is necessary to optimize the land use structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by city planning.

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    Radial dimension analysis of growth and form of cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    Feng ZHANG, Yanguang CHEN, Xiaosong LI
    2019, 38 (1):  65-76.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.006
    Abstract ( 397 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (6525KB) ( 418 )   Save

    Urban growth and form are important contents of geographic research on sizes and shapes. Fractal dimension is an effective scaling parameter to describe urban form and reflect urban growth. Based on remote sensing data of construction land in 2000, 2005 and 2010, this study analyzed the spatial pattern and change of cities and towns in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Fractal measures, including radial dimension and the corresponding concept of scaling range, were applied. The main results are as follows: 1) The first scaling area and its growth rate of Beijing are the largest in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban system, producing a shadow effect on the surrounding cities. 2) On the whole, the farther from Beijing, the smaller the scope of the first scaling range of other cities. 3) For almost all the cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the first scaling areas are overfilled by construction land. 4) Economic development level has the greatest impact on the overall urban construction land expansion in the region, but the driver of urban construction land expansion in Beijing has changed from economic factors to population factors. Based on these findings, several conclusions can be drawn: 1) Beijing has dual effects in the process of urban development in the region, including the primary city effect, and the shadow effect. While Beijing drives the development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, it also inhibits the growth of some other cities. 2) The central part of each city in the study region is too compact, but the development of the peripheries is relatively disorderly, and the main city areas and outskirts lack integration. 3) Population may become the key dynamics of the urban change in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The principal role of economic return growth may be replaced by the economies of scale based on urban population agglomeration in the future. These results and conclusions may help the research community and government authorities understand the status quo and future development trend of urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from a new perspective.

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    Bi-fractal structure and evolution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region urban land-use patterns
    Jingtian ZHAO, Yanguang CHEN, Shuangcheng LI
    2019, 38 (1):  77-87.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.007
    Abstract ( 299 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (6276KB) ( 419 )   Save

    One of the indicators of regional integration of urban and rural areas is the integration of the structure of systems of cities and towns. This process can be described and evaluated using the concept of scaling. Fractal geometry is one of the powerful tools for scaling analysis. An important parameter of geographic spatial distribution characteristics is fractal dimension. Based on data derived from remote sensing images and census data, this study carried out fractal analysis, rank-size distribution analysis, and allometric scaling analysis of cities and urban system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The aim was to explain the process of urban growth in the region from 1995 to 2013. The results show three characteristics of urban form and growth: 1) Both the spatial structure and the rank-size distribution of the cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region are of self-affine pattern, indicating bi-fractal property. 2) The relationship between urban population and urban area of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region indicates a false linear correlation. 3) With the change of the urban system, the self-affine bi-fractal structure evolved gradually into a self-similar fractal structure. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) There is a structural incongruity in the system of cities and towns in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The urban hierarchy takes on a dual structure, but the direction of urban change shows a significant trend of internal structure integration. 2) Land use in large cities is not intensive enough. The unordered expansion of urban fringe led to the waste of land resources. Planners and local governments should make use of the characteristics and trends of change of the urban system to formulate planning schemes and management measures.

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    Multi-scaling allometric analysis of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban system based on nighttime light data
    Yuqing LONG, Yanguang CHEN
    2019, 38 (1):  88-100.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.008
    Abstract ( 360 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (6642KB) ( 445 )   Save

    The spatial-temporal evolution of urban systems is a complex scale-free dynamic process, which can be described quantitatively by allometric scaling index. In this study, the multi-scaling allometric analysis method was employed to analyze the relative development characteristics and the spatial heterogeneity pattern of the main cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region based on the calibration results of the nighttime light data from 1992 to 2013. The main findings are as follows: 1) The limitations on spatial development of big cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were increasing. Although the absolute development levels of big cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan were higher than medium-sized and small cities, large cities were close to the limit of environmental carrying capacity; smaller cities such as Sanhe, Qian'an, and Langfang had grown rapidly in the 22 years. 2) Cities with relatively high growth advantage show a zonal distribution from northeast to southwest. These small cities are located in the space between the big cities. Two principal conclusions can be drawn as below: 1) The trend of urban change in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei is relatively balanced. Heterogeneity of the spatial structure has gradually weakened, and the development of the whole urban system tends to evolve into a relatively homogeneous state. 2) The key of spatial optimization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is to unify the two extremes of cites. The large cities with absolute high development levels and the small cities with relatively high growth rates should be integrated into a self-organized framework. The nighttime light data can be used to characterize the allometric scaling relations between elements of urban systems and to explain the formation mechanism of spatial heterogeneity.

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    Reviews
    Review of tourist destination research in the perspective of evolutionary economic geography
    Zhengyuan ZHAO, Zhigao LIU
    2019, 38 (1):  101-110.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.009
    Abstract ( 413 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (696KB) ( 418 )   Save

    Because of the diversity and complexity of tourist destination, its research is often cross-disciplinary, covering geography, economics, management, sociology, and so on. Tourism area life cycle, tourism industry cluster, and tourist destination management and governance have been concerned by economic geographers. Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) stresses historical processes and spatial heterogeneity and relies on three main conceptual foundations: path dependence, complexity theory, and generalized Darwinism. In recent years, tourism scholars have found EEG a useful paradigm with studies focusing on tourism area development, tourist destination management or governance, local tourism industry, and tourism stakeholders in creating new paths. These studies have shown the usefulness of a path dependence (and path creation), complexity theory, and generalized Darwinism approach in tourism research. Furthermore, several studies offer comprehensive overviews relating EEG to both cultural political economy and behavioral research approaches in tourism studies that include structural and process perspectives. China's tourist destination development and change are different from those of the West. With its socialist market economy model, public ownership co-exists with the private sector. The Chinese government still engages in the macro-management of the national economy, operating and controlling strategic industries and regulating certain prices. It also applies a top-down governance model in tourist destination management. In this article, we discussed the Chinese characteristics in tourist destination system, and suggested two directions in future tourism studies in China: linking the perspective of EEG with political economy and institutional economy can provide macro policy analysis for China's tourism studies, and thus contribute to the transformation and upgrading of tourism public service system; taking the perspective of multi-scale coupling at the meso- and micro-scales and multiple stakeholder analysis can help explore diverse stakeholder participation, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of tourism destination in China. With this background, China provides a fascinating environment to explore diversified tourism research methods; and the fact that tourism is a relatively new development area provides the potential to explore how the bureaucratic mechanisms are responding to the need for policy changes.

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    Progress in dynamic simulation modeling of urbanization and ecological environment coupling
    Xuegang CUI, Chuanglin FANG, Jun LI, Haimeng LIU, Qiang ZHANG
    2019, 38 (1):  111-125.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.010
    Abstract ( 705 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1571KB) ( 666 )   Save

    The development trend of geographical science indicates that the research on urbanization and ecological environment coupling will move from quantitative description to dynamic simulation. At present, the dynamic simulation models of urbanization and ecological environment coupling are diverse. This article reviewed and summarized four common types of models, including system dynamics model, artificial intelligence algorithm, land use change model, and composite model. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) System dynamics models are widely used in the dynamic simulation of urban complex nonlinear systems, urban transition and sustainable development, and urbanization and ecological environment elements coupling. However, spatial interpretation is insufficient and system adaptability is ignored. 2) Artificial intelligence algorithm has significant advantages in simulating self-learning, self-organizing, and adaptive systems, as well as uncertain systems. It is applied to identify urban expansion, environmental change, resource demand, and ecological vulnerability, but the application range is narrow. 3) Land use change models are limited to the simulation of urbanization and ecological environment coupling under the condition of land transfer to urban use. 4) To achieve complementarities between the various models, it has become a trend to develop composite models based on multi-model integration. In the future, we should develop dynamic simulation models from both the technical and theoretical aspects, and strengthen the simulation of microscopic processes.

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    Interpolation methods comparison of VIIRS/DNB nighttime light monthly composites: A case study of Beijing
    Mulin CHEN, Hongyan CAI
    2019, 38 (1):  126-138.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.011
    Abstract ( 414 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (16633KB) ( 402 )   Save

    Comparing with nighttime light data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), nighttime light data sensed by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (VIIRS/DNB) have a higher spatial resolution and finer temporal resolution. VIIRS/DNB nighttime light data also have a substantial number of improvements in terms of accuracy and in-flight calibrations. As a result, VIIRS/DNB nighttime light data become a new research hotspot rapidly. Even so, VIIRS/DNB nighttime light data are vulnerable to stray light and contain a large number of distorted values in mid and high latitudes, especially in summer. Therefore, this study took Beijing as an example and adopted cubic spline interpolation (spline), cubic Hermite interpolation (Hermite), gray model (GM), and triple exponential smoothing (exponent) to interpolate default data of May to July 2015, and then compared the results of these four interpolation algorithms. The result shows that: 1) With regard to abnormal values, Hermite does not produce any abnormal value, while the other three algorithms generate few such values (0.02%~1.34%). 2) Comparing with the reference data—the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Cloud Mask Stray Light (VCMSL) version, the interpolation result of Hermite is closest to the reference, and the GM result is least close to the reference. 3) In terms of computing time, all of these four algorithms are easy to be programmed and calculated, but the exponential smoothing method has to calculate smoothing parameter repeatedly and therefore it will spend much more time than the other three algorithms. In conclusion, a comprehensive assessment shows that when the two time periods before and after the interpolation months both have enough original data, Hermite will be the best choice because of its great interpolation performance, no overshoots, and fast calculation speed. Spline takes the second place. When only one side of the interpolation months has adequate data, GM and exponent methods both can be used. The GM calculation runs fast but the interpolation result is not optimal, and exponent calculation runs slow but the algorithm interpolates well.

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    Progress of research on electric vehicle charging stations
    Xiaoshu CAO, Peiting HU, Dan LIU
    2019, 38 (1):  139-152.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.01.012
    Abstract ( 496 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (8900KB) ( 1043 )   Save

    In the rapid development of electric vehicle industry, location planning of charging stations will become an indispensable part of the strategic planning of urban development, and it is deeply concerned by scholars in various fields such as traffic engineering, power and energy, management, and so on. Existing reviews lack a comprehensive inventory of related research on charging station location. In this study, we used CiteSpace to analyze literatures on charging station location of new energy vehicles. This article, on the one hand, summarizes and visualizes the research status and hotspots on this topic in China and internationally from 2009 to 2017. On the other hand, it examines the research contents including influencing factors, siting methodologies, and cost-benefit evaluation of charging station siting. It also briefly introduces the research trends of charging station location in China and abroad, clarifies the research development context, and provides methods and guidelines for research and practice. In the future, with the continuous development of research on the location of new energy vehicle charging stations, it is expected that the diversified charging requirements and refined services can be identified and the balancing of cost-benefit objectives among different subjects can be comprehensively improved in the location and siting of charging stations.

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