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    28 October 2018, Volume 37 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column: Young Geographer Forum
    Progress and prospects of research on transfer of carbon emissions embodied in inter-regional trade
    Fujia LI
    2018, 37 (10):  1303-1313.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.001
    Abstract ( 703 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (2646KB) ( 658 )   Save

    Transfer of carbon emissions embodied in inter-regional trade is an important reason that leads to inter-regional carbon leakage and inequity of regional carbon emission reduction responsibility, which has significant impact on global carbon emission pattern and carbon emission reduction effect. Therefore, studying the spatial-temporal evolution pattern and internal driving mechanism of carbon emission transfer and developing corresponding optimization policies are of great practical significance to improving the overall efficiency of carbon emission reduction and the comprehensive regional economic and ecological benefit, which has attracted extensive attention of scholars, and has gradually become one of the key issues of regional sustainable development and ecological economic research. This research systematically reviewed relevant studies about transfer of carbon emissions embodied in inter-regional trade in China and abroad, with special emphasis on summarizing the research progress and their application, as well as the future research directions of transfer of carbon emissions embodied in inter-regional trade. These directions include strengthening collaborative research between transfer of carbon emissions embodied in international and inter-provincial trade, revealing the dynamic driving forces and driving mechanism of transfer of carbon emissions embodied in inter-regional trade, and exploring innovative carbon emission transfer reduction mechanisms that are based on the shared production and consumption accounting principle.

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    Research progress and trends of parallel processing, analysis, and mining of big spatiotemporal data
    Xuefeng GUAN, Yumei ZENG
    2018, 37 (10):  1314-1327.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.002
    Abstract ( 1044 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (3969KB) ( 1414 )   Save

    With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet of things, and cloud computing technology, data with geographical location and time tag are accumulated in an explosive way, and this indicates that we are in the era of big spatiotemporal data. In addition to the typical "4V" characteristics, big spatiotemporal data also contain rich semantic information and dynamic spatiotemporal patterns. Although massive spatiotemporal data have promoted the evolvement of various cross-disciplinary studies, traditional methods of data processing and analysis would no longer meet the requirements of efficient storage and real-time analysis of such data. Therefore, it is of great importance to integrate big spatiotemporal data with high-performance computing/cloud computing. To address this problem, this article begins with the concept and origin of big spatiotemporal data, and introduces its unique characteristics. Then, the performance requirements generated by current big data applications are analyzed, and the status quo of the underlying hardware and software is summarized. Furthermore, the article comprehensively reviews parallel processing, analysis, and mining methods for big spatiotemporal data. Finally, we conclude with the challenges and opportunities of storage, management, and parallel processing analysis of big spatiotemporal data.

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    Articles
    Spatiotemporal evolution and driving forces of natural capital utilization in China based on three-dimensional ecological footprint
    Defeng ZHENG, Xiaoxing LIU, Yanyan WANG, Leting LV
    2018, 37 (10):  1328-1339.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.003
    Abstract ( 396 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (11489KB) ( 509 )   Save

    Dynamic assessment of natural capital utilization can help to track consumption demand of residents and ecological sustainability of regions. To date, studies on natural capital utilization in China's provinces based on the three-dimensional ecological footprint has only measured and evaluated the spatial patterns of regional natural capital stock and flow from the perspective of production. In this study, the footprint depth and size of regions and different land use types in 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) of China from 2006 to 2015 were first calculated from the consumption perspective. Then the regional sustainability of natural capital utilization was characterized by utilization ratio of stock to flow and occupancy rate of capital flows. Lastly, the driving factors and effects of natural capital utilization were quantified by the methods of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results are as follows: (1) China's footprint depth was highly consistent with the changing trend of ecological footprint and ecological deficit—it showed a trend of first growing and then decreasing during 2006 to 2015, and the value changed from 3.04 to 4.06. The main reason is that the continuous rising trend of ecological pressure was reversed due to the reduced contribution of fossil energy land. Ecological footprint depth presented significant differences from east to west—in Shanghai it is up to 30.69 and in Qinghai it is a minimum of 1.70. (2) Ecological footprint size in China was influenced by resource endowments and showed a small fluctuation through time, with an overall pattern of western region > central region > eastern region in space, and the maximum and minimum footprint sizes were respectively 0.81 ghm2 in Xinjiang and 0.09 ghm2 in Shanghai. Natural capital flow can be improved greatly in the central and western regions. (3) The main components of footprint depth in Chinese provinces were fossil energy land and grassland, and the utilization degrees of other lands varied in different regions. The main components of footprint size in Chinese provinces were cultivated land and construction land, followed by woodland, grassland and water area accounting for a small proportion. (4) The sustainability of natural capital utilization has become better in China, and it showed the spatial pattern of "weak east and strong west". By using OLS regression and GWR, we found that the significant factors that affected the sustainability of natural capital utilization were the intensity of ecological footprint, urbanization rate, and ecological carrying capacity. The influence degree of these factors in different geographical locations showed spatial differences.

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    Spatiotemporal responses of habitat quality to urban sprawl in the Changsha metropolitan area
    Yunzhe DAI, Jiangfeng LI, Jianxin YANG
    2018, 37 (10):  1340-1351.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.004
    Abstract ( 498 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (15913KB) ( 479 )   Save

    Observing the spatiotemporal responses of habitat quality—an important indicator for ecological environment assessment—to urban sprawl will help improve the quality of urban planning and ecological control. This study respectively analyzed habitat quality of the Changsha metropolitan area from 1995 to 2015 using the InVEST Habitat Quality Model, and revealed the characteristics of the spatiotemporal evolution based on the buffers created by the third ring road. The results show that: (1) The area of construction land in the Changsha metropolitan area increased from 170.26 km2 to 487.19 km2, which expanded rapidly within the third ring road and gradually slowed outside. (2) Areal proportion of average or above habitat quality levels decreased from 43.49% in 1995 to 27.22% in 2015, and the average level of habitat quality accordingly dropped from 0.46 to 0.31. The most seriously degraded area has shifted from the outer core area (buffer No.5 to No.10) to areas near the third ring road (buffer No.10 to No.15). (3) There is a significant negative spatial correlationship between urban sprawl intensity and habitat quality change across all buffers. The strongest response to urban sprawl in habitat quality change remains in the outer core area. (4) The degradation of habitat quality was exacerbated by the increasing degree of scattered layout pattern and irregular geometrical morphology of construction land and the areas near the third ring road (buffer No.10 to No.15) showed the most significant change. These areas should become the focus area of urban planning and ecological control in the future.

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    Coordinating the development of urbanization and vegetation coverage based on precipitation
    Xiaojie WEN, Shunbo YAO, Minjuan ZHAO
    2018, 37 (10):  1352-1361.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.005
    Abstract ( 404 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2829KB) ( 436 )   Save

    In order to explore the coordinated development of urbanization and vegetation coverage, this study used the economic development and MODIS-NDVI data of 144 counties in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River Basin for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 and the threshold regression model to analyze the influence of urbanization on vegetation coverage under different precipitation conditions. Precipitation was taken as the threshold variable that exerts the most significant impact on vegetation coverage. The results show that: (1) Along with the advancement of urbanization, vegetation covers are damaged, but precipitation during the process can play an important role in adjusting the relationship positively and promote the joint development of urbanization and the vegetation coverage. (2) The coordinated development of urbanization and vegetation coverage depends not only on precipitation, but also on local ecological construction, optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, and so on. The implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on the Loess Plateau can accelerate the restoration of the vegetation cover, improve the ecological carrying capacity of the regional environment, and effectively alleviate the negative impact of urbanization development on vegetation coverage. (3) The increase of the proportion of the secondary industry in economic development poses a serious threat to the vegetation, which may halt the coordinated development of urbanization and vegetation coverage, especially in areas with low annual rainfall.

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    Scale effect of the spatial correlation between urban land surface temperature and NDVI
    Yinghui JIANG, Limin JIAO, Boen ZHANG
    2018, 37 (10):  1362-1370.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.006
    Abstract ( 643 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (5438KB) ( 569 )   Save

    The spatial correlation between urban land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation coverage (NDVI) has been widely studied, but its scale effect is often ignored, which brings uncertainty to the results. Taking Zhengzhou City as an example and based on four Landsat8 images, this study retrieved the land surface temperature by the radiation conduction method, and identified the spatial correlation analysis scale of the land surface temperature by using the semivariance function. It then combined the spatial correlation index Moran's I to discuss the spatial correlation between land surface temperature and vegetation coverage from three aspects: multi-scales, multi-seasons, and multi-adjacent ranges. The results show that: (1) Both the univariate spatial autocorrelation scale and bivariate spatial correlation scale of LST and NDVI are around 300 m; (2) Within the 300 m correlation scale, there is a significant scale effect in the univariate spatial autocorrelation, but the scale effect of bivariate spatial correlation is much weaker by comparison; (3) The univariate spatial autocorrelation and bivariate spatial correlation scale effects of LST and NDVI show significant seasonal differences; (4) With the increase of adjacent range, the spatial autocorrelation of LST and NDVI weakens, and the scale effect is more obvious. Therefore, to measure the spatial correlation between LST and NDVI, spatiotemporal scale effect should be taken into consideration. This study should be helpful for further understanding the scale effect of spatial correlation between LST and NDVI.

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    Quantitative evaluation of the impacts of driving factors on urban residential land price and analysis of their spatio-temporal heterogeneity: A case study of Wuhan City
    Shijin QU, Shougeng HU, Quanfeng LI, Shengfu YANG
    2018, 37 (10):  1371-1380.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.007
    Abstract ( 453 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (4003KB) ( 511 )   Save

    Measuring the spatiotemporal differences of the impacts of main driving factors on residential land price quantitatively is a basic work to understanding the dynamic patterns and formation mechanism of land price, which is also helpful for the optimal allocation of urban land. The hedonic model improved by feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) was employed in this study. The results show that: the impacts of key factors on Wuhan City's residential land price between 2007-2015, ranked from high to low, were floor area ratio, hospitals, central business district (CBD), sub-CBDs, the metro, and parks. In the time series, the impact of CBD showed an upward trend; the impact of sub-CBDs showed a downward trend; the influence of hospitals increased exponentially and the impact of metro stations increased logarithmically; and the effect of parks decreased continuously. The impact of floor area ratio first decreased then increased. Among the different regions, within the second ring road parks and floor area ratio have greater regression coefficients, but factors including metro stations and hospitals had more obvious influences on residential land price in the areas outside the second ring road. The impacts of CBD and sub-CBDs on residential land price were obvious complementary in space. Based on the results of this study, current urban land management should pay attention to the protection and allocation of natural landscape and the determination of residential land parcel's floor area ratio.

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    Coupling coordination between tourism competitiveness and economic development in global poverty-stricken countries and spatiotemporal changes
    Danli LIU, Xia WANG, Xiaogen WU, Jing HE, Zhiyong DUAN
    2018, 37 (10):  1381-1391.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.008
    Abstract ( 450 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3993KB) ( 518 )   Save

    With the increasing importance of tourism industry in the global economic development, tourism has become a significant growth point for poor countries. To strengthen the understanding of the actual state of coupling and coordination between tourism competitiveness and economic development in these countries, and to further understand the development of the coupling coordination degree and regional differences between tourism and economy development in poor countries around the world, we conducted the study of this article. First, based on the multidimensional poverty index of the United Nations, the World Economic Forum's tourism competitiveness report, and the per capita GDP data of the poor countries provided by International Monetary Fund, an evaluation index system of tourism competitiveness and economic development was constructed. Next, we calculated the weights and comprehensive evaluation index values through the information entropy method, and then used the coupling coordination model to measure the coupling coordination degree between tourism competitiveness and economic development in global poverty-stricken countries during 2008-2017, and clarified its spatiotemporal evolution to explore the genesis mechanism. On case selection, this study first ranked the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report (TTCR)'s 141 economies in 2015 according to the multidimensional poverty index of the Human Development Report 2015. Then countries that lack tourism competitiveness indices such as Niger, South Sudan, and Somalia were eliminated. Only 35 poverty-stricken countries with high poverty index rankings and complete data on tourism competitiveness were reserved for our research. The study area mainly focused on Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, and the specific years of research are 2008, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017. The results indicate that: (1) There is a high correlation between tourism competitiveness and economic development in poor countries and the current situation of coupling coordination is not optimistic, as most poor countries are in a state of imbalance or near mismatch. However, there is a tendency toward the coordinated direction, and regional differences in coupling coordination among these countries are slowly shrinking; (2) The coupling coordination between the two can be divided into four levels and two types of constraints. Most of the poor countries are economically lagging. The rest of them are tourism-economy synchronous, and no poor countries are tourism competitiveness lagging; (3) The hierarchical distribution of the coupling coordination in poor countries shows clear spatial clustering characteristics. The level of coupling coordination in Africa is relatively low. The coupling coordination status is relatively good in South America and the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia shows partial heterogeneity. In general, this research is based on the coupled relationship between tourism competitiveness and economic development in poor countries. It can provide a decision-making basis for future economic structural adjustment and tourism industry development in these countries, and provide references for other countries around the world. At the same time, this article responds positively to the tourism poverty alleviation policies that China strongly advocates, and provides theoretical support for the country's economic cooperation and tourism poverty reduction practices along the "Belt and Road" route.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution of provincial tourism efficiency and its club convergence in the Chinese Mainland
    Yelin FANG, Zhenfang HUANG, Fang WANG, Jinglong LI
    2018, 37 (10):  1392-1404.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.009
    Abstract ( 417 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (8808KB) ( 477 )   Save

    The improvement of quality and efficiency of tourism industry is one of the most important tourism issues under China's new normal economy. Based on the data of tourism development and related data of the Chinese mainland from 1997 to 2015, and comprehensively using the methods of modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, spatial Markov chain, impulse response model, and club convergence theory and quantitative calculation of tourism efficiency, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution and mechanism of tourism efficiency in the Chinese mainland. The results indicate that: provincial tourism efficiency showed strong regional characteristics. The tourism economy growth was highly intensive in the eastern area, while it was highly extensive in the western region. The transfer of tourism efficiency is always affected by the tourism efficiency of neighboring regions. The spatial transfer of tourism efficiency is more active, but the basic pattern has not changed after considering the spatial factors. Item efficiency showed high stability, especially the scale efficiency. The spatiotemporal evolution of tourism efficiency led to the effect of club convergence to some degree—a phenomenon of "one takes the behavior of one's company." Club convergence of provincial tourism efficiency objectively makes the tourism development "stable"; however, it is not conducive to efficiency improvement. Tourism development cooperation must break through the geographical restrictions in the future.

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    Hotel competitiveness evaluation and spatial pattern based on Internet data: A case study of high-end hotels of Wuhan urban area
    Juan WANG, Yajuan Li, Li LV, Jing HU, Xiang ZHANG
    2018, 37 (10):  1405-1415.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.010
    Abstract ( 454 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (8205KB) ( 419 )   Save

    The rapid development of the Internet provides a new breakthrough point for urban geography research by using Internet data and technology to study urban physical space problems. Based on customer reviews and comments of online-to-offline (O2O) platform, real-time traffic data, and points of interest (POI) data of web-map, this study set up a competitiveness evaluation index system of high-end hotels and calculated the high-end hotel competitiveness and ranking of Wuhan urban area, then emphatically analyzed its spatial patterns using GIS tools. The results indicate that: (1) With most hotels in the middle and few in the top and bottom rankings, the competitiveness distribution line indicates a general concentrated structure. Price, popularity, business, and commerce services in the surroundings are the main factors that widen the competitiveness levels between hotels. (2) The overall spatial structure is featured by a mixture of point clustering and linear spread that basically concentrate in Wuchang and Hankou town areas within the second ring road. (3) As the competitiveness grades go down, hotels are more likely to locate toward the outskirt of the city, showing a circling spatial structure. (4) The spatial distribution model of Wuhan high-end hotels can be summarized as seven types of hotel spatial layout, such as super-high-end hotels located in the newly-developing business district in the central activity zone (CAZ), middle-leveled high-end hotels located in the traditional business district in the CAZ, and middle-leveled high-end hotels located around traffic gateways, and so on.

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    Reviews
    Research progress and prospects of Chinese geriatric geography
    Xin XU, Yuan ZHAO, Xinlin ZHANG, Tonggang ZENG, Siyou XIA, Qianqian XIE, Qi SUN
    2018, 37 (10):  1416-1429.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.011
    Abstract ( 560 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5645KB) ( 617 )   Save

    Under the background of China's comprehensive entry into an aging society, the problem of aging has gradually become the new normal and the focus of attention of scholars. This study combineed knowledge map analysis with traditional literature research method. Based on the CiteSpace V software and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, we analyzed the hot spots in the study of geriatric geography in the past 15 years. The main perspectives of the geography of gerontology in China were summarized by keywords. The results as follows: (1) Spatiotemporal patterns and driving mechanism of population aging and spatial organization and satisfaction of elderly care facilities become the hot fields in the study of geriatric geography in recent years. But future study should focus on broader geographic scope and smaller scale, as well as in-depth examination of driving mechanisms. The spatial allocation of elderly care facilities lacks consideration of the special needs of the elderly. A multi-dimensional integration of elderly resident social life, emotional belongingness, and social resources into the local community is the key direction of community construction and elderly care in the future. A theoretical framework and policies on home-based elderly care with Chinese characteristics are yet to be developed to guide practice. (2) Health and environment of the elderly has become a new research area. Examining the relationship between the health and environment of the elderly at the macro level and the emotional experience and local dependence of the elderly at the micro level, exploring the spatial relationship between health and environment, and identifying and quantifying human factors of this relationship have become the main direction of research. (3) Quantitative and qualitative studies on spatial behavior of the elderly need to be complementary and integrated. Exploring the integration of behaviorist geography that emphasizes individual cognition and behavior preference and time-geography that emphasizes the integrity and restriction of time and space will become the future development direction. The purpose of this study is to provide some insights for the development of Chinese geriatric geography.

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    Progress and prospects of research on shells of Radix sp. in lakes on the Tibetan Plateau
    Feng CHEN, Jinliang FENG
    2018, 37 (10):  1430-1441.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.10.012
    Abstract ( 505 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4967KB) ( 518 )   Save

    Palaeohydrology and palaeohydrochemical reconstruction have always been one of the most challenging issues in lake research, and one of the main reasons for this is the lack of suitable archives. Radix sp. fossil shells are widely distributed in lakes, alluvial-lacustrine successions, and high level lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau. These biogenic carbonate shells are a kind of promising high-resolution carrier of the environmental information. For example, the δ13Cshell values of the Radix shells are controlled by the δ13C of lake water dissolved inorganic carbon; the δ18Oshell values provide useful information about the isotopic composition of the ambient waters; and the Sr/Ca ratio of the Radix shells is significantly positively correlated with both the Sr/Ca ratio and the conductivity of the lake water. Therefore, the δ13Cshell and δ18Oshell values and element of the Radix sp. shells have been gradually used to provide the palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatic information on the Tibetan Plateau and other regions in existing studies. In addition, the 87Sr/86Srshell of Radix sp. reflects significantly the 87Sr/86Sr of the water in which the shells were formed. However, there are still many scientific issues to be explored: it is unclear how the shells of Radix sp. record the hydrological, hydrochemical, and other information of its ambient water, and how we reconstruct palaeoenvironment information based on the fossil shells of Radix sp. As a new environmental information archive, Radix sp. and their following aspects in existing research on lakes of the Tibetan Plateau were reviewed in this study, including: the classification systems of Radix sp., habitat studies of Radix sp. and applications, proxies of Radix sp. shell (δ13Cshell, δ18Oshell, 87Sr/86Sr, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca), and palaeohydrochemical reconstruction in lakes, in order to explore the prospects for future study on Radix sp. This review found that significant unanswered questions still remain. For example, the influence of lake water chemistry and water depth on the distribution and survival of Radix sp. is unclear; it is not clear whether inter-species differences have an impact on the results of lake sediment and palaeoenvironmental studies; species level classification of Radix sp., oxygen isotope balance, and trace element need further study; and more environmental records of Radix sp. shells are needed, among others.

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