Table of Content

    26 April 2017, Volume 36 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Network spatial connection structure of Chinese cities based on bank branches data
    Xueguang MA, Luqi LI
    2017, 36 (4):  393-403.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.001
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    This article analyzes the structural features of China's city network based on bank branches data covering 33 domestic and foreign banks as well as 336 urban administrative regions. The data, which includethe spatial distribution of these branches and their ranks and quantity, are processed using the interlocking world city network (IWCN) model, Zipf law, and social network analysis (SNA). The conclusions are as follows. (1) The connections between five major city agglomerations (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing, and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River) serve as backbones of the network, and a significant difference of network density between eastern and western China as divided by the Hu Line is discovered. (2) The urban size distribution of interlock connectivity conforms to the Zipf law with a double fractal, and the distribution of each city's degree also suggests a significant difference between cities in eastern and western China. (3) The overall and relative interlocking connectivity of the top 50 large cities vary according to the types of banks that include state-owned, joint-stock, and foreign-owned. (4) A relatively strong correlation between connectivity and economic/population size of cities are also found. The structure of this urban network can be interpreted in terms of general spatial policy and industrial spatial policy, in which the interplay between differentiation and equalization shapes the unique and changing pattern of China's interurban bank network.

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    Spatiotemporal change of vulnerability in counties of northwest China
    Daming LU, Yuzhong SHI, Wenlong LI, Xinjun YANG
    2017, 36 (4):  404-415.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.002
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    As one of the most important scientific research propositions in the field of geographic studies, the research on coupled human-environment system has become an important part of the study of human-environment relationship and regional sustainable development. This study constructed a human-environment system evaluating model of vulnerability in counties of northwest China and its spatial and temporal change based on statistical data, meteorological data, remote sensing data, and spatial vector data in 2003, 2008, and 2013 for 316 counties and districts, using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method and coefficient of variation analysis. The results show that: (1) Vulnerability index values of counties in the south are higher than in the north and the west higher than the east. The large and medium-sized cities have a significant impact on surrounding counties and have formed some low vulnerability circles centered around them. Meanwhile, these circles are gradually connected to become large scale low vulnerability areas. (2) The vulnerable levels of four subsystems in northwest China also reveal some regional differentiation patterns. The spatial pattern of vulnerability in social and economic subsystems is congregated and has changed significantly. The spatial pattern of vulnerability of resource-environment and support of policy subsystems tends to be fragmented and stable. (3) The vulnerability diversity of the human-environment system slowly increased in northwest China, the vulnerability diversity of social system first increased and then dropped, the vulnerability diversity of both the economic and the resource-environment systems tends to fall, and the policy support systems are significantly different and stable among different regions. (4) Under policy guidance and support, resource exploitation, economic development, environmental quality, and human wellbeing change becomes coupled, which influence social development and stability. Meanwhile, these two factors react upon economic development, environmental quality, resource exploitation, and policy making. This article deconstructs spatial and temporal changes in northwest China from the perspective of "vulnerability" and aims to provide a theoretical reference and practical application for socioeconomic development in northwest China.

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    Job-housing mismatch of floating population in urban villages of Beijing
    Chengzhi ZHENG, Wangfeng ZHANG, Bingyan WU, Bo LIANG
    2017, 36 (4):  416-425.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.003
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    Homemaking and work are the most important contents of the daily activities of residents. With the accelerated process of urbanization in China, the separation between jobs and residential location of urban low-income groups is getting increasingly more attention. Based on the population concentration index, GIS spatial analysis, and Logit regression analysis methods, and using Beijing's sixth census data and the urban village survey data collected in 2015, we examined the characteristics of the floating population in commuting and the job-housing path, and analyzed the influencing factors. The analysis results show that the distribution of the floating population in Beijing is concentrated in the urban expanded area, and presents a "ring circle" distribution pattern. The floating population of suburban villages usually has a long commuting distance and an obvious separation of workplace and residence, and the corresponding commuting time is long. The floating population of outer suburban villages has a shorter commuting distance and works near their homes, but these places are far away from the urban core area, and accessibility to public service facilities is poor. The number of employed, young, and old members of household, duration of residence in Beijing, income, education level, profession, and means of transportation have significant impacts on commuting distance. The results can provide a reference for understanding the job-housing space structure of the marginalized population in the city and for urban planning.

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    Spatial distribution of land use change in the Yangtze River Basin and the impact on runoff
    Su XU, Yongyong ZHANG, Ming DOU, Ruixiang HUA, Yujian ZHOU
    2017, 36 (4):  426-436.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.004
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    The impact of land use change on runoff is one of the key concerns in water cycle research. The Yangtze River Basin is the largest river basin in China, and land use change and its impact on runoff are key research questions for runoff variation and flood and drought hazards analyses of the basin. This study used land use data of the Yangtze River Basin in 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 to calculate the dynamic degree, swapping variable values, and other indexes between the four periods by land use transition matrix, evaluated spatial and temporal variation characteristics of land use, and identified key regions of change and driving factors in the basin. Based on the widely-used precipitation-runoff relationship of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model, runoff impacts caused by land use change were assessed. The results show that from 1980 to 2005, land transfer activity was more intense in the first (1980-1990) and the fourth (2001-2005) periods compared to the two periods in between (1991-1995, 1996-2000). The middle and upper reaches around Sichuan Province and to its north were the most active regions. Paddy land, dry land, woodland, and grassland areas changed slightly, less than 8%. Influenced by different approaches of environmental protection and economic development in the four periods, cultivated lands (paddy land and dry land) showed inverse changes with grassland, and water body, unused land, and urban land changed to a much greater extent. In particular, due to rapid urbanization, urban land increased by 196.58%. Land use change directly resulted in the increase of average runoff coefficient, which ranged from -0.67%~0.80%, with the mean of 0.05%. The most obvious changes were in highly urbanized regions, particularly around the Yangtze River Delta region. Increase of runoff coefficient would raise the occurrence probability of flooding.

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    Construction and application of Rice Sterile-type Cold Damage Index in cold area: A case study of Liaoning Province
    Ruipeng JI, Wenying YU, Rui FENG, Jinwen WU, Yushu ZHANG
    2017, 36 (4):  437-445.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.005
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    Temperature and consecutive cold days are commonly used to evaluate rice sterile-type cold damage in Northeast China. In order to realize quantitative evaluation and prediction, it is necessary to construct a comprehensive index of sterile-type cold damage using multiple factors. Based on a temperature suitability model, temperature and consecutive cold days, and considering the effects of three fundamental points temperature on rice's growing process, this study constructed the rice sterile-type cold damage index (RSCDI) by using the data of daily mean temperature and rice growth period in recent 50 years in Liaoning Province. It then analyzed the occurrence tendency of rice sterile-type cold damage, and forecast cold damage in Liaoning Province with RSCDI. The results are as follows: (1) During the 50 years from 1961 to 2010, local light cold damage happened in 20 years, local moderate cold damage occurred in 14 years, local severe cold damage occurred in 10 years, and there was no occurrence of regional and large scale cold damage; (2) The highest frequency of cold damage was in the 1970s. The frequency decreased from 1981 to 2000, and the lowest frequency of cold damage was in the 1990s. But there was an increasing trend after 2001. Cold damage mainly occurred in the western and northeastern parts of Liaoning Province. With climate warming, the frequency decreased to some extent, but the occurrence of rice sterile-type cold damage was uncertain in Liaoning Province; (3) The forecast of rice sterile-type cold damage in Liaoning Province from 2011 to 2014 using RSCDI shows that cold damage will not appear in most areas, but in Jianping County moderate damage may occur in the flowering period in 2012 and 2014.

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    Reconstruction of flow route of the Yongji Canal in the head area
    Xiaodong QIU, Fanneng HE, Haolong LIU, Ran XIAO, Qinghai DENG
    2017, 36 (4):  446-453.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.006
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    The Yongji Canal was an important artificial river in northern China in the Sui and Tang Dynasties and exerted profound influences on the shipping traffic in ancient China. However, the route of the canal in the head area has been unclear. Based on fieldworks in combination with systematic analysis of historical documents and archaeological evidence, we explored its route and change in the head area when the Yongji Canal was initially built. The results are as follows: (1) When the canal was first built, its flow passed through the northeast of Wuzhi County, then flowed from the Yellow River to the Qin River and toward the west, separated from the Qin River to Baimagou River and turned north, bended to the east at Nanshijian Village, then went through Beihuo Village, Jimeng Village, Mafanqiao Village, Houdong Village, Xunfeng Village, and Zhifang Village, flew into the Wuzepo near Beiqiao Village, then through the Guanggou flew into Qingshui at Hehe Town, finally connected with Baigou in the southeast; (2) This section of the canal was in use only for about 10 years due to its long detour westward, then it was abandoned in the early Tang Dynasty and the starting point of the canal was changed to Qimen; (3) During the Tang and Song Dynasties, in order to avoid the impact of the Yellow River on canal transport, the government adjusted water transport by building granary and encouraged the joint transport on water and land to ensure the smooth operation of canal transport.

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    Grain-size and sedimentary records of the XYC Core in the downstream of the Cao’e River
    Lidong ZHU, Jun WANG, Haojie PEI, Wei YE, Fengquan LI, Dongpo MO, Haiyi LIN
    2017, 36 (4):  454-465.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.007
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    Based on the analysis of grain-size constitution and distribution curves of the XYC core in the downstream of the Cao'e River—the central section of the Ningshao plain, we arrived at the following conclusions: (1) According to the grain-size constitution, the sediments of the XYC Core can be divided into four lithologies: silty sand, sandy silt, silt, and clayey silt. They distribute along the core alternately. The core is divided into 9 layers and they compose multiple grain-size combinations. The 9 layers are marked as layer 1 to layer 9 from the bottom to the top. Among them, layer 1 and layer 4 are silty sand, and the percentage of clay is 10%~15%, which is poorly sorted and the dynamics is complicated. Layer 3 and layer 5 are sandy silt, the percentage of silt is no more than 70%, and clay is more than 20%. The percentage of clay is low. Layer 2, layer 7, and layer 9 are silt, the percentage of silt is more than 70%, and clay and sand are less than 20%. Layer 6 and layer 8 are clayey silt, the percentage of silt is more than 70%, and clay is more than 20%. The percentage of sand is very low. (2) According to the C-M graph of the max and the mean values and the analysis of its variation, there were four types of deposits from the bottom to the top: fluvial, tidal flat, shallow marine, and lakes and marshes. For layer 1 and layer 2, the hydrology was high energy and unstable, which indicates a fluvial environment; for layer 3 to layer 7, the max hydrology weakened, but the mean hydrology was strong and the range was still wide, and the hydrology was similar to the SYTT tidal flat samples. It referred to a tidal flat environment; for layer 8 and layer 9, the hydrology was weak and stable, which indicates still water environment. Based on the grain-size and biology information, it can be concluded that the under part of layer 8 belonged to shallow marine environment, but the upper part and layer 9 belonged to lakes and marshes environment. (3) Vertical variation of grain-size indicates that clay increased from the bottom to the top with fluctuation, while sand declined. The average grain diameter is decreasing and the sorting coefficient is higher. The sediments change from the bottom to the top reveals that the XYC Core and its adjacent area experienced sea level rise, and then water level decreased during 9690~5131 cal.a BP. The results of the study are helpful for identifying the paleoenvironmental evolution characteristics of the Qiantang River Basin.

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    Research progress on population geography in China in recent 40 years: A cross-disciplinary perspective
    Yu ZHU, Jinhong DING, Guixin WANG, Jianfa SHEN, Liyue LIN, Wenqian KE
    2017, 36 (4):  466-482.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.008
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    This article reviews the progress of population geography in China since the 1980s. The review results suggest that contrary to the common perception of its decline and marginalization in the field of geography, tremendous progress has been made in population geography in China since the 1980s. Population geographers have made significant contributions to the understanding of a wide range of population issues from geographical perspectives, including migration, urbanization, population distribution, the relationships between population, environment and resources, aging, marriage patterns, and migrants' crimes, although such contributions often did not become visible in the geographical circle. Furthermore, population geographers have played an indispensable role in revitalizing population studies in China and forging its links to human geography, occupying an important position in this multi-disciplinary field. Population geographers' contribution to the areas of migration and urbanization research has been particularly significant, reflected in their leading roles in these research areas. This review demonstrates that as latecomers in the field of population studies, population geographers in China have gone through a process of catching up and increasing engagement with developments in social sciences and increasing interaction with social scientists since the 1980s, and have benefited greatly from this process. However, there is a tendency for population geography to be increasingly alienated from the main stream human geography, a phenomenon similar to but not exactly the same as Anglo-American geography in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The article argues that population geography is only half way in the course to forge the links between population studies and human geography, and it needs to return to geographical sciences to create a healthy and balanced identity between population studies and human geography, and promote its further development in a multi-disciplinary field.

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    Basic features of phenological records in poetry and their usage for reconstructing past climate change
    Yachen LIU, Xiuqi FANG, Zexing TAO, Junhu DAI
    2017, 36 (4):  483-490.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.009
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    Phenological records in historical documents have been proved to be of unique value for studies on past climate change. As a literary genre, poetry includes abundant phenological records that have been extracted and applied to a certain extent. However, the features of phenological records from poems and their processing methods need to be further summarized and discussed systematically. This article first introduces the contents, characteristics, and applications in indicating seasons and reflecting farming season of phenological records from poems. The phenological records in poems can be divided mainly into three categories, namely phenological information of plants, phenological information of animals, and seasonality of meteorological or hydrological events. Relatively more data are found in poems from recent dynasties and developed regions. Four key processing methods of phenological records from poems — data sieving, species identification, chronology recognition, and phenophases definition — are discussed: (1) phenological records extracted from poems need to be sieved based on the background of poems, the usage of rhetorical devices, the rule of territorial differentiation, and the disturbance of factitious factors; (2) modern and ancient names of plants and animals should be distinguished and the species of plants and animals should be identified; (3) phenological dates need to be converted into accurate dates according to phenological law and background information; and (4) phenophases ought to be defined according to the semantics of description in the poems on the basis of modern phenological observation methods. By summarizing and discussing these key issues, this article aims to provide a reference in both theory and method for the extraction and application of phenological records from poems for the reconstruction of past climate.

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    Geographical distribution of cripple tree forest and its importance for forest line in China
    Yonghui YAO, Baiping ZHANG, Chao ZHAO
    2017, 36 (4):  491-499.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.010
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    Cripple trees that often lie between the upper montane forest and the alpine belt and normally grow at isolated summit locations or mountain ridges is a type of vegetation community shaped by the severe environmental conditions or the summit syndrome. The classification of cripple trees and their geographical distribution are important for the study of mountain altitudinal belts and mountain environment. Based on 52 cripple-tree datasets published in the literature since the 1930s and the climate data of Worldclim, this study analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of cripple trees in China and their importance for identifying forest lines. The results show that: (1) Cripple trees in China are mainly consisted of mossy cripple trees and cold temperate cripple trees (including the Pinuspumila cripple trees and the Betulaermanii cripple trees). The Qinling-Daba Mountains are the boundary between mossy cripple trees and cold temperate cripple trees. Mossy cripple trees are distributed to the south of the Qinling-Daba mountain area, and cold-temperate cripple trees are distributed in northeast China. (2) With the increase of relief from east China to the west, the distribution altitude of mossy cripple trees increases gradually. The distribution altitude of mossy cripple trees on the southeast coast of China (Guangdong, Fujian, and Zhejiang) is about 800~1200 m, and west into the inland region such as west Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan, the altitude increases to about 1000~1800 m; in Chongqing, Guizhou, and Yunnan, the altitude increases to about 1500~3000 m, and higher than 3000~4500 m in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. (3) The distribution altitude of the cold temperate cripple trees decreases from south to north. The distribution altitude of the Pinuspumila cripple trees decreases from 1400~1520 m at the Aokulidui Mountain to 1240 m at the Baikalu Mountain in the Greater Khingan Range; the altitude of the Betulaermanii cripple trees decreases from 1800~2100 m at the Changbai Mountain to 1100~1300 m at the Lesser Khingan Mountains. (4) The summit syndrome (strong winds, lower temperatures, and poor soils on the mountain summits or ridges) controls the formation of cripple trees. Mossy cripple trees are evolved from the subtropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forests or the tropical montane monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests under the influence of the summit syndrome, and cold temperate cripple trees are evolved from the cold temperate coniferous forests or the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in China under the influence of the summit syndrome. (5) The distribution altitude of cripple trees is often lower than the location of the forest climate line; their lower limits are not real forest line or climate forest line. Temperature in the warmest month (July) and annual precipitation for the distribution area of cripple trees (greater than 10°C and above 500 mm) verify that the climate condition of the cripple-tree distribution area can be suitable for forest growing. Most mountains in southeastern China are lower than 3000 m and cripple trees are present under the influence of the summit syndrome, therefore the forest lines in southeast China normally are not the real forest lines.

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    A bibliometric analysis of international research on Tibetan Plateau: Based on the databases of SCIE and ESI
    Ting WANG
    2017, 36 (4):  500-512.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.011
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    The Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas have a unique natural environment and complex geological structure, as well as significant influences on the global environment and climate change. For these reasons, this region has received extensive attention from the international scientific community for a long time. This study analyzed published articles retrieved from the SCIE and ESI databases on Tibetan Plateau research during the period 2009-2015. Using the bibliometric method and multiple analysis tools, this study conducted a rigorous analysis of the current status and progress of Tibetan Plateau research and summarized the situation of the international Tibetan Plateau research in recent years. The main conclusions are as follows: The scale and academic influence of recent international research on the Tibetan Plateau have shown a good momentum of development. According to the research outputs, China, India,and the United States ranked as the top three countries,and countries neighboring the Tibetan Plateau, such as Pakistan and Nepal, have shown rapid developments. The overall advantage of Chinese Tibetan Plateau research institutions has gradually expanded, with increasingly higher quantity and quality of publications. Major journals publishing Tibetan Plateau research articles are in geosciences and environmental science, and highly cited articles were mainly published in major high-quality comprehensive science journals. The subjects of Tibetan Plateau research continued to become more complete and the research content showed clear regional characteristics. The research topics include the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, the influences of the various spheres of the plateau on global climate change, and alpine ecosystem biodiversity and responses to global warming. In the future, Tibetan Plateau research in China should focus on cutting-edge scientific issues, promote the cross fertilization and integration of multiple disciplines, promote collaborative integrated and independent innovation capability of scientific research, produce major scientific achievements with international influence, and provide scientific and technological supports for the "Belt and Road" initiative implementation and the healthy development of regional ecological environment.

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    A literature research on tourism food consumption
    Ling'en WANG, Lei WANG, Linsheng ZHONG, Shengkui CHENG
    2017, 36 (4):  513-526.  doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2017.04.012
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    Food consumption is the primary content of tourism consumption. With the deepening of tourism research, tourism food consumption, in recent years, has gradually become the focus of attention of scholars. At present, the research of Chinese tourism food consumption is limited to the development of food culture tourism resources and food hygiene, and most of them are descriptive in nature, in the early stage of development. International tourism food consumption study started earlier, and the content is more comprehensive. In addition to the research content of tourism food safety and health, food tourism product development and marketing, the fields of tourist food consumption behavior, the relationship between tourism food consumption and tourist destination, and combined effect of tourism food consumption have also been actively discussed. Using literature analysis,this article comprehensively analyzes Chinese and international tourism food consumption based on literature search from academic databases. Tourism food consumption development stage and characteristics were then summarized. The research progress in tourism food consumption were analyzed from six aspects of tourist food consumption behavior, food tourism resources development, tourism food festivals and marketing, tourism food safety and risks, tourism food consumption and destination development, and environmental impact and sustainability of tourism food consumption. Finally, research focuses of tourism food consumption in China at present are proposed.

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