：Cities are the most concentrated area of production and consumption activities of the human race, which brings about great amounts of energy consumption and carbon emissions. Therefore, low-carbon city is widely discussed by scholars around the world. In this study, 22 indicators in five areas, including low-carbon development, low-carbon economy, low-carbon environment, city size, and energy consumption, were used to establish an evaluation system for low-carbon city. Remote sensing images of the DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light sets and PM2.5 concentration inversion image were innovatively included in these indicators. Using factor analysis, cluster analysis, and spatial correlation analysis, 284 cities in China were classified as low-carbon cities, comparatively low-carbon cities, comparatively high-carbon cities, and high-carbon cities in 2006 and 2010. The result shows that the low-carbon status of these cities generally improved in 2010 as compared to 2006. According to the driving forces of city development, these cities were divided into four types: environment-oriented, people-oriented, urbanization-dominated, and industry-dominated. Spatially, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, the Yangtze River Delta region, Shandong Province, and the Pearl River Delta region had the aggregated effect of low-carbon city development. Chongqing, Chengdu, and Wuhan were distinguished from the periphery cities that had lower level of low-carbon development and belonged to the hotspot cities of advanced low-carbon development in Southwest China. Low-carbon development of cities is affected by the administrative level and industrial transformation of cities, among other factors.