Table of Content

    25 January 2015, Volume 34 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Future Earth and Geography Research
    Trend of human-economic geography in relation to the Future Earth initiative for systemic solutions of regional sustainable development
    FAN Jie, JIANG Zilong
    2015, 34 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1413KB) ( )   Save
    Future Earth initiative puts forward the academic thought, top-level design, core content, and methodology for systemic solutions of regional sustainable development, which provides a reference for future research of regional sustainable development in human-economic geography. Based on an analysis of the core concepts of Future Earth, this article elaborates the development opportunities and positioning of human-economic geography, and discusses the five grand challenges of Future Earth and their implications for exploring systemic solutions of regional sustainable development. It maintains that progress in the study of each of these challenges is essential to overall solve the problem of global sustainable development. This article also discusses the objective, perspective, and path of regional sustainable development system, and analyzes the academic thought of systemic solutions for regional sustainable development from the applied basic research and application practice. Using the Future Earth research initiative as a reference and based on the research framework of the regional sustainable development system, it examines the future development of human-economic geography from the three aspects of improving the ability of prediction and assessment, applied research on regulatory process and controlling mode, and institutional design with respect to Future Earth.
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    Land surface pattern study under the framework of Future Earth
    WU Shaohong, ZHAO Yan, TANG Qiuhong, ZHENG Jingyun, GAO Jiangbo, LIANG Tao, GE Quansheng
    2015, 34 (1):  10-17.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1889KB) ( )   Save
    Future Earth is a global platform for international scientific collaboration, which enables integrated research on grand challenges and transformations to sustainability, strengthens global partnerships between researchers, funders, and users of research, and communicates science to society and society to science. It combines IGBP, IHDP, WCRP, and DIVERSITAS. Its objectives are: to provide the knowledge required for societies in the world to face risks posed by global environmental change and to seize opportunities in a transition to global sustainability. It aims at scientific integration and co-production of knowledge. Analysis on characteristics of land surface pattern and its research progress shows that land surface is one of the main areas that Future Earth focuses on. Land surface pattern, formed by interaction of physical factors and different processes, may be taken as a fundamental regional frame for study of Future Earth. The prospective research of land surface pattern should make effort to improve the methodology to support progress of integrated research in physical geography.
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    Urban Geography
    Progress and prospect on urban green space research
    YANG Zhenshan, ZHANG Hui, DING Yue, SUN Yiyun
    2015, 34 (1):  18-29.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2575KB) ( )   Save
    With rapid socioeconomic development, the effect of urban green space on the ecological environment and living environment in cities has attracted increasingly more attentions. Meanwhile, due to the expansion of built-up areas, urban green space is becoming a scarce resource. A spatial mismatch exists between the supply and demand of urban green space because the quantity and quality of green space in urban centers fall short of meeting the increasing demands of the growing urban population for recreation and good health. Therefore, the planning, design, utility, and function of urban green space have become an important area of urban geography research and urban planning practice. Drawing on the recent progress in research, the paper introduces the concept of urban green space and its evolution. It also synergizes the literature of various disciplines to produce a systematic understanding of the role of urban green space in promoting ecological services, social life, and economic value of land. Main challenges include: the lack of policy and measures for effectively incorporating green space into urban spatial development, inadequate treatment of improving the quality of urban green space, and mismatch between the supply and demand of the urban green space. Therefore, we argue that green space is another important urban space other than economic and social ones. This important topic in urban geography raises new but important issues: (1) incorporating urban green space as a way of enhancing urban sustainability; (2) improving current urban planning by emphasizing the social, economic, and ecological functions of cities; (3) extending the horizon and topics from traditional descriptive research on the distribution and spatial characteristics of urban green space to look at the interaction between green space and socioeconomic development; and (4) urban geography should play a role in synergizing and facilitating multi-disciplinary research on urban green space, but needs both quantitative and qualitative methods.
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    A model of urban spatial evolution process based on economic and social activities
    NIU Fangqu, WANG Zhiqiang, HU Yue, SONG Tao, HU Zhiding
    2015, 34 (1):  30-37.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1359KB) ( )   Save
    Abstact: China is meeting the grand challenge while facing many problems brought by the rapid urbanization in the past decades. As a result, effective policies are called for to assure the sustainability of urban spatial development. Modeling urban spatial development process for policy test would be of great significance for decision making and the eventual realization of sustainable urbanization. The objective of this paper is to establish an operative model to simulate urban spatial evolution process that would help to formulate urban spatial policies. Land-use/transport interaction model (LUTI) is considered an important tool to model urban spatial development processes. We think that urban land use reflects the spatial distribution of urban economic and social activities, and urban expension and land use changes reflect the changes of urban activity distribution caused by the interaction between land use and transport. Using the LUTI concept and taking economic and social activities as an enentry point, we built an urban activity spatial evolution model (UASEM) and discussed the implementation of this model in details. UASEM includes a number of submodels, including an Activity Transition Model that predicts the amount of activities, an Estate Development Model that predicts the floorspace of buildings, a Transport Model that evaluates transport accessibility, and an Activity Location Model that predicts the spatial distribution of socioeconomic activities. The paper introduces the implementation of each submodel of the UASEM and maps the relationship between them, so the UASEM given in this paper is an operative model. UASEM is a computer model that includes an itarative programe, which simulates the iterative process of urban land use and transport interaction. To ensure that the model results converge, boundary condition of the model is carefully examined. UASEM is a dynamic model that takes into account the change of every activity. The spatial and tempral dimensions of UASEM need to be decided according to the urban scale and data availability. Towns are normally the basic spatial unit of analysis and the temporal scale of such analysis is often annual. UASEM results provide a reference for researches of urban modeling and analysis in China.
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    Relationship between sustainable urban development and economic growth based on emergy analysis: a case study of Quanzhou City
    HUANG Xun, HUANG Minsheng
    2015, 34 (1):  38-47.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1698KB) ( )   Save
    Cities are centers of surrounding regions and play an important role in regional economic and social developments. Approaches for achieving sustainable urban development has been a hot topic in the study of human- environment relationship. However, the dynamic mechanism of sustainable urban development is relatively neglected in existing urban sustainability studies. In this research, emergy analysis method was used to measure the level of sustainable urban development. On the basis of this analysis, we built a new model of Sustainable Development Kuznets Curve (SDKC), and used Quanzhou City as a case to analyze the dynamic relationship of economic growth and level of sustainable urban development. In addition, an improved model of degree of grey slope incidence was used to preliminarily examine the causes of the SDKC. The results show that the SDKC of Quanzhou City reveals a U-shaped relationship between the level of sustainable urban development and economic growth; the level of sustainable urban development was in negative correlation with economic scale, proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary industry, export dependence, and the influence of government. The generalized pollutant discharge reduction technologies, proportion of primary industry, and foreign investment played a positive role on the level of sustainable urban development. According to the results, we put forward some recommendations on promoting sustain development of the city for decision-makers, including facilitating the transformation of economic growth mode to strengthen the positive effect of modern service industry for sustainable development; adjusting export structure and improving the efficiency of exports; avoiding repetitive public infrastructure development; strengthening technological innovations to promote energy conservation; stringent environmental regulation and barriers to entry, among others. The results of this study may provide some references and foundations for the city government to accurately grasp its sustainable urban development status and dynamic mechanism, and formulate policies that are scientifically sound for sustainable urban development.
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    Research review of online shopping impact on personal travel and urban retail space and implications
    LIU Xue, ZHEN Feng, ZHANG Min, XI Guangliang
    2015, 34 (1):  48-54.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (591KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid development and wide-spread use of the Internet, online shopping, which is defined as an activity to search or purchase services or goods via the Internet, has become a new shopping media and method. Online shopping competes with traditional retailing and these two complement each other, and it reshapes people's shopping behavior and retail operation mode, thus changing the traditional retail layout and land use. This paper introduces the research of geography in recent 20 years on online shopping, personal travel, and retail space and points out that online shopping is a substitution, supplement, or correction of personal travel on shopping trips. There are three effects of online shopping on retail space: (1) expansion and fragmentation of activity space; (2) the retail space changes from a single physical space to a combination of cyber and physical spaces; (3) online retail activities infiltrate and mix with other spaces and stimulate the transformation of traditional retail space. These changes provide a basis for relevant research on the development of urban traditional retails. This paper attempts to provide a reference for commercial space planning, consumer travel optimization, and urban traditional retail development and transformation.
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    Land Use/Cover
    Rural land circulation models and benefits based on property rights in rapid urbanization areas: a case of Xiongkou Town in Hubei Province
    HAO Lily, WU Qing, WANG Zhao, WANG Wei
    2015, 34 (1):  55-63.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4307KB) ( )   Save
    In rapid urbanization areas where construction-land expansion and arable-land protection compete for limited land resources, arable land circulation has become an important measure to solve this problem. However, the process of arable land circulation was heavily impeded by unclear land ownership, changes of land use designation, conflicts of interest of parties involved in land transfer, and the lack of security of land transfer arrangements. Based on the theory of property rights combined with field interviews and a questionnaire survey, this study examined different land circulation models with respect to land properties, operation mechanism, land tenure, and benefits of land transfer in Xiongkou Town, Qianjiang City. Meanwhile, principal component analysis was used to analyze statistically the importance of each satisfaction indicator and level of satisfaction of farmers, government, and companies. The results show that: because of its rapid development, large- scale application, and ability to secure the gains of various stakeholders, the "farmers + government + company" model is the most accepted one among all the four types of land circulation models in Xiongkou. Indicators of farmer satisfaction have higher importance but the satisfaction level was lower, as compared to that of government and companies. Farmers' overall evaluation of land circulation, companies' risk control in land circulation, and stimulation of the local economy by land circulation obtained higher satisfaction among all 15 factors. Finally, some suggestions to the rural land circulation system were proposed.
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    Characteristics of cropland change in China, the United States, Brazil and India over the past 300 years
    LI Meijiao, HE Fanneng, XIAO Ran
    2015, 34 (1):  64-72.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8107KB) ( )   Save
    Comparative studies of large-scale land use and land cover change (LUCC) of different countries can offer some insight into its historical evolution and driving forces, as well as providing relevant information on land- use regulation, adaptation to global climate change, and historical responsibility for carbon emissions. In the present study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of LUCC in China, the United States, Brazil, and India over the past 300 years based on time-series population and cropland data. The results show an increasing trend in the cropland area in all four countries. The cropland area has increased by 68.21×104 km2 during 1700-1980s in China, 131.28×104 km2 during 1700-2000 in India, 190.87×104 km2 during 1700-1950 in the United States, and 62.82×104 km2 during 1900-2000 in Brazil, respectively. Characteristics of spatial expansion varied in the four countries. In China, the cropland mainly expanded to the border and hilly areas, and the same applied to India. In the United States, the cropland expanded widely into the mid-west because of the western exploration movement. In Brazil, the cropland mainly expanded to north and west because of the national development policies, but the cultivation intensity of south and southeastern Brazil also increased. Different driving forces were observed in the four countries. Population growth was the fundamental driving factor for China and India, while financial issues were the root causes of change in the United States and Brazil. With respect to the development of agricultural technology, intensive and meticulous farming was employed in China and India, while in the United States and Brazil, mechanization was the major means to improve productive efficiency in the past century.
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    Spatiotemporal pattern and driving forces of land use/cover change in Brazil
    DU Guoming, KUANG Wenhui, MENG Fanhao, CHI Wenfeng, LU Dengsheng
    2015, 34 (1):  73-82.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (17124KB) ( )   Save
    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is one of the hot topics in the study of global change. In this research, the authors adopted the method of human-computer interaction to amend the 2005 ESA GlobalCover land use data based on the Landsat TM/ETM remotely sensed data around 2005, then used the inverse phase visual interpretation method to extract land use/cover change information between 1980 and 2005 based on the Landsat MSS/ TM remotely sensed data in the 1980s, and analyzed the Spatiotemporal pattern and driving forces of the change. The results show that in the 25 years between 1980 and 2005, that area of land use/cover change reached 794300 km2 in Brazil, accounting for 9.33% of the total land area. Among these, cropland increased by 201800 km2, cropland/ natural vegetation mosaic increased by 107000 km2, forest area decreased by 531200 km2, shrub and grassland converted to other land use types by 236000 km2 and the opposite conversion was 447000 km2 with a net increase of this land use category by 211000 km2, water increased by 4600 km2, urban and built-up areas extended by 7573.87 km2. But the land use macroscopic structure did not change. Regional differences of the main land use change forms including deforestation, grassland in- and out- conversion, Land reclamation, and urban and built-up area expansion led to different land use/cover change characteristics in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecological zone, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest ecological zone, tropical and subtropical steppe ecological zone, grassland and marsh wetland ecological zone, desert and xeric plants ecological zone, and mangrove forest ecological zone. Natural geographical conditions such as landform, climate, and vegetation profoundly affected the macro pattern of land use and the possibility of land use change. Although climate change had a certain impact on cropland reclamation and the increase of grassland, land use policy, economy and foreign trade development, population growth and migration, and road construction were the direct causes of land use change in Brazil.
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    Rasterizing cropland data and accuracy comparison in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces in the Mid-Qing Dynasty
    YUAN Cun, YE Yu, FANG Xiuqi
    2015, 34 (1):  83-91.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5956KB) ( )   Save
    Historical grid data of land use are the basis for environmental effect simulation of land use/land cover change. This study distributed the cropland data for the mid-Qing Dynasty in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces into grid cells with a spatial resolution of 10 km×10 km by using the provincial-level and county-level cropland data. It also compared and assessed the two distribution results to examine the accuracy of the downscaling and rasterization of statistical data at different spatial scales. The results are as follows: (1) The distribution result that used the county-level data has higher precision. (2) There exist differences between the provincial and county statistical data downscaling results, and the average difference is 16.61%. For 24.55% of the grid cells the difference is between -10% to 10%; 13.3% of the grid cells have a difference of above 70% or below -70% and these cells are mainly in the Hongze Lake basin and the northern plain of Jiangsu Province (the estuary before the Yellow River diversion). To reduce the distribution error and improve the downscaling precision, it is necessary to reconstruct historical cropland distribution using county data. (3) The reconstructed cropland distribution in the mid-Qing Dynasty in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces reveals some regional differences. The highly farmed area was mainly concentrated in Taicang and Kunshan in the central eastern coastal plain region, and in Dangshan, Feng, and Pei Counties the reclamation rates were above 80%, with the highest in Dangshan at 89.8%. But the reclamation rate in the estuary of the old Yellow River course in the north of Jiangsu, the Hongze Lake basin, the Tai Lake basin, and the southern Anhui mountainous and hilly region was very low, at around 10%. (4) In terms of altitude and slope, in 1735, the cropland was mainly distributed in places where the altitude is lower than 100 m and slope lower than 2°. In the 1980s, however, the reclamation rate had greatly increased in areas with various slopes—for example, the reclamation rate under 2° slope increased from 45.29% in 1735 to 74.21% in the 1980s.
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    Ecology and Sustainable Development
    Calculation methods of paddy ecosystem service value and application: a case study of Suzhou City
    LIU Lihua, YIN Changbin, QIAN Xiaoping
    2015, 34 (1):  92-99.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.011
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    Inadequate attention to the ecosystem service functions of paddy fields is a major problem for paddy protection, leading to a serious loss of paddy resources. Taking paddies in Suzhou City as an example, this study used afforestation cost, Swedish carbon tax, cost of oxygen- generation by industrial means, replacement cost, shadow engineering, and equivalent factor methods to estimate paddy ecosystem services values. The results show that the net total value of paddy ecosystem services in Suzhou City is 60785.18×105 RMB. The net value of per unit area is 73111.84 Yuan/hm2. Among these, the total positive value is 68485.93×105 RMB, and the total negative value of environmental impact is 7700.75×105 RMB. The positive ecosystem service value is 8.89 times of the negative value. Based on the calculation of the various parts of paddy ecosystem service value, the actual production value is much lower than the ecological economic value. This indicates that as an artificial wetland ecosystem, paddy fields and their ecological service value play a very important role to the sustainable development of the socioeconomic system. This study may help determine the economic compensation standards of paddy resource protection, providing a basis for the introduction of relevant policies at all levels of government.
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    Research progress and themes of geography on community resilience
    GUO Yongrui, ZHANG Jie
    2015, 34 (1):  100-109.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (597KB) ( )   Save
    Escalating conflicts among population, resource, and environment may have profound impacts on sustainable development. Thus, there is a renewed science and policy interest in the ability of society to cope with and positively adapt to crises and change. Resilience theory has emerged in recent years as a sustainable development paradigm to provide new perspectives on community development and socioeconomic system adjustments to a rapidly changing world. Resilience research has gone through three distinctive paradigms, from ‘ecological resilience’, ‘social-ecological resilience’, to the most recent focus on the resilience of human systems and communities referred to as ‘social resilience’. Existing studies on community resilience are mainly focused on the concept and definition of community resilience, factors that enable community resilience, and measurement methods for community resilience based on objective indicators and perception of various actors. However, there are four deficiencies in the existing community resilience research. First, a commonly accepted conceptual framework for understanding community resilience is yet to be developed. Second, there have been relatively more studies on rural communities but research on certain resource-dependent communities is very few. Third, there is more research on the implications of sudden-onset natural disasters for communities but not on other types of disasters and crises. Measurement methods for community resilience based on objective indicators are not very effective and adaptive for community capacity assessments. Previous studies have not formed a mature scale for community resilience assessments. Finally, there is a need for a much thorough analysis of mechanisms of influence of key factors that have impacts on community resilience. Further studies should strengthen the research on the formation mechanism and regional diversity of community resilience in several different types of communities. More attention should be paid to the dynamic process and factors that enable community resilience. We should commit to developing a more reliable and validated community resilience scale, one that more accurately reflects the concept of resilience. Given this situation, a more careful re-evaluation of indicators of community resilience is warranted.
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    Application of GIS
    Spatiotemporal characteristics and influencing factors of inflow population in Guangdong from 2000 to 2010
    LI Yuejiao, YANG Xiaohuan, CAI Hongyan, YU Yuefei
    2015, 34 (1):  110-117.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4868KB) ( )   Save
    Since the economic reform and opening up, Guangdong Province has been one of the provinces in China that has the largest floating population inflow. Data from the sixth census show that Guangdong had 21497787 inflow population from other provinces, which accounted for 20.61% of the total population in Guangdong in 2010. The number of inflow population in Guangdong ranked the first in all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China. Using data from the fifth and sixth national population census in 2000 and 2010 and spatial autocorrelation method (global autocorrelation, local autocorrelation, and cold and hot spot analyses), we analyzed the spatial- temporal characteristics and influencing factors of inflow population in Guangdong Province during the first decade of the 21st century. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2010, the number of inflow population in Guangdong increased sharply, but the distribution pattern of the inflow population was stable. The concentration of the inflow population slightly decreased from 2000 to 2010. (2) The number of inflow population in Guangdong Province was closely related to economic development, but the distribution pattern had a clear relationship with local industrial transfer policies.
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    Application of geographical detector in human-environment relationship study of prehistoric settlements
    BI Shuoben, JI Han, CHEN Changchun, YANG Hongru, SHEN Xiang
    2015, 34 (1):  118-127.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.014
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    In order to model the optimal discretization of site-river distance of prehistoric settlements and to obtain a quantitative characterization of the correlation between sites and river, this paper takes Lushi County of Henan Province as an example and uses the method of geographical detector for analysis. The model is to discrete the continuous geographic data based on the values. Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the performance of four classification methods (Equal Interval—EI, Quantile Value—QV, Natural Break—NB, and Geometrical Interval—GI) in the model for the Peiligang period, the Early Yangshao period, the Late Yangshao period, and the Longshan period. It then analyzes the structure, development pattern, distribution, and scope of the settlements for a better understanding of the human-environment relationship in prehistoric settlements from the perspective of societal organization and development state and cultural and behavioral patterns of humans in prehistoric time. The results show that: (1) Optimal discretization of site-river distance is realized using the classification method of NB, QV, NB, and GI with class number of 8, 8, 8, and 6 for the four periods. The power of this determinant for determining the density of sites is 39.5%, 70.8%, 73.0%, 59.8%; (2) Floods caused the terrace on both sides of the river to collapse gradually and reduced the area of the terrace. In order to gain more living space within the limited area, the sites dispersed along the river. When the terrace area became too small, dispersion along the river was too costly and the ancient settlements began to expand away from the river. Therefore the determining power of the factor of site-river distance first increased and then decreased. (3) In terms of improvement strength, NB/EI>GI>QV; in terms of improvement efficiency, EI/GI>NB>QV; in terms of the power of the determinant, GI>QV/NB>EI; (4) Settlement structure changed from simple, sparse, and loosely structured in the Peiligang period to polarized in the Early Yangshao period, then developed into a stage composed of three segments in the Late Yangshao period. The driving force of settlement development changed from population growth in the early stage to structural change of the society. Settlement distribution and human activities concentrated within 1~2.5 hours walking distance from the river and continued to expand. This is the result of waterborne disease aversion and reflects the ample supply of labor and food resources brought by the optimized division of labor in the society and possibly the invention of new technologies and tools.
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