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    25 March 2014, Volume 33 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column of Geopolitics
    Geopolitical and geo-economic situation around and China’s strategies
    MAO Hanying
    2014, 33 (3):  289-302.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (702KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the introduction of representative Western geopolitical and geoeconomic theories of the late nineteenth century and the twentieth century, this paper analyzes the characteristics of historical and contemporary geopolitics and geoeconomics in China's surrounding areas. It also discusses the basic patterns and trends of geopolitical and geoeconomic situations in the area. The main patterns and characteristics are as follows. China's geopolitical relationship is close and geoeconomic relationship develops at a relatively rapid pace with northern neighboring countries. Its geopolitical relationship continuously develops and prospect of geoeconomic cooperation is very promising with neighboring countries to the west. On the other hand, China's geopolitical relationship with countries to the southwest is very fragile but the geoeconomic relationship has great potential to develop. In the south, China's geopolitical and geoeconomic relationship with neighboring countries is overall healthy, but the issue of South China Sea can be a potential cause of instability. Last but not the least, the geopolitical situation in the area to the east has sensitive and complex hotspots, whereas the structure of geoeconomics maintains relatively stable. This paper puts forward strategies and countermeasures in order to improve the geopolitical and geoeconomic situations, which can be summarized as "Uniting in the North, Advancing in the West, Cooperating in the South, and Extending in the East". More specifically, "Uniting in the North" focuses on building a stable zone geopolitically based on mutual trust, economic and trade ties, science and technology, culture and other fields of cooperation with countries including Russia and Mongolia. "Advancing in the West" means expanding the economic and trade cooperation and cultural exchanges with five Central Asian countries, Russia and West Asia, Eastern Europe and the European Union countries through the development of the "Silk Road Economic Belt", which vigorously promotes the vast development of geoeconomics and creates a favorable geopolitical environment for Western China. "Cooperating in the South" aims at further strengthening traditional cooperative relations with South Asia and Southeast Asia countries by means of negotiation and dialogue, gradually resolving the Sino-Indian border dispute and territorial disputes in South China Sea. It also means promoting regional cooperation between China and ASEAN countries and countries located in the South Asia subcontinent, deepening the strategic friendship relations. All goals under "Cooperating in the South" cannot be accomplished without the development of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, the China-Burma-India-Bangladesh economic corridor and the twenty-first century maritime Silk Road. At last, "Extending in the East" places emphasis on breaking the first and second island chain encircled China set by USA and Japan and makes an ambitious plan that captures the mastery of the seas in 2020.
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    Geopolitical position of Central Asian countries and geopolitical strategy of China
    LI Tongsheng, LONG Dongping
    2014, 33 (3):  303-314.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3955KB) ( )   Save
    Beginning with the ancient Silk Road till the emergence of the concept "Silk Road Economic Belt" in recent years, Central Asia, with its unique geopolitical position, has always been of high strategic importance to China. As neighboring countries of China, Central Asian countries are key partners for China's development cooperation. They also have an important role to play in China's pursuit for improving its national security and energy security. From the perspective of human and economic geography, this paper systematically examines the geopolitical position of Central Asian countries and their geopolitical strategies toward China based on country characteristics and their geopolitical relationship and geopolitical cooperation strategy with China. (1) The homogeneity of the natural and human systems of Central Asia, the disparity of development levels within the region and dependency upon external forces of the national economies, and the long-term competition among great powers as well as the region's high importance to China's geopolitical interests, provide the entry point for the interest and study of geography on Central Asia geopolitical issues. (2) On the global scale, this paper analyzes the geopolitical relationship between Central Asian countries and Russia that represents the "Eurasian Area", United States that represents the "Marine Area", and China that represents the "East Asian Area" in Cohen's contemporary geopolitical regionalization model of the world; On the regional scale, this paper analyzes the geopolitical relationship between Central Asian and neighboring countries or regions using a combined concentric circles and fan-shaped distribution model. (3) China has well-developed geopolitical, economic and cultural interests in Central Asia, and Central Asian countries also have a huge geopolitical demand towards China. These constitute the basis of the cooperation between China and Central Asian countries. (4) China should gradually become an active participant of geopolitics and geopolitical culture in Central Asia and a leader of regional geopolitical economy in the future.
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    Hydrology and Ecology
    Snow cover area changes in the Yurungkax River Basin of West Kunlun Mountains during 2000-2013 using MODIS data
    YAN Wei, LIU Jingshi, LUO Guangming, DONG Kepeng, LU Wei, DU Xinhao
    2014, 33 (3):  315-325.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6105KB) ( )   Save
    The Yurungkax River is one of the two major tributaries of the Hotan River that is located at the southern edge of the Tarim River Basin. Its flow is mainly recharged by snow and ice melt water. Since these sources of river flow play an important role in the state of regional water resources, it is necessary to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of snow cover area(SCA) in this catchment for rational water resource management. In this study, we mainly used 8-day snow cover data(MOD10A2) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer to extract the SCA of the studied basin over a period of 13 years(March 2000 to February 2013). The two methods used for removing cloud contamination of the SCA images are as follows: MOD/MYD images compositing; and correction using glacier boundary extracted using nine Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI images from 2000 to 2013. The results show that the two methods removed on average 77.23% of the cloudy pixels and effectively increased the number of images that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed the spatial and temporal variations of the SCA in the study area using the corrected MOD10A2 snow cover data, and calculated the coefficients of the Pearson correlation between the SCA and meteorological parameters(air temperature and precipitation) from the hydrological station Tongguziluoke. Results of seasonal change analysis indicate single peak(winter season) of the SCA at low altitude (1650~4000 m asl.) and double peaks(spring and autumn respectively) at high altitude (4000~6000 m asl.), as well as no significant change of the SCA above 6000 m asl. because most areas at this altitude are covered by glaciers. Inter-annual changes of the SCA show that neither the average nor the maximum SCA at all altitude had a significant increasing trend, but the minimum SCA at high altitude increased significantly at a rate of 65.877 km2 per year during the study period. The SCA time series analysis shows an increasing-decreasing-increasing trend at all altitudes in spring, summer and winter seasons respectively. But in the autumn, there was no significant fluctuation of the SCA at low altitude except in 2009 and 2010, which were the peak years of the SCA, and the SCA shows an increasing-decreasing trend at high altitude. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SCA and air temperature and precipitation in 8-day interval show that SCA changes are significantly influenced by air temperature and precipitation at low altitude, where air temperature was the dominant factor in the spring and summer, precipitation was the dominant factor in the winter, and air temperature and precipitation equally controlled the SCA regime in the autumn. At high altitude, SCA was sensitive to precipitation only in winter and spring. In the summer SCA was affected by both temperature and precipitation but air temperature was the main factor that influenced SCA.
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    Changes in ecological patterns of Maqu alpine wetland in Yellow River Source Area during 2000-2010
    CHU Lin, HUANG Chong, LIU Gaohuan, LIU Qingsheng
    2014, 33 (3):  326-335.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (13577KB) ( )   Save
    Wetland as a unique ecosystem has important environment regulating functions and irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological balance, conserving biodiversity, and providing food, materials and water resources to humans. The Maqu alpine wetland located in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau is an important water conserving and supplying area to the upper reach of the Yellow River. In the past 30 years, global warming has led to significant vegetation changes on the Tibetan Plateau. The Maqu alpine wetland is undergoing a process of prominent warming and drying, and degradation of its water conservation function is very significant in recent years. Wetland vegetation dynamics , regional differentiation and causes of degradation of the alpine wetland ecosystem were investigated using multi-source remote sensing data in this study. Land use information and ecological patterns of Maqu were extracted via analyzing Landsat-5/TM and Landsat-7/ETM+ satellite images of 2000 and 2010, through visual interpretation and supervised classification using GIS techniques. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) was used as an indicator in monitoring vegetation changes. MODIS NDVI time series data of 2000-2010(after applying the S-G filtering method and MVC) were used to detect temporal and spatial variations and evolution trend of wetland ecosystems. Point data from weather stations was interpolated using Kriging interpolation method. Based on long-term observations from weather stations,the relationship between Maqu wetland changes and climatic factors(temperature and precipitation) was examined using the least squares method. The results show that areas of rivers, inland beaches, ponds, and swamp meadows were decreasing. Summer NDVI of 2000-2010 in the study area also decreased. Areas with significant decline in NDVI are located in Cairima, Manrima and Hequmachang. Changes in vegetation type also occurred, as signified by swamp meadows shifting to subalpine meadows. The warming and dry climate appears to be a critical factor contributing to the degradation of the Maqu alpine wetland. The changes of the Maqu alpine wetland are related to the inter-annual variability of precipitation and temperature, with 61% and 51% of the total area showing a positive correlation between NDVI and annual precipitation as well as between NDVI and mean temperature respectively. A stronger correlation exists between NDVI and annual precipitation, indicating that the vegetation growth is more sensitive to the inter-annual variability of precipitation.
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    Bibliometric analysis of ecological footprint research during 1992-2012
    ZHOU Xiaoyan, ZHANG Wenyan, YE Xinyue, GAN Tian, HAN Xiang
    2014, 33 (3):  336-346.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2231KB) ( )   Save
    The term "Ecological Footprint" is used to quantify the pattern of sustainable development in many recent studies. Since this term was coined in 1992, it has gained a growing popularity among scholars and decision makers all over the world because of its operability and comparability across various places. Based on the SCIE (Science Citation Index Expanded) and SSCI(Social Science Citation Index) databases, a bibliometric analysis is conducted on ecological footprint research during 1992-2012. The objective of this study is to identify the status and research direction of this theme. The collaboration relationship on this theme is detected among authors, research institutions, and countries. In addition, differences in research between China, USA and UK is identified. Future trend and hot topics are discussed as well. This study should serve as a useful guidance for beginners to grasp the big picture of this growing literature list while experienced researchers can gain a comprehensive and in-depth overview of this hot topic to better refine research directions and detect the gaps to fill. Bibliometrics is employed in this paper to analyze the publication pattern of ecological footprint research. As a research method used in library and information sciences, bibliometrics has been widely applied to analyze the pattern of literature and trend of a given topic or subject. It can be used for in-depth reviews of research themes for better guidance for follow-up studies. Based on 869 publications indexed in the SCIE/SSCI databases during 1992-2012, the bibliometrics depicts the progress of ecological footprint research through the revisit of many studies in this field. Build upon many review papers on ecological footprint, this bibliometrics-based paper presents a more comprehensive summary of the term definition, computational models, and case studies. The results reveal that the most productive and influential scholar in ecological footprint research is Wackernagel M, a Canadian ecological economist. University of British Columbia and University of Sydney are two major research institutions. Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University are two most influential institutions in this research area in China. USA ranks as the top country in the publications of this topic both qualitatively and quantitatively. China's publications of ecological footprint research follow USA and UK, but the quality should be improved in the future. Despite a relatively smaller size of publications than many other themes, ecological footprint research has witnessed a growing trend by paper number and collaboration across countries. Research has been conducted at multiple scales over the years, with growing interest in analyzing finer-scale patterns and trend. The list of research methods has become richer and more diverse. The methods such as input-output analysis, life cycle assessment and energy analysis are among the most popular approaches in recent literatures, though different countries vary in research focus. Climate change, carbon footprint and the transfer of ecological footprint appear to be the emerging hot topics.
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    Regional and Industrial Development
    Funding source structure in different types of provincial-level Major Function Oriented Zones (MFOZs) in China
    CHENG Jingyao, FAN Jie, CHEN Dong
    2014, 33 (3):  347-355.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2115KB) ( )   Save
    Fund is one of the most important factors of regional economic growth and social development, and the spatial distribution of funds plays an important role in the distribution of regional development activities. Sound distribution of funds will help narrow the gap in regional development, or otherwise the gap will be widening. Various factors drive the distribution of different types of funds and there are significant variations between the spatial distributions of market fund and government fund, with the results that different areas have different ratios of such funds. Coordinating the allocation of market and government funds is an effective guarantee of smooth implementation of Major Function Oriented Zone(MFOZ) Planning. Within a particular region, different types of MFOZs are confronted with different fund constraints and fund needs. They also have different abilities to attract the two types of funds. Theoretical analysis shows that while market fund focuses on efficiency, government fund emphasizes fairness. Thus, because of their varied levels and potentials of economic development, Development-Optimized Regions have higher attractiveness to market funds as compared to Development- Prioritized Regions, and Development Regions have higher attractiveness than Restricted Regions. Nevertheless, based on the request of the national planning of MFOZs, Restricted Regions must protect food security and their ecological integrity, which also require a large amount of fund supply. The large gap between the demand and supply of market funds should be reduced by government funding, which leads to different funding structures in different MFOZs. This paper verifies the above theoretical analysis using data from 12 provincial- level administrative units that have issued Major Function Oriented Zones Planning, with two indices: degree of market fund utilization index and state financing dependency index. We found that: (1) There is an inverse relationship between these two indices, that is, the regions that have better potential of attracting market funds received less central government funding. (2) The provincial scale analysis for county fund data shows that the proportion of market fund from high to low is as follows: Development-Optimized Region, Development- Prioritized Region, Development-Restricted Region. (3) The empirical finding is not entirely consistent with the theoretical analysis results, because industrial upgrading pressure in Development-Optimized Regions is not completely translated into fund overflow pressure. (4) Based on the experiences of areas that underwent the most successful economy transition, regional industrial upgrading should be implemented through the process of "economic downturn and rebound". (5) More government funds should be diverted to Development-Optimized Regions as well as Development-Restricted Regions in order to balance production development and livelihood improvement considerations.
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    Response of ecological carrying capacity to socioeconomic and environmental changes in Dongting Lake Region during 2001-2010
    XIONG Jianxin, CHEN Duanlv, PENG Baofa, DONG Minghui, WANG Yali
    2014, 33 (3):  356-363.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2171KB) ( )   Save
    The interrelation between socioeconomic and environmental conditions and ecological carrying capacity is one of the most important themes of sustainable development studies in recent years. At different spatial and temporal scales, ecological carrying capacity responds to regional social, economic, and environmental changes in varying degrees. Using sustainable development index and ecological carrying capacity response model, the social, economic, and environmental changes and corresponding ecological carrying capacity change of the Dongting Lake Region from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed. The results indicate that: (1) For the lake region as a whole, economic development degree and social harmonization degree showed an upward trend; integrity and sustainability of ecosystems showed an positive change; while environmental sustainability degree declined. (2) Development degree, harmonization degree and sustainable degree of 17 counties of the Dongting Lake Region showed an upward trend; in the urban areas of Yueyang, Changde and Yiyang development and harmonization degrees were higher than the other 14 counties, while environmental sustainability degree decreased most significantly. (3) Ecological carrying capacity was divided into four categories: severely overload, overload, slightly under-load and under-load. The urban areas of Yueyang, Changde and Yiyang had higher levels of socioeconomic development, but the status of their ecological carrying capacity was severely overload, which indicates that economic development, social progress, resource use and environmental quality were poorly balanced. (4) Regression analysis of ecological carrying capacity, economic development degree, social harmonization degree, environmental sustainability degree, and sustainable development index show that, to some extent, environmental sustainability degree became an important foundation for improving ecological carrying capacity. The present destructive economic development model has become an obstacle for enhancing ecological carrying capacity. Due to the fact that the rapid socioeconomic development depends too much on resource exploitation and disturbances to the regional environment and ecology, the influence of environmental sustainability on ecological carrying capacity and sustainable development index is rather weak and economic development is largely at the cost of the ecological environment. This result provides a basis for the country to implement the scientific concept of development, build a harmonious society and achieve sustainable development of its regional economy, society, environment and ecology.
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    Comprehensive assessment of regional PRED system based on new urbanization approach:a case study in Dalian
    ZHENG Defeng, ZANG Zheng, ZHANG Yu, SUN Caizhi
    2014, 33 (3):  364-374.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (11240KB) ( )   Save
    At present, China is in the process of rapid urbanization. The traditional urban development approach urgently needs to be transformed into a new urbanization model that is intelligent, green and low-carbon. Meanwhile, coordinated urban-rural development and regional integrative development have gained greater importance. In order to systematically assess the quality of China's urbanization under the new situation, the comprehensive assessment method of regional PRED system was proposed considering the complicated relationship between population, resources, environment and economic and social development(PRED), which are mutually stimulating but also restricting. This paper proposes the concept and characterization method of regional PRED carrying capacity. By learning from the Pressure-State-Response(PSR) model, the assessment index system of regional PRED on Carrying capacity-Pressure-State-Response was established. A comprehensive responsiveness and emergency response grade categorization method was proposed to assess regional PRED system by multi-objective planning and decision making. Using Dalian city as an example, this study empirically analyzes the above-mentioned concept, model, assessment index system and assessment method. The results show that during 2000-2012, PRED system of Dalian was in a state of overload, that regional population carrying capacity decreased from 3630 thousand to 2910 thousand persons. Compared with nationwide levels, the pressure of Dalian PRED system was relative low with a decreasing trend: the load index of regional PRED system dropped from 0.97 to 0.85. Comprehensive responsiveness of regional PRED in Dalian was above 0.6 and emergency response grade was GradeⅡ(orange) or Grade Ⅲ(yellow). The results indicate that because of resource scarcity and environmental degradation, the population carrying capacity of Dalian was gradually decreasing. Due to the continuous development of economy and social security, the pressure of urbanization in Dalian has been relieved. In the future, relevant government departments should seek to actively solve the problem of resources and environmental constraints of new urbanization, resolve the conflicts that hindered the sustainable development of economy and society, promote regional coordinated development through reasonably managing the urban size and resources allocation and practicing environmental protection, industrial transformation and livelihood security improvement. By comparing with similar studies and further discussion, the results of this paper are considered as reliable and conforming to the reality of Dalian in population, resources, environment and economic and social development. The concept of regional PRED carrying capacity and the assessment index system based on the carrying capacity PSR model and multi-objective decision-making method provide a new thought and method to quantitatively assess the quality of urbanization and regional sustainable development.
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    Determinants and dynamics of spatial differentiation of housing price in Yangzhou
    WANG Yang, LI Qiang, WANG Shaojian, QIN Jing
    2014, 33 (3):  375-388.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6372KB) ( )   Save
    Urban housing price differentiation is an important issue in urban geography. Given the current high prices of housing in China, spatial variation of inner city housing prices becomes an important part of the Chinese urban geographic studies. Housing prices in China have become the focus of concern for both the government and urban residents, had significant implications for social justice and stability, improvement of living standards, enhancement of residential satisfaction and social harmony, as well as become the key issue in sustainable urbanization and the healthy development of real estate markets. Therefore, housing prices has become the core issue that is paid close attention by all levels of governments and inhabitants. The focus of this research is to examine determinants and dynamics of spatial differentiation of housing price in Yangzhou. In this paper, all types of residential areas located in Yangzhou are investigated, with the living quarters(or residential groups) taken as the basic research unit, with data in 2012. As the study included ordinary commercial housing, attached and detached houses, high-end commercial and residential apartments, housing-reform quarters, affordable houses and single-storey cottages, that is, all housing types that can be sold on the market, the result of this investigation is much more reliable compared to other studies that analyzed only ordinary commercial housing. Our appraisal system of urban housing price differentiation composed of 20 evaluation factors, four determinants and four expectation factors. The four determinants contain building(architectural) characteristics, residential quarter characteristics, location and convenience features, and landscape and environmental characteristics. The four expectation factors are displacement and resettlement, residential quarter renewal, urban spatial development strategy, and landscape and environmental renovations. Based on the evaluation and expectation factors, we calculated the scores of the four determinants in all residential groups, and analyzed their spatial differentiation patterns. Linear regression was performed between the dependent variable-housing prices of the 1305 residential quarters in Yangzhou in 2012, and the independent variables: the four determinants of price. The main influence factors of the city-wide housing market and sub-markets were evaluated by regression against housing prices. The results show that: (1) spatial patterns of the four determinants' scores are clearly different. Building characteristics and residential quarter characteristics scores show a low(center district) to high(outskirts) differentiation with concentric circles. Scores of location and convenience and landscape and environment characteristics are high in the west and center districts, and low in the east district and outskirts. (2) The key determinant of housing price is residential quarter characteristics in Yangzhou. There exist different key determinants for respective housing sub-markets. (3) The main dynamics of spatial differentiation of housing prices are as follows: locational direction on dwelling construction of particular housing types, spatial agglomeration of particular income groups, spatial inequality of investment in public commodity and locational direction on urban residential expansion and urban redevelopment. These dynamics acted on the four determinants and generated the observed spatial differentiation of housing prices in Yangzhou.
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    Review of creative industries from perspective of embeddedness
    WEN Hu, GUI Yana
    2014, 33 (3):  389-398.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (506KB) ( )   Save
    Economic activity is socially constructed and historically determined by individual and collective actions expressed through organizations and institutions. Along with the development of economic geography, institution and culture tend to be hotspots in this subject realm. The theories of new economic geography that contain new regionalism economic geography, cultural economic geography, relationship economic geography, evolution economic geography among others are gradually being built and improved. More scholars began to pay close attention to the non-economic factors that influence regional economic development. In this process, the concept of "embeddedness" that came from the new economic sociology is increasingly becoming a key word. And it has gained much prominence in economic geography over the last decade, as much work has been done on the social and organizational foundations of economic activities and regional development. This article analyzes the progress in research of creative industry development from the perspective of embeddedness. It starts with the use and development of the concept of "embeddednes" in economic geography. Economic geographers developed the conception of "embeddedness". They pointed out that it includes three dimensions: (1) "Cultural and institutional embeddedness", which means that economic behaviors are always affected by the special culture, institution, religious and morality, which are like genes embedded in the action of economic behaviors. The degree and behaviors of interpersonal trust, dependence and information sharing are affected by cultural tradition and value criterion and institution. (2) "Territorial embeddedness", that is, economic behaviors are always embedded in the local environment. The territorial related relationship will affect the behavior of economic actors. (3) "Network embeddedness", that is, a lot of formal and informal contacts between economic actors form network organizations. So everyone in the network is always affected by the network structure and his position in the network. Those new conceptions put forward by geographers are more detailed and have "space" meaning when compared with the traditional conception of economic sociology. The article also discusses the necessity and importance of doing research on the development of regional creative industry from the perspective of embeddedness. Based on the three dimensions of "embeddedness", this article reviews related literature and summarizes as well as comments on related research achievements in this field. In the end, the article discusses the outlook of future economic geography research of creative industry development from the perspective of embeddedness. Furthermore, the article points out that the research of "embeddedness" of the regional economics is not only an important area where Chinese scholars are able to participate in international economic geography theory building, dialogues and debates, but also an important direction for mainstream economic geography to promote its localization construction, hence it has important significance both theoretically and practically. Scholars should continue to put into energy to carry out in-depth studies.
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    Research progress in manufacturing industry productivity
    LI Yan, HE Canfei
    2014, 33 (3):  399-410.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.011
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    Productivity has always been one of the key research areas in both economics and geography, which relates to the source and quality of economic growth. In the paradigm of productivity research, manufacturing, as the core sector in the economic system, has attracted growing interests of scholars. China is currently experiencing a profound transformation from a big manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country. Manufacturing industry productivity has a great impact on the position of China in the global value chain. Against this background, this paper has provided a comprehensive review on manufacturing industry productivity research. The research on manufacturing productivity will lead to improving the efficiency of resource use and optimizing industrial distribution. The paper summarized the theoretical developments of manufacturing industry productivity research in different stages from three aspects: definition and research area, source of the productivity growth, and productivity growth path. The concept of manufacturing productivity can be discussed in two ways: single factor productivity and total factor productivity. Single factor productivity relates one input to outputs. Whereas, total factor productivity expresses the ratio of all outputs produced to all resources used. Based on Cobb-Douglas production function, capital and labor are the main dominant inputs of a production process taking technological improvements as exogenous assumption. With the development of the productivity study, the exogenous technological improvements assumption was break. The endogenous growth theory and the agglomeration theory emphasized the role of information spillover and externality. We generalized the contributing empirical research on manufacturing industry productivity. It's evident that fixed asset investment, foreign trade and export, foreign direct investment, institutional and policy environment, industrial agglomeration all affected manufacturing productivity. However, no unanimous conclusions have been obtained on how these factors impacted manufacturing productivity. One of the heated discussions is the relationship between export and manufacturing productivity. Some researchers found that exporting boosted firm productivity by expanding market opportunities, while others hold that only the most productive firms could become exporting enterprises. Compared with the empirical research in the West, we found that the factors influencing manufacturing productivity in China were more complicated in the Chinese economic environment. In general, the manufacturing productivity research in China has made remarkable progress especially in the aspect of empirical research. However, it lacked localized theoretical system, and was short of attention to the unique historical, geographic and policy background of manufacturing industry in China. Therefore, the manufacturing industry productivity research in China could more focus on the following aspects in the future: (1) constructing localized theoretical framework that is suitable for manufacturing industry productivity research in China; (2) exploring the spatial and industrial heterogeneity of manufacturing industry productivity by introducing multiple spatial analysis methods; and (3) regional manufacturing structure shift and productivity evolution under the background of the global industrial chain division and the domestic and international industry shift. Research on Chinese manufacturing productivity is useful for enhancing the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry in China.
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    Tourism Geography
    Relationship between specific attributes of place, tourists’place attachment and pro-environment behavioral intentions in Jiuzhaigou
    WAN Jicai, ZHANG Jie, LU Shaojing, LI Li
    2014, 33 (3):  411-421.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1003KB) ( )   Save
    Along with the increasing concern about the relationship between human and environment, the relationship between tourist place attachment and their pro-environment behavioral intentions has been studied by a few researchers. However, "place" has always been taken as the context without an explicit explanation of the connotation and its potential role. The specific attributes of a place, referring to the comparative strength or uniqueness of the place, have been hardly considered in the research framework of pro-environment behaviors and intentions although it is the fundamental and indispensable element of the human-environment interactions, especially in a distinctive and impressive destination such as Jiuzhaigou. Jiuzhaigou is a natural World Heritage site in China, famous for its splendid natural scenery and the Tibetan customs and traditions. Using Jiuzhaigou as the study case, this article took the specific attributes of the place(containing natural environment and social environment of Jiuzhaigou perceived by tourists) as the antecedents, place attachment(containing place dependence and place identity) as the intermediaries, and pro-environment behavioral intentions(containing low effort pro-environment behavioral intentions and high effort pro-environment behavioral intentions) as consequences to establish a structural model for further exploration of the relationship between tourists' place attachment and their pro-environment behavioral intention, and for an experimental examination of the role of specific attributes of a place in that relationship. Data were collected by structured questionnaire survey carefully designed and amended. One variable was removed after the initial reliability and validity analysis. After confirmatory factor analysis, the model was tested. The overall fit of the measurement model suggested a reasonable model fit to the data given the sample size and number of indicators. Finally two of eight hypotheses were rejected and all of the rest were accepted. Four main conclusions have been obtained by this research: (1) significant discrepancy exists between two dimensions of place attachment for their influences on pro-environment behavioral intentions of different types; (2) "specific attributes of Jiuzhaigou" has a significant positive impact on tourists' place attachment, indicating its importance in the development of tourists' place attachment; (3) "specific attributes of Jiuzhaigou" has a significant positive impact on tourists' pro-environment behavioral intentions by mediating tourists' place attachment, performing as an effective predictor for tourists' pro-environment behavioral intentions and an indispensable factor in research related to tourists' place attachment and pro-environment behavioral intentions and their relationship; (4) different specific attributes of Jiuzhaigou had varied effects, namely, more obvious attributes of a specific place(natural environmental attributes of Jiuzhaigou) have more significant effects.
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    Spatial network structure and optimization of cross-border tourism area based on tourist flow:a case study in Lugu Lake
    PENG Hongsong, LU Lin, LU Xingfu, LING Shanjin
    2014, 33 (3):  422-431.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3011KB) ( )   Save
    Based on questionnaire survey and online travel notes, we obtained tourist flow data and used the social network theory and methods to build the model of cross-border tourism area network structure and the evaluation indices. The network structural index primarily measures core potential, core-periphery interaction and structural equivalence. The node structural index mainly measures centricity and structural hole. The boundary effect index estimates overall boundary effect and node boundary effect. From the perspective of tourist flow, the paper explores the tourism spatial network structure, node functional roles and the shielding effect of boundary by taking Lugu Lake in Sichuan and Yunnan as a case. It aims at enriching and deepening the thoughts of cross-border tourism research, developing a new approach for the study of network spatial structure and providing some scientific basis for the cross-border collaboration tourist areas. We conducted the survey in the Lugu Lake area during 12-24 August, 2012. We acquired background information through visiting tourism administration departments and major tourism companies and investigating the main tourism villages around the lake. We also interviewed visitors and ask them to fill out the questionnaires. The results show that: (1) the tourism spatial network of Lugu Lake is dense in the northern and central parts but sparse in the south, which shows a clear core-periphery structure. Tourist flows around the lake tend to choose circular and dotted routes. Influenced by the boundary effect, the overall network of tourist flow shows a boundary fracture phenomenon, while tourists in shared area show multicentric divergence. (2) The 15 tourism villages around the Lugu Lake can be divided into five types: core tourism site, sub-tourism center, important tourism node, general node and peripheral node. Same type of tourism nodes shows similar patterns in the centricity indicator. (3) There is a significant border effect in cross-border tourism activities. The shielding effect of Lugu Lake provincial administrative boundary is similar on both sides of the boundary, while the shielding effect of boundary nodes is remarkably different, with the proportion of nodes that have an obvious boundary effect significantly greater in Sichuan than Yunnan. (4) The spatial structure of cross-border tourism network in Lugu Lake is characterized by five levels of tourism bases, six travel axis, and three tourism systems. Considering this structure, some optimization paths are put forward, including building a Sichuan-Yunnan scenic area management committee to uniformly develop tourism resources and products, construct a unified brand, and jointly manage marketing; making use the function of the Xiaoluoshui and Dazu as cross-border tourist routes.
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    Temporal and spatial evolution of lodging industry in Beijing and its influencing factors
    YAN Liying, LI Wei, YANG Chengfeng, SONG Jinping
    2014, 33 (3):  432-440.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.03.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3516KB) ( )   Save
    Distribution of lodging industry is sensitive to urban environmental change. However, in the study of urban space reconfiguration, lodging industry as advanced services is usually neglected when compared to the study of population, housing, industrial, and commercial sectors and offices. The rapid development of the tourism industry has promoted high growth of the lodging industry in Beijing. The sudden rise of economy hotel brought about internal structural transformation of lodging industry. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games had an important impact on the lodging industry as well. Thus, the aim of this paper is to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the lodging industry and influencing factors from 1997 to 2012 in Beijing, discuss the evolution pattern of lodging industry, analyze the coevolution relationship between this industry and the urban spatial structure, and reflect on the restructuring characteristics of the urban space. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst technique is used to research the temporal and spatial evolution of lodging industry, in which kernel density analysis is chosen to identify the clusters of hotels. Under the assumption that the central area of Beijing is mono-centrically distributed in structure, an ordered multivariate Logit model is applied to reveal the correlation between hotel locations and their influencing factors, in order to support the conclusion of theoretical analysis. The study shows that: (1) The centralization and centrifugal diffusion trends in lodging industry both exist, and the pattern is relative diffusion. The expansion is characterized by agglomeration and varied growth in different directions. There are five types of spatial expansions: concentric circle expansion, localized fan-shaped expansion, corridor type expansion, enclave expansion and filling expansion. (2) Accessibility is extremely essential to hotel location in any period. Land price increase in central city and promotion of traffic technology prompt lodging industry to spread to the outskirts of the city. Agglomeration changes in accordance with centripetal and centrifugal trends. (3) Sitting of lodging industry had different preferences at different periods. Urbanization process influences the location and relocation of the lodging industry and the lodging industry has shaped the urban landscape and urban spatial structure. (4) The suburbanization in Beijing is speeding up, that centrifugal effect that shapes the urban structure is enhanced, heterogeneity and complexity of urban space is increased, but centrality is still strong. The Beijing Olympic Games stimulated the growth of hotels and the development of urban functional areas. Under the background of market saturation in the central city, the lodging industry should seize the opportunity of urban space reconfiguration and suburbanization, seek to develop space in the center of urban periphery, functional area or transition region and to undertake spillovers, avoid the land price uplifting and agglomeration diseconomies in the city center. Meantime, the government should guide the rational distribution of lodging industry, opening up new space for development, thus contributing to improve residential services and rapid rise of new urban districts.
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