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    25 December 2013, Volume 32 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Column: The 14th National Symposium for Young Geographers
    Study on suburbanization of living and activity space
    ZHANG Yan, CHAI Yanwei
    2013, 32 (12):  1723-1731.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (889KB) ( )   Save
    In the process of rapid suburbanization, cities in China have been experiencing drastic urban spatial restructuring as well as profound transformation of residents' ways of life and living and activity space. In recent decades, suburbanization of residents' living and activity space became the fifth wave of suburbanization following the suburbanization waves of population, industry, commerce as well as office industry. In addition, there have been the problems such as excessive comsumption of natural resources and energy, severe environment pollution, increasingly serious traffic congestion, the decline in quality of life, social polarization and spatial differentiation, etc., in the process of rapid suburbanization in transitional urban China. Therefore, there is an urgent need to introduce behavioral perspectives to the traditional study of suburbanization, which will enhance our understanding of the process and the machanism of suburbanization from the perspective of an individual's living and activity space, and also help reflect on the drawbacks of urban spatial organization and development strategies in the process of rapid suburbanization. Following this line of thinking, in this study we first tried to put forward the conceptual framework of the suburbanization of living and activity space and research methods. We argued that understanding to what degree suburban residents fulfil most routine, non-work activities within certain area around their suburan community is one of most important ways to determine developmental stages of suburanization. Besides, the concept of suburbanization of an individual's living and activity space can improve traditional suburanization studies by shifting from a single factor perspective, which maily focus on the decentralization or concentralization process of the single factors such as population, industry, commerce or office, to a comprehensive perspective, which integrate all of above factors of an individual's daily life space including residential space, work space, shopping space, recreation space and social interaction space. Then, we argued that there are two temporal dimensions and different spatial dimensions in this study. And it is important to discover the functional links between suburban territory and center city, and among different suburban areas based on residents' space-time behaviors. Furthermore, we propose that geo-narrative method is an effective way to study the process and micro-level mechanism of the suburbanization from the perspective of an individual living and activity space, which combimes life history and life course theory from sociological perspective with GIS-based visualization within the framwork of time-geography. Finally, we discussed policy implications.
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    Characteristics of commercial bank branch networks based on complex networks theory:A case study on Bank of China in Beijing
    ZHEN Maocheng, ZHANG Jingqiu, YANG Guanglin
    2013, 32 (12):  1732-1741.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5577KB) ( )   Save
    Complex network theory, combined with social network technology, has been more and more widely used in the researches and applications related to realistically existing large irregular networks to find the rules of network operations and to improve operation efficiency. In human geography research, using complex network technology to analyze city economic activities can help improve the analysis and interpretation of the pattern, and the change of the pattern, of the distribution of geographic phenomena to a certain extent, and can be applied to the studies of the essential characteristics of geographic networks. In this paper, taking Bank of China as an example, using the theory of complex network and with the principle of proximity, based on data of bank branch distribution networks in the six administrative districts of Beijing, we constructed a complex network model of bank branch distribution networks with the service radius of 400 meters and 800 meters, and used GIS spatial visualization technology to analyze and interpret the network characteristics. The research shows that: (1) the bank branch networks showed a flat structure with sparsity and small world network characteristics. The flat management pattern of the bank branch networks shortens the length of typical routes, which enhances the clustering coefficient, improves network efficiency, and at the same time increases intensifies the degree of the market competition. (2) The convergence of the layout of bank branch distribution increases with the expansion of the service radius, and stability decreases. For bank branch spots in the network, best service radius is 400 meters to 800 meters; the network spots accessible by walking are more stable than the network spots accessible by public transportations. Specifically, for the bank branches with service radius less than 400 meters, since the sharing of the customers is weak, and also faced with the challenges of increasing land rent and intensifying competition, they should community-focused bank branches in order to enhance the cohesion and competitiveness of each community area. However, for the bank branches with service radius less than 800 meters, the increase of the length of typical routes causes the increase of the cost of the process and the decrease of operation efficiency. Therefore, the bank branches should diversify service features, improve the area's networking degree, enhance the survivability, and improve stability. (3) The bank branch distribution exhibit area differences. The high level nodes are showing high level of agglomeration in the areas within the 4th beltway, mainly concentrated in Financial Street, Sanyuanqiao, China World Trade Center, and CBD area. On the other hand, the node degrees show big differences at the street level. For example, on the streets of well-developed inner city areas, the network and node degree are high, while on the other streets, especially the streets close to suburban areas, there few bank branch networks, or even no nodes, indicative of financial exclusion. In the future the network planning should focus on cultivating a number of edge nodes to play leading roles, expanding the network coverage, and improving the area network service functions.
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    Live report of the Academic Debate Contest Final at the 14th National Symposium for Young Geographers
    Young Geographers' Committee of the Geographical Society of China
    2013, 32 (12):  1742-1750.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (499KB) ( )   Save
    As a tradition of the National Symposium for Young Geographers, this is the 6th academic debate held on November 13, 2013. There were seven teams taking part in this debate and the debate topic was divided into physical geography (Natural processes or human processes: Which is the stronger driving force of the changes in the Earth System?) and human geography (Quantitative or qualitative methods: Which is more suitable for human geography research?). Both the two topics are the core and hot issues of modern geography. From the live report of the Academic Debate Contest Final, readers could find how youth geographers in China understand the current major issues of the subject. Hope that their immature opinions could attract more intersts in thinking and discussing these scientific problems.
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    Climate and Ecological Environment
    Spatial patterns of provincial carbon source and sink in China
    LU Fengxian, ZHANG Yan, QIN Yaochen, CHEN Zhenling, WANG Guanghui
    2013, 32 (12):  1751-1759.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (9706KB) ( )   Save
    China has become the biggest country of carbon emissions, and the size and scale of industrialization and urbanization are unprecedented. The pressure of carbon reduction is increasing day by day with the increasing carbon emissions which have caused more and more international concerns. Carbon reduction should be made possible by both reducing carbon source and increasing carbon sink at the same time. Policies of low carbon development should be different to the regions with obviously different existing carbon source and carbon sink. In this paper, by collecting the data from the forest inventory and some related statistical yearbooks, and by applying the methods of discharge coefficient, stand volume, and carbon sequestration rate in forest and grassland ecosystems at region scale, we made an overall estimation of carbon emissions from energy consumption, and carbon sinks from forest, grassland and arable land at the provincial scale. Then, the regional differences of total carbon emissions, carbon emissions per capita, carbon emissions per unit area, and energy intensity in China are analyzed, and spatial pattern of carbon sink and carbon surplus are discussed. As to the overall carbon emissions at the provincial scale, the carbon emission in Shandong, Shanxi and Hebei is relatively high; the carbon emission in Ningxia, Qinghai and Hainan is relatively low. As to the per capita carbon emission, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi and Ningxia have the largest per capita carbon emission; Jiangxi, Hainan and Guangxi have the lowest. As to the carbon emission per square kilometer, Shanghai has the largest; Qinghai has the lowest. Besides, the provinces with relatively low carbon intensity are Beijing, Guangdong, Shanghai, and Zhejiang, etc. Nationwide, the percentage of forest carbon sink is 53%, and the percentage in Yunnan and Heilongjiang is relatively high. The percentage of grassland carbon sink is 38.51%, mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang province. The carbon sinks from arable land focus on the carbon in the process of Maize straw returning to the field, which account for 8.63% of the total carbon sink. The results show that the carbon sinks from arable land in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Henan and Liaoning are higher than the ones in other provinces. Combining the feature of carbon source and carbon sinks of the four economic zones, the key issues in low-carbon development are pointed out. In the future, eastern region should change the development mode and improve energy efficiency through technological innovations. Central region should seize the green development opportunity to promote the low-carbon industry to achieve leapfrog development. Northeast region has high carbon sinks and can actively participate in international carbon trading. By strengthening management, western region should accelerate the technological improvements to improve energy efficiency and the ecological environment, and to enhance the capacity of carbon sinks.
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    Global research progresses in dendroclimatology of Larix Miller
    SUN Yu, WANG Lili
    2013, 32 (12):  1760-1770.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3528KB) ( )   Save
    As a regional climate proxy, tree-ring data has the advantages such as high resolution, widespread distribution, long time series, precise dating and so on. Nowadays, reconstruction of historical climate change is becoming a more and more important part in global climate change research. Therefore, Tree-ring data plays a huge role in climate change research. Belonging to the Gymnospermae phylum, pine family, and growing in the temperate, cold temperate, and frigid zones of the Northern Hemisphere, Larix Miller, with regular growth rhythm every year, has a significant position in the research on historical global climate change. Especially in China, there are ten larch species and one variety, all hardy, photophilous, and dominant timber classes, located along the margin of the East Asian Monsoon zone. In this paper, the author has made a comprehensive analysis on recent achievements of main larches in Europe, North America and Asia, combined the development routes, and drawn the conclusions as follows: (1) Among all researches on Larix Miller, tree-ring width dominated, about 72%, followed by maximum latewood density, approximately 16%. In recent years, the research focus began to lean to density from width. (2) Both width and density responded to air temperature better. Thus, they played a more significant role in the temperature research of Northern Hemisphere. (3) Larix decidua Mill. and Larix sibirica Ledeb. contributed to the most achievements, perhaps, because more of them spreaded in the regions of high elevations or latitudes, contrary to Larix himalaica (Cheng et L. K. Fu.) Therefore, the potential of a special species' application to dendroclimatology may be determined by its number and distribution. Among all regions, European received the most fruitful results, 61% or so, tending to large spatial scale and multispecies. Especially after 2000, the discussion on response divergence and stability took the lead. The Alps became the hot area. In North America, density sensitivity has been talked about since 1990s. However, the achievement was rare after 2000, since the researches were mainly related to special physiognomy and ecological events, such as Pristiphora erichsonii invasion, possibly as a result of geographic location and climatic features of North America. In Asia, the climatic reconstruction sprout up in 1990s based on the representative Larix sibirica Ledeb. However, the research became less creative after 2000. Not until recent years, the reconstruction based on maximum latewood density appeared, made by Chinese researchers in the Altai Mountains. As a result, the work in Asia started fast, but developed slowly. In China, the variety of species and climate types made the research quite rich, with Larix olgensis Henry dominating in last century but Larix sibirica Ledeb dominating in the 21st century. Exactly in recent years, some kinds of larches on Tibetan Plateau and Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. made a breakthrough and density research appeared, too. On the whole, Chinese researchers did not bring their superiority into full play and the development fell behind other areas relatively. With regard to the development direction of dendroclimatology, it is suggested that the future research in China should focus on spatial "field" and multispecies.
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    Impacts of heat stress on wheat yield due to climatic warming in China
    YANG Xuan, TANG Xu, CHEN Baode, TIAN Zhan, ZHONG Honglin
    2013, 32 (12):  1771-1779.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4984KB) ( )   Save
    Yield losses caused by heat stress are particularly severe when high temperatures occur concomitantly with the reproductive period of wheat. The stages most sensitive to, and adversely affected by, high temperature stress for wheat yield, so called the thermal sensitivity period, are the ones prior to flowering and during flowering. Temperatures that exceed thresholds throughout the thermal sensitivity period are calculated as the value of heat stress intensity. In addition, we will experience greater climate variability characterized by increased frequency of short periods of extreme climate events, including temperature stress. In this report, PRECIS regional climate modeling system is used to project the future climate in 2001-2090. Based on CERES-Wheat model, experiments on the sensitivity of wheat yield to maximum temperature in thermal sensitivity periods are conducted at six representative stations in China. High temperature stress intensity index is calculated and spatial distribution of heat stress on China's wheat in the future is estimated. The results show that pre-flowering, flowering, and post-flowering stages are sensitive to heat stress, however, with varying degrees of sensitivity. Pre-flowering and anthesis stages are relatively more sensitive to high temperature, compared to post-flowering stage. But it is difficult to design an experiment to simulate extremely high temperatures at varying degrees for a long time period. Short periods of high temperature (single-day high temperature greater than 32℃) in pre-flowering and flowering stages would seriously reduce the wheat yield. The closer the period in which high temperatures occur is to anthesis, the greater the yield losses are. High temperature stress during flowering reduces the ability of pollen to germinate as well as the rate of pollen tube growth. These negative effects disrupt fertilization and reduce grain numbers. However, yield losses during post-flowering stages were mainly due to decreases in grain weight. Early grain filling periods are relatively more sensitive to high temperature stress compared to later periods. CERES-Wheat model shows a limitation in simulating the responses of wheat yields to high temperature during grain filling period. In a thermal sensitivity experiment with the temperature threshold roughly set at 32℃, wheat yields at the six stations decrease to varying degrees. Different wheat cultivars respond to heat stress differentially. The heat stress that will potentially cause substantial losses in the yields of the sensitive cultivars, commonly grown in northwestern China, is expected to increase during the mid-to-late period of this century. The areas susceptible to severe heat stress in China are primarily middle-high altitude areas, namely, Xinjiang, Hetao Region and Northeast China. The wheat cultivars in northern China, especially spring wheat cultivars, are more vulnerable to heat stress. The situation is further aggravated by climate warming, which increases both intensity and extent of heat stress. These adverse effects may be attributed to the factors such as increased frequency of extreme temperature events, climate change enhancing the probability of overlapping temperature peaks, and the timing of flowering. These effects will worsen more strongly in continental regions, such as northern China, than in southern regions, as in the former regions, stronger warming will occur in the future. Temperature increases accelerate wheat development as earlier anthesis and maturity take place. Climate warming will inevitably increase the intensity of heat stress and hence higher risk of wheat yield reduction.
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    Progress and development tendency of research on eco-compensation in China during 1987-2012
    LIU Chunla, LIU Weidong, LU Dadao
    2013, 32 (12):  1780-1792.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4101KB) ( )   Save
    For the numerous science and technology achievements, literature is one of the main documentation tools, which shows origination, developmental process and characteristics, and social values of the scientific researches. In order to promote the development of academic research preferably focusing on eco-compensation, there is an urgent need to comb through recent research progress. In this paper, through review and reflection, summaries and forward looking, we hope to provide a clear view of the direction, key points and existing issues of research on eco-compensation. In this paper, based on the literature during 1987-2012 in "China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database", by using the methods of data statistics, induction and analysis, we first reviewed status and development of eco-compensation research in China from following aspects: literature author, research field, support platform, research method, research region and research level. Then, we analyzed evolvement features of eco-compensation research in China during 1987-2012. (1) In the aspect of literature author, the majority and key group of the researchers are the middle-aged and elderly scientists who possess profound qualification, and the next group of the researchers are in the ones in the phase of career training and development, who had not yet formed a powerful leading author group. (2) In the aspect of research field, there are about 9 hot research fields in China's eco-compensation research, which are eco-compensation mechanism, eco-compensation and ecological construction and environmental protection, eco-compensation measure and pattern, legal system of eco-compensation, eco-compensation and sustainable development, eco-compensation in river basin, standard of eco-compensation, forest eco-compensation, ecosystem service value and eco-compensation. And in the aspect of annual number of publications, we can divide the research fields into 4 types: fast-increase type, slow-increase type, steady type and descend type. (3) In the aspect of support platform, national level scientific fund program and provincial program are the main support platforms. (4) In the aspect of research method, in early stage, qualitative description was the main method. Now, although the quantitative methods such as mathematical model, mathematical statistics, GIS, and questionnaire survey, have been used well, qualitative description is still dominant. (5) In the aspect of research region, most studies are at the province and regional levels, and there are also about 30 types of specific regional zones. (6) In the aspect of research level, the initial researches were mostly on basic principles and their applications, and then turned to technical guidance, decision-making support for policy makers, and other researches concerning the society. Taking together the trend of international research and the current status of domestic research, the future research on eco-compensation should be enhanced in the following aspects. (1) In the aspect of research field, we need not only study the eco-compensation relationship in different zones and different interest groups, and the influences on regional spatial structure, but also study how to protect eco-environmental resources by using eco-compensation techniques. (2) In the aspect of research region, trans-regional studies, trans-provincial studies and cross-border studies are the trends. (3) In the aspect of research method, researchers need to pay more attention to the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, with qualitative description still being the major approach. At the same time, comprehensive and cross studies on eco-compensation, combining multidisciplinary systems of resources and economic geography, should become the direction of development in the future.
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    Urban Geography
    Process and characteristics of boundary expansion of built-up area of Shanghai City since the late Qing dynasty
    YIN Changying, SHI Yishao, WANG Hefeng
    2013, 32 (12):  1793-1803.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4291KB) ( )   Save
    Urban form is defined as a figure presentation of spatial pattern of city's external shape, and, together with urban pattern and urban morphology, constitutes the three subjects at different levels in the research field of urban morphology. Current studies on this subject ignored the identification of the growth process from sprouting, growth, maturity, to ageing, and its impacting factors such as historical, political and social structure. Urban form is the lowest level in the urban morphology field. However, it has a very close relationship with urban growth process and the influence factors, it is an important knowledge basis for further understanding urban pattern and urban morphology, and it is also beneficial to grasping the expansion process of the boundary of urban built-up areas and making rational measures to control the trend of urban growth. Furthermore, coastal cities that sprouted in the estuarine always have unique growth characteristics different from others cites, because of their dependence on waterway transportation in early times. For example, early urban expansion nearby a port may be related to estuaries, rivers i.e., and the correlation would weaken in the process of social and economic development. How to quantitatively describe this evolution process and influence factors? This is a question that still needs to be further discussed by using new methods and defining new spatially related indices. Therefore, based on multi-type historical maps and multi-temporal remote sensing images, this paper first employs geographic information system (GIS) software ArcGIS Desktop 10.01 and remote sensing (RS) images processing platform ERDAS Imagine 2011 to extract the information of built up area boundary of Shanghai from 1842 to present, a 170-year time period, and secondly, calculates the fractal dimension (FD) and related circumscribing circle (RCC) of built-up area boundary by Fragstats 4.1 software to measure the complexity of urban boundary expansion, use ArcGIS Desktop 10.01for statistical analysis of the fan-shaped areas of built-up area expansion in different directions such as East, West, South, North, to identify the directional characteristics, and define an index urban hydrophilic property (UHP) to express the attraction of Huangpu River and Wusong River to built-up area boundary extension. All of these metrics finally are used for analyzing the historical evolution process and characteristics of the built-up area boundary of Shanghai City. In addition, with the reference to the historical literature, this paper discusses the impact of social transformation on the urban form evolution of Shanghai. The results show that: (1) FD and RCC of urban boundary showed a rise pattern of "M"; (2) urban boundary expansion showed a "single-direction" or "full-direction" mode during different historical periods; (3) the attractive effect of Huangpu River and Wusong River on built-up area boundary expansion has weakened due to the development of public transport system on the land; (4) complexity and directions of urban built-up area boundary showed significant stage characteristics along with the historical evolution process, which is mainly driven by different levels of social and economic development in the historical periods. The conclusion of the study is of reference value to Shanghai government in planning a more sustainable urban form in the future, and also makes a significance contribution to the extension of the theories and methods of urban morphology study.
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    Urban residents’ housing stratification and its driving mechanism in Xiamen City
    XIAO Lishan, GUO Qinghai, LI Xinhu
    2013, 32 (12):  1804-1813.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3333KB) ( )   Save
    China has undergone an institutional transition from welfare-oriented to market-oriented housing allocation system since the year of 1978. Housing reform was closely related to social change and economic reform. Thus, it has significant influences on socioeconomic conditions. Housing resource is an important indicator of social stratification. In this paper, Xiamen City is selected as a research area. The city incorporates a variety of residential patterns in different periods including transitional communities with local characters, post-reform communities, commercial communities and city villages. The housing resource data was obtained by spatial sampling and survey. We conducted a field study with 1075 face to face questionnaires. More than ten years after the housing allocation system was stopped, housing ownership was characterized with diversity in terms of income, education, family size and occupation. The empirical results showed that people have various sources to obtain houses. Commercial house in real estate was the primary housing source, accounting for 56% of the residents with house ownership. Public house was ranked as the second source, accounting for 33.4%, which was still an important source after the housing reform due to path dependence. The logistic regression results showed family income, education and family size, multiplied, increased the probability of housing ownership which has positive feedback to self-identification of social status. Income and occupation have positive feedback to housing resource. For non-public economy unit job holders and high income group, they have more opportunities to access the public houses at a lower price, and gained more profits in the real estate market. This paper explored the driving mechanism of the housing stratification by using time series and cross-section data. The housing reform process was divided into four stages. The cluster analysis indicated the housing expenditure gap among low income, median income and high income groups, increased during the housing reform process. But the time series data didn't verify the cause-and-effect relationship. Structural equation model using cross-section data was further used to verify the relationship between housing ownership and its influencing factors. Family income has strong effect on the probability of housing ownership, followed by education, while occupation and family size have least effect. Income and housing ownership in turn have direct effect on self-identification. The interaction between income and occupation indicated that housing resource stratification resulted from economic and institutional factors. After housing reform, the house distribution system should consider the housing gap induced by economic status and occupational prestige and expand the coverage of welfare housing. Current housing resource was still influenced by the previous distribution system. And residents have flexible choices on residential location and housing resources, which would accelerate the complexity of urban changes. This research quantified the current situation of housing resource stratification, and then further analyzed its mechanism and effects. The research in this paper has enriched the theory of social stratification, and provided scientific evidence for the sustainable housing reform.
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    Urbanization as a driving force of the progress of industrialization:Reflection and analysis on the path of urban industrialization based on Shunde
    YANG Zhenshan, CAI Jianming, WEN Ting, SONG Tao
    2013, 32 (12):  1814-1824.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.010
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    Under the background of global financial crisis and transformation of economic growth in China, interactions and coordination between industrialization and urbanization have become an urgent issue that needs to be resolved. Currently, research on this topic only focuses on evaluation of the degree of coordination between the two, and a lot more needs to be done to empirically analysis how to coordinate and optimize the relationship and provide practical approach solutions. In this article, we attempt to investigate this issue with a case study in Shunde, one of the earliest industrialized cities with typical characteristics. It is found that, albeit spectacular industrial growth and performance in the past years, Shunde is facing the challenges such as upgrades needed for industrial structures, lack of driving forces for the growth of service industries, lack of investment options for surplus local capitals, shortage of talent and technology resources, and inadequate domestic demand. All these issues are hindering Shunde's further development and indicating that urban market and urban environment of the city are not well developed yet. We argue that both urbanization and industrialization are the two intrinsic parts of a city's development. Although at the early stage urban growth is dependent on the level of industrial development, which produces and provides goods and services to cater people's demand as well as adjust production and after-production processes, urbanization plays a critical role in enhancing the quality of city's further development. Therefore, we propose a theoretical "point-and-circle" development model to describe and summarize the relationship between industrialization and urbanization: industrialization is the basic starting point of urbanization and is characterized by the process of continuous pursuit of industrial chain extension which inevitably encounters problems and challenges; urbanization works as a ring that helps with the synergy of various elements to provide multiple and diversified development environments and space for industrial development. With regard to the spatial development, the ring includes culture, business and commerce, transportation, living, tourism and recreation, and industrial spaces. Each aspect can be an area of development and contributes to different types of industrial development, whereas the industrialization we generally refer to only emphasizes on the last aspect. Therefore, there is still plenty of room for improvement of the quality of urbanization, which in turn drives the momentum of economic development. In this article, we elaborate theoretical model taking Shunde as an example. It's demonstrated that the model can effectively resolve the issues faced by Shunde from both economic and spatial dimensions. On the economy side, we point out that approach of industrial clustering can be adopted to encourage newly emerged industries. For instance, home electronics and furniture industries have already been following this approach. In order to stimulate the economic potential and expand market, tertiary industry needs to be emphasized to create domestic market. Quite related to this issue, investment channels should be broadened to attract, and make best use of, local capitals. It is also the time for Shunde to more progressively participate in global economy, cooperate and compete with other cities to expand market and improve its technology innovation capability. In the meantime, training and cultivating local talents is also important for Shunde to improve its sustainability. In the spatial dimension, Shunde needs new production space such as incubator for upgrading products and industries. The city should pay attention to social and life space seriously, as it is normally an important factor to the local talent pool and development of new industries. Finally, we put forward a strategy for Shunde to strengthen its cooperation and labor division with other cities.
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    Development of producer services and promotion of urban economic functions in Beijing
    ZHANG Lei, SHEN Yuming, LIU Kun
    2013, 32 (12):  1825-1834.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2357KB) ( )   Save
    The economic function of a city is to undertake the tasks in the economies of certain geographical areas and to serve as an economic center. Urban economic functions can be divided into internal and external economic functions. External economic functions are based on leading industries or leading economic sectors, mainly support goods and services for outside areas, and output capital or technologies, whereas internal economic functions provide basic guarantee for production and living activities of the city. Urban internal economic and external economic functions interact with each other and help each other move forward. With the society entering the information age, the producer services, such as finance, science and technology, computer software and information services, have strongly influenced urban industrial and spatial structures, and greatly promoted urban economic functions. Most of the current researches use theoretical analysis to first study the economic functions and then the development of producer services. In this paper, by using social economy, input-output, city population data in 2005 and 2010, based on Input-output model and urban flow model, from two levels of internal and external functions, we analyzed industrial relationships, spatial agglomeration and service products output of producer services, which have greatly improved economic functions of Beijing City. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Economic contribution rate of Beijing's producer service industry is always rising, driving the development of other industries, but at the same time its development is limited by those industries. It also promotes comprehensive benefits of manufacturing industry. Intermediate demand of manufacturing industries and producer services for information, finance, and commercial services increases, which in turn necessitate the upgrade of industrial structure. (2) Financial services, scientific research, information services and business services present an agglomeration in city center, showing a trend to diffuse to suburb areas, with the characteristics of industrial clusters, they have strengthened the function of agglomeration economies of Beijing, leading Beijing to transform from service economy to producer services-oriented economy. (3) Professional level and city flow intensity of producer services are the strongest, and producer services also dominant industries in terms of economic relations with foreign countries. Investment in research, science and technology output, R & D resources has increased significantly, and as a result, the investment has put out a lot of talent and technology as well as labor and capital, with a variety of financial institutions and formation of strong financing scales. (4) Net mix amount and exports of producer services both increased, promoting the output of domestic and international service products in Beijing. The producer services have more advantages in the domestic market, mainly export-oriented. Producer services have higher regional impact on product flow than other industries, and scientific and technical services and financial services industry are the most influential ones. Research on the development of producer services and the economic functions of Beijing City will help understand the productive service industries and their effects on the urban economic growth, agglomeration and diffusion. However, the compositions of urban economic functions include gathering, production, services, innovation and management. Although this paper has touched upon those aspects, detailed studies are required in the future.
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    Discussion of Theory and Methodology
    Implementation and optimization of eight parallel polygon overlapping tools with OpenMP at the feature layer level in GIS
    FAN Junfu, MA Ting, JI Min, ZHOU Yuke, XU Tao
    2013, 32 (12):  1835-1844.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5259KB) ( )   Save
    Simple feature model-based non-weighted polygon overlapping analysis operations include eight basic tools: intersection, difference, merge, symmetrical difference, union, update, identity, and spatial join. It is assumed that the determination of the "one-to-many" or "many-to-many" mapping relationships between polygons of the two overlapping layers is the primary prerequisite to the implementation of parallel polygon overlay toolset at the feature layer level. Polygon difference, intersection, identity, update, and spatial join algorithms must address the "one-to-many" mapping relationships between polygons of the overlapping layers. However, the "many-to-many" relationships must be handled by polygon merge, symmetrical difference, and union algorithms. In this research, we analyzed the differences and similarities among the parallel implementation approaches and optimization methods of the eight polygon overlapping tools from the perspective of data parallelism with the OpenMP parallel programming model. We proposed an improved group-relation-minimizing data partition method to realize complex data decomposition without geometry cutting and sewing, and adopted a vertex number indicator-based strategy for load balancing, and several optimization approaches, including the method of avoiding potential bottleneck in polygon merging, strategy for addressing the defect in polygon symmetrical differencing using the XOR operator of the Vatti polygon clipping algorithm, and the strategies of pre-filtering of features with R-tree and bulk loading of structural stored vector data in MySQL. We developed and implemented the parallel polygon overlapping toolset by systematically summarizing the applicative data decomposition method, characters of overlay operations, the Vatti polygon clipping algorithm, load balancing and parallel schedule strategies. The logical flow of parallel polygon union algorithm was introduced as an example to describe the general process of designing parallel polygon overlapping tools. Parallel overlapping case study was also conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation and optimization methods. The experimental results show that the improved group-relation-minimizing data partition method can bring approximately 92% parallel acceleration and more parallel robustness for polygon union; different expected group size specified in the data division method proposed in this research can lead to different parallel speedup benchmarks; the vertex-number based load balancing strategy can give the parallel difference tool about 21% performance improvement; the two-way merge algorithm applied in the parallel merge tool can address the potential performance bottleneck; the dynamic schedule strategy of OpenMP can bring higher speedup than the static and guided schedule strategies; the pre-filtering approach can bring more than 20-fold acceleration for parallel polygon difference; the bulk loading strategy of structural stored vector data can effectively reduce the performance loss due to the disk I/O. The implementation approaches and optimization methods introduced in this study show different applicable features on the developing of the eight overlapping tools. The methods and strategies introduced above can be potential alternatives when launching similar parallelization tasks of other spatial analysis algorithms. This research not only provided theoretical basis and guidance of methodologies for the design and development of parallel polygon overlapping tools at the feature layer level in the multi-core environment, but also presented important practical significance in improving the system resource utilization and computational efficiency of spatial analyses for massive personal and low-cost GIS applications.
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    Change of historiographical methodologies in geography:From positivism to intellectual history
    SUN Jun, PAN Yujun, WU Youde, MENG Xuemei
    2013, 32 (12):  1845-1860.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.013
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    This historiographical article examines the ways by which geographers wrote about the history of geography in the past and provides suggestions for the future. We refer to the actual history of geography as "HG1" and the writings of historians about the history as "HG2". The essence of historiography of geography is to examine how HG1 record, explain HG2 in its places and times rather than it "should be" today. There are three types of historiographical methods in HG2: (1) positivism historiography, such as The Nature of Geography, All possible words: A history of geographical ideas, an "essentialist" historiography which postulates what geography is as a science "in essence", and construct geography's history base on this approach; (2) constructivism historiography, such as the contributions by Trevor J. Barnes, who insisted that geography is constructed by society; (3) historical contextualism historiography, emphasized by British historian of geography, Robert J. Mayhew, who drew on the ideas from so-called "Cambridge school" scholars, such as Michael Oakeshott and Quentin Skinner, etc., and the aim is to think how to write the histories of geographies, rather than history of geography. Both Robert J. Mayhew and Charles W. J. Withers insisted that geography was so different in different places and different times, implying that we should avoid an inevitable or progressive "essentialist" historiography which postulates what geography is as a science "in essence". Of course, historical contextualism historiography has been related to the works in China such as From dynastic geography to historical geography: A change in perspective towards the geographical past of China (in English) and From chaos to order: Palaeoid geographical thought in China (in Chinese), published by Xiaofeng Tang. Tang thinks that the history of Chinese geography should be concerned with the past for its own sake, which means in this context the ways by which Chinese geography was understood at the time, rather than the ways by which it can be understood in the light of the present-day practice of the discipline. So, Tang constructed the history of dynastic geography and explained it from the perspectives of Chinese ancient culture, words and concepts. The thought has been inherited by his student, Sheng Pan, in his doctoral thesis, Ideas, system and interest in the geography of the Sung dynasties (Peking University, 2008). Based on the discussions, we suggest that an effective way for the progress of historiography is to make a choice among these methods, and we think positivism historiographical method is a good choice for modern history; historical contextualism historiographical method is beneficial to ancient and early modern history, especially to non-western or non-Anglophone places like China.
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