Table of Content

    25 November 2013, Volume 32 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Industrial Economy and Regional Development
    Achievement analysis of Beijing’s industrial network structure based on individual network’s trading constraint
    WANG Maojun, BAO Qi
    2013, 32 (11):  1577-1591.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6731KB) ( )   Save
    Differences among regional industries in scales are the results and manifests of competition and cooperation among the industries, and the competition-and-cooperation relationships are based on the commercial activities governed by the basic supply-and-demand theory. Multi-directional supply-and-demand relationships among the various industries constitute complex networks of commercial activities. There are two common themes in the previous researches on industrial networks. First, they focus on the characteristics of entire network involving all industries and the general statistical characteristics of multi-dimensional network topology. Second, although there are several studies on statuses and roles of different industries (nodes) in the entire network, there is no study on the intrinsic relationships between the status and properties, or the role and properties, of each industry (node) in the network. In other words, it is important to study the intrinsic relationship between the structure of an individual industry's network and its effects on the scale of the industry (node). By using the data of supply-and-demand chart in 2002, we constructed a 42×42 two value (0, 1) symmetric industrial linkage/ transaction network, and analyzed the network's structure characteristics and its external effects. The results are shown as follows. (1) There are eight major suppliers or demanders (industries) of each industry in the network, and they are significantly different from one another. For example, electric heat product and supply industry, chemical industry, construction, transportation, leasing and business services, get the maximum numbers of trading linkages in the market. These industries are the foundation of the regional economy. On the contrary, waste product, garment, leather, down and their manufacturing industry, metal and non-metal mining and selecting, wood processing and furniture manufacturing, gas product and supply industry, petroleum and natural gas industry, each have only one industry as a trading partner. These industries are mostly local industries. In addition, each industry's linkage/trading network is in linear distribution, and the scale of the network is in exponential distribution. (2) Eight industries, for example, waste product and garment, leather, down and their manufactured goods, mining and selecting of metal ore product and nonmetal ore product, are under the highest degree of constraint by the network. Chemical industry, construction, electric heat production and supply industry, transportation, leasing and business services, financial insurance industry, are under the lowest degree of constraint by the network. The constraint on each industry reduces as the scale of the network expands. (3) The competition structures of the industrial networks can be divided into three groups: with strong constraint, imbalance and small scale network; with medium constraint, medium balance, medium scale network; and with minimum constraint, balance, and large scale network, each of which has 13, 18, and 8 industries, respectively. The first one's trading partner industries and constraining markets are minimal, and distribution of industrial trading is concentrated. The second one's scale of trading network is relatively large, trading and constraint distribution are relatively balanced, and constraint market is relatively higher. The last one's suppliers or requirements is the highest, constraint value is minimum, and the coefficient of constraint hierarchy is small. (4) Degree of network constraint, constraint hierarchy coefficient and manufacturing virtual dummy variables directly have negative impact on the industry's scale. The trading constraints and manufacturing virtual dummy variables have the most significant effects on the industry, and the former affects more than the later. Network trading constraints have more absolute effect on manufacturing than non-manufacturing industries.
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    Impact of market segmentation on growth of manufacturing industry in China: Regional and industrial differences
    WANG Jieyu, GUO Qi, ZHOU Yi, HE Canfei
    2013, 32 (11):  1592-1601.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8320KB) ( )   Save
    Since the reform and opening-up policies first started, China has experienced rapid economic growth. From 1979 to 2011, average annual growth for China's GDP is nearly 10 percent. Economic growth is always the focus of attention of the general public. Economic theories emphasize that the quality and quantities of the input factors affect economic growth. With the development of economic geography, the new economic geography, represented by Krugman, provides a new direction for the study of economic growth. Under the framework of imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale, new economic geography takes the geographic factors into the mainstream economics to explain the phenomenon of spatial agglomeration and diffusion. At present, China is in a special period of economic transition. On the one hand, due to the tax reform, administrative decentralization and the economic performance evaluation system for local officials by the central government, market segmentation in China is serious, manifested by regional malignant competition, redundant construction and local protection. On the other hand, in recent years, China promulgated a number of regional development plans to coordinate the regional development, and urban agglomeration has become the leading area of economic development. Why market segmentation exists in some regions, but regional integration exists in some other regions? Considering the differences in market segmentation and the differences in economic growth, we can't help but wonder how market segmentation affects economic growth and whether the relationship between the two changes from region to region, and from industry to industry. Solving these problems is of great significance to the current situation of China's economic growth. In this paper, based on the actual situation of China's regional economic development, we study the impact of market segmentation, characteristic of China's economic transition period, on economic growth.We focus on the differences among the regions and industries and take the manufacturing industry as the breakthrough point. In the frame of new growth theory and new economic geography, this paper constructs a linear model for the impact of market segmentation on economic growth. And from different geographic scales, the market segmentation is divided into international market segmentation, domestic market segmentation and geographic segmentation. Our study resulted in a panel data model based on manufacturing industries data from 2003 to 2009. By estimating random effects, the results were robust to prove that: (1) international market segmentation and geographic segmentation have significant impact on the growth of manufacturing industry in China. (2) In terms of regional differences, the growth of manufacturing industry is more sensitive to international market segmentation and geographic location segmentation in Eastern China, more sensitive to geographic location segmentation and topography segmentation in Central China, and more sensitive to geographic topography segmentation in Western China, respectively. (3) As far as industrial differences are concerned, international market segmentation, geographic topography segmentation and domestic market segmentation each has significant effect on labor intensive industry, capital intensive industry and technology intensive industry, respectively. Thus, for the specific type of region or industry, reducing the specific type of market segmentation is of great importance for the economic development in the future.
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    Evaluation of road transport efficiency in China during 1997-2010 based on SBM-Undesirable model
    YANG Liangjie, WU Wei, SU Qin, JIANG Xiaowei, WEI Yunlong
    2013, 32 (11):  1602-1611.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4268KB) ( )   Save
    Road transport is an important foundation for the development of a modern economy in accelerating the velocity factor of production, and plays an important role in promoting regional integration process. Thus transport efficiency has become an important index for road transport service evaluation. With the implementation of the sustainable strategy, China's economic growth will undergo a transition from extensive to intensive. It will require more efficient road transport and an optimized development mode. To make objective, fair and accurate comprehensive evaluation, different aspects of road transport efficiency during a certain period of operation are examined, including investment in highway facilities, transportation facilities, output of highway passenger, and efficiency of implementing comprehensive measurements of the functions of cargo transportation. High performance of highway transportation system means finding root causes of a potential problem in a timely fashion, facilitating quick solutions, and putting forward countermeasures. This article introduces undesirable outputs to build a road transport efficiency evaluation model, which uses the kilometers of highways, number of road transport employees, number of vehicles owned by road transport operators, and energy consumption by road transport as the indicators of investment made by provinces in road transport, uses the amounts of cargo and passenger turnovers in the scales of provinces and the municipalities directly under the central government as the indicators of desired output, and considers negative externalities of road transport output, such as road congestion, environmental pollution, traffic accidents, ecological damage as the results of undesirable outputs. In this article, using SBM-Undesirable model, we attempted to evaluate road transport efficiency from 1997 to 2010, describe the changes of road transport efficiency from a time perspective, and find ways to overcome the road transport inefficiencies. The results showed that: (1) The overall level of road transport efficiency in China is low, and it showed a fluctuating downward trend between 1997 and 2010, especially more prominent in 2008. (2) The negative external effects of road transport output reduce the overall level of efficiency. The change of pure technological efficiency is the main factor that affects the changes of overall road transport efficiency. (3) There are significant regional differences in road transport efficiency in China. Road transport efficiency in eastern region with higher level of economic development is also higher, while the transport efficiency in mid-west region with lower level of economic development is lower, and this difference shows a growing trend. (4) From the spatial perspective, the equilibrium of road transport efficiency in China tends to decrease, and it is gradually changing from relatively balanced state to unbalanced state, even to a polarized state in recent years. (5) The important approaches that could improve transport efficiency consist of improving resource utilization efficiency, optimizing resource allocation capability, reducing the negative external effects of output, and increasing the effective output of transport. In this article, due to limited availability of relevant data, the negative external effects of outputs only include road transport accidents and road transport carbon dioxide emissions for analysis and evaluation. In addition, the mechanism of changes of road transport efficiency is unclear.
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    Distribution of centrality of traffic network and its relationship with economic density of tertiary industry in Shenyang
    CHEN Chen, CHENG Lin, XIU Chunliang
    2013, 32 (11):  1612-1621.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6667KB) ( )   Save
    With the development of network science, many scholars abroad begin to focus on the research of centrality of traffic network based on MCA(Multiple Centrality Assessment) and its relationship with economic activities. Centrality of traffic network is calibrated in a MCA model composed of multiple measures such as closeness, betweenness, and straightness. MCA model is a very important indicator that measures the rate of land development and utilization, and is widely used both in the theoretical and empirical inquiries. In this paper, by using the tools developed by MIT to calculate centrality of traffic network and its relationship with economic activities precisely and efficiently, we investigated the geography of three centralities of traffic network and their correlations with economic density of tertiary industry in Shenyang City, and then applied the KDE method to both centralities of traffic network and economic density to examine the correlations between them. Since economic density is regional data based on subdistricts, we created fishnet in ArcGIS and then did spatial interpolation. The results indicated that centralities of traffic network are correlated with the spatial distribution of economic density of tertiary industry in Shenyang. Spatial distribution of economic activity density correlates highly with the betweenness of traffic network, which means that the multiple centers of the streets lead to multiple centralities of economic activities. But we found that only betweenness and straightness show clear multi-centricity. Closeness, however, just has single centrality. This also means closeness has less impact on economic activities than betweenness and straightness. The major contributions made by this research can be summarized as follows: (1) Improving overall understanding of the spatial distribution of street centralities in Shenyang, which can be one of the most powerful determinants for urban planners and designers to understand how a city works and to decide where renovation and redevelopment need to be placed, to guide economic layout. (2) The concept that central urban arterials should be conceived as the cores, not the borders, of neighborhoods has the importance of directing in the theory and practice of city planning. (3) By drawing lessons from foreign research experiences, this research can enrich the theory, methods, and practice of the street network centrality in our country. If we take into account the relative properties of different street grades and types, vehicle flow rate and capacity, one-way or two-way streets, and so on, and give them appropriate weights based on their properties, the results will be more actual and practical and can help us understand the centrality of traffic network and its relationship with economic activities more precisely. More works need be done in order to study centrality of traffic network and its relationship with economic activities more comprehensively: (1) By looking into centrality of traffic network and its relationship with every kind of economic activity, we can get clear dependent relationship between centrality of traffic network and economic activities profoundly, and better understand the different relationships between them. (2) If we can get different attributes of every traffic level and use them as weights when we do KDE analysis, the research results will be much more practical.
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    Systematic research on interregional linkage and its spatial effects
    ZHU Huibin
    2013, 32 (11):  1622-1628.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (403KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the transformation of spatial research and the limitation of the economy of an administrative region, the linkage and cooperation between different administrative regions have become an important strategy for spatial governance of the interregional relationships. Cooperation has great influences in many regions of Europe, East Asia and North America. Different ways of cooperation are adopted in different regions as regional cooperation is sensitive to space scale. In Europe, as an example, the development of interregional cooperation is going through three stages in Euregios, Cross-border Regions and Cross-border Polycentric Metropolitan Region, respectively. Currently in the cross-border regions in Europe, money and resources have been already ensured for the improvement of the development. Interregional cooperation in North America shows a trend of industrial accumulation near the American borders both in Canada and Mexico. The cooperation in East Asia shows diversified trends to enlarge the economic influences. Spatial structure has specific influences and guidance on the urbanization and production effect flow. The research on spatial structure is divided into four parts: traditional pattern, activity pattern, structure pattern and information pattern. The method to assess the cooperation is based on economy and space. In economy part, border effect is the main research method while ESDA and DEA are the related research method. In space part, planning and governance modes are the main research method. The research method of city spatial structure studies city structure, space influence range, city potential mode and internal space structure, by using different space research methods. Based on related researches on regional cooperation and spatial structure worldwide, this paper attempts to review the thoughts and methodologies in the research on the development of the cooperation and its spatial effect. The focus of space research has changed from stable space to space flow. The research framework is based on the space economy, assuming that everyone is rational and conforms to economy maximum criterion. The research can be divided into four major parts: city's driving mechanism, cooperation, spatial effect and composite structure system. The first part discusses the components of city character, city activities and personal activities. The second part discusses the type, intensity and mode of cooperation. The third part discusses city form and city network. The fourth part discusses the structure cycle and special components. The results show that empirical research is dominant but the system is still lacking in China due to lack of data of relative flow between different administrative regions. The main characters for the research are traditional theories on location and transformation, and the systematic research is needed to improve the related researches on the regional characteristics. The research in China is divided into three topics: regional cooperation, governmental commission and single governmental dominance. The systematic research on regional cooperation's spatial effect can help recognize real developmental conditions and provide a theoretical basis for city cooperation and transformation.
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    Urban Geography
    Evolution of Changchun’s social spatial structure in the 20th century
    HUANG Xiaojun, HUANG Xin
    2013, 32 (11):  1629-1638.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (7228KB) ( )   Save
    Urban social spatial structure is an important content of urban social geography. Macroscopic economic, political and social systems are the foundation of the formation of urban social space; changes of economic, political and social systems contribute to the reconstruction of urban social space. In order to understand long time-scale transformation of the urban social system in China and impact on the changes of urban social spatial structure, this paper depicts the evolutional process of Changchun's social spatial structure in the 20th century. In recent hundred years, Changchun's social system has experienced three periods, including colonialism, socialist planned economy after 1949, and transition period of socialist market economy. Using historical data and statistics from these different periods, based on historical analysis and factor analysis, this paper describes the social spatial types in different periods and reveals evolutional characteristics of the social spatial structure through combined qualitative and quantitative analysis. In colonialism period, affected by Japanese colonial power, four social spatial types emerged, including senior Puppet Manchukuo officers areas, Japanese residential areas, national business areas and China's poor farmers residential areas. In socialist planned economy period, the types of social areas were relatively simple and homogeneous, mainly including salariat areas, intellectual areas and workers areas. In the transition period of socialist market economy, the social spatial types were multiple and heterogeneous. Six social areas were formed including general salariat areas, high-density and crowded old city, concentrated areas of manufacturing workers, areas of high-income population, concentrated areas of migrant population, and areas of agricultural population. In the three different historical stages, Changchun's social space has tripartite different characteristics such as national isolation, units differentiation, and fragmentation, respectively, corresponding to the background of diverse political, economy, and social systems. The external political and military forces were important reasons for national isolation and spatial differentiation in colonialism period. Affected by unit system and functional layout of urban planning, residential spatial differences of employment groups working in different units had become the main reason forsocial spatial differentiation in socialist planned economy period. In transitioning to socialist market economy, due to the development of diversified liberalism market economy, transition of urban function, and motivation of housing market, the polarization and differentiation of social groups have become prominent in terms of wage income, social status and residential location choice. As a result, the differentiation and fragmentation of social space emerged and intensified constantly. In a word, social system and its change always impact urban social spatial space in spite of different political, economic and social systems in the different periods. With the evolution of urban space, the influence would produce spatially overlapping and cumulative effects, which would restructure urban social spatial morphology. In conclusion, this paper mainly reflects the production and reproduction of urban social space in China's modern times with different political, economy, and social systems in the background. In addition, this paper attempts to summarize a theoretical framework of the evolution process and mechanism of urban social spatial structure on the basis of institutional change in China. In the foreseeable future, this theoretical framework will be beneficial to providing a dynamic analysis case for the literature of urban social spatial structure.
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    Spatial effects of devolvement of modern seaport on city: A case study in Dalian
    GUO Jianke, HAN Jing, HAN Zenglin, DU Xiaofei
    2013, 32 (11):  1639-1649.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3869KB) ( )   Save
    Seaport is more an economic system than a geographical space. The functions of modern seaport have changed from marine transportation initially to the node of international logistics center and the hub of global resource allocations now. As a polarized area,when its space is growing, the port exerts a great regional spatial impact on the port-city which is the port's directly linked hinterland, and so the port has become the basic driving force of port-city's spatial remodeling. As a typical example that relied upon a seaport to establish itself as a city and prospered from the seaport, Dalian's urban development has been closely related to the seaport's evolution. During the 100 years from the city's beginning to present, the whole developmental history of Dalian's port and Seaport is more an economic system than a geographical space. The functions of modern seaport have changed from marine transportation initially to the node of international logistics center and the hub of global resource allocations now. As a polarized area,when its space is growing, the port exerts a great regional spatial impact on the port-city which is the port's directly linked hinterland, and so the port has become the basic driving force of port-city's spatial remodeling. As a typical example that relied upon a seaport to establish itself as a city and prospered from the seaport, Dalian's urban development has been closely related to the seaport's evolution. During the 100 years from the city's beginning to present, the whole developmental history of Dalian's port and city boiled down to the process of neoteric and modern port economic development in our country and witnessed the history of port-city relationship. Taking the development of Dalian's port and city as an empirical case, this article puts the geographical spatial relationships of port-city into a multi-dimensional spatial frame, firmly grasps the interactions and transitional relations among "process-mechanism-pattern", and investigates the port evolution's geographical spatial effects at the city's scale. Generation, consolidation and continuous reinforcement of potential energy of the city's location in transportation in urban development, port industrial space growth and morphological evolution, promoting the formation of "Sunshine City" land use pattern, and development of Hub-and-Spoke traffic logistics spatial network with the characteristics of port and shipping harbor, are the four major aspects revealing the mechanism and manifestation of the effects of modern seaport on urban geographical space. This article draws two conclusions. On the one hand, the formation, strengthening and aggrandizement of seaport's potential energy of its location in transportation is the source power of seaport's spatial effect on city. The potential energy makes the port-vicinity belt to be the junction station of production factors, promoting regional growth. In the Supply Chain and information age, port's transformation from location advantage to logistics advantage lays the foundations for production factors' convergence in flow age. Contrary to traditional ports focusing on certain industries and foreign trade, modern seaports continuously strengthens integrated service function of logistics, information and so on. The urban regional spatial effect of modern seaport evolution can be described three aspects. (1) At macroscopic level, port evolution drives port-vicinity industrial spatial development and pushes forward the overall urban morphology evolution, which is the main approach and runs through the whole process of port city development. (2) At microcosmic level, formation of port-city's land-use pattern pushes forward the urban internal structure change and urban function optimization, which is a restriction mechanism. Although with the characteristics of port and shipping harbor are weakening when the harbors are relocating to elsewhere, the circular layer model of land use from single-center city or a new port-vicinity city has relative stability. (3) From the perspectives of time characteristics, logistics center is the principal function of a Third Generation port. Compared to traditional ports, the urban regional spatial effects of a modern seaport clearly have different characteristics. By Hub-and-Spoke space network of traffic and logistics, modern ports drive regionalization and networking of port industries and the evolution of its mother city's space, and finally transform seaport cities to resource allocation hubs of the world market.
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    Review and prospects of urban metabolism research
    SONG Tao, CAI Jianming, NI Pan, DU Shanshan, DING Yue
    2013, 32 (11):  1650-1661.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (536KB) ( )   Save
    Urban metabolism is an organic process in cities which output products, services and waste with the input of resources, energy, and human efforts. As a complex open dissipative system, urban system, including environmental resources, economy, and social development, can be modeled with a range of metabolic processes. Such problems as resources and energy shortage, ecological damage to the environment, human life quality drops, and economic overgrowth, may be due to metabolic disorder in regional and urban development. This article reviewed the progress in the studies of urban metabolism, such as concept perspectives, methods and index system of urban metabolism. Current research field in the urban metabolism can be divided into three parts: macro- regional simulation of urban metabolic systems, metabolic responses of urban land expansions, and micro- scale metabolic measures of communities. As the field of urban metabolism expands, the traditional view of a stationary urban system is giving way to a more dynamic eco-system which includes social and economic facets of the urban systems. Material flow analysis and energy flow analysis are the main research methods. Material flow analysis tracks all of the material, energy and water flows within the urban metabolic systems. Energy flow analysis, especially the Emergy theory, normalizes all products and services to equivalents of one form of energy that enables all of these resources to be compared on a common basis. These two methods have been used to provide additional information to complement economic theory from the viewpoints of resource, energy, and material inputs and outputs, in order to further inform public policy for urban development and sustainability. In addition, other methods include human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) and multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM). As far as urban metabolic efficiency indicators are concerned, the core is to measure input-output ratio, involving two major categories: indicators of resource input and indicators of output. These two major indicators can be further divided into the indicators of cities' resource consumption, environmental pollution, economic development and social welfare, et al. The integration of them can reflect the overall systematic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Based on in-depth review of urban metabolism development, this article forecasts the trend of application in the urban sustainable metabolism: (1) It is necessary to develop and optimize regional metabolic management policies. Study of urban metabolism is an integral part of monitoring regional environment and provides measures indicative of a region's sustainability. (2) The urban metabolism not only is the basis of an urban daily accounting framework, but also goes a long way towards monitoring urban operations based on the development of the processes in the mathematical models of the urban metabolism. (3) Urban metabolic study helps improve the urban metabolic-oriented green community planning and design. It is possible to reduce environmental impacts by tracking the energy and material flows in urban design. Finally, suggestions on research of urban metabolism are also proposed: focus on the coupling of urban metabolism and industrial development; innovate the mechanism of urban metabolic changes; explore metabolic efficiency differences among different cities; build up a reasonable index system of sustainable metabolism.
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    Impact of cultural capacity on gentrification and its consequences
    WU Qiyan, WANG Zhaojie, LIU Yongmei, WU Xiaohui
    2013, 32 (11):  1662-1669.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (761KB) ( )   Save
    Middle-class is an intermediate group with similar social status and social identity, for example, in life style, value orientation, occupational characteristics, and self-perception. Becoming a middle class community (gentrification) in the process in which wealthy families choose to buy and renovate the properties in the areas near city center, resulting in the restoration and upgrading of the run-down urban neighborhoods and the displacement of lower-income people. The middle class often benefit from the improved inner city living environment because of the city government's renovation plans; the city government achieves the increase in revenue growth rate and total amount of growth, thanks to the middle class. It is clear that gentrification is not only a social process in which the middle class emerges at the level of social practice, but also a spatial process in which middle class migrate into the agglomerations in the upgraded inner city areas. This concept has been widely accepted in the western research community. However, controversy about the driving mechanism has long remained. Since the transformation of post-industry society, gentrification has become one of the key research topics on urban issues and spatial planning in the western countries, and as a global phenomenon, has expanded to the new industrialized countries and the emerging markets. In our opinion, gentrification has become a more and more significantly process with mixed characteristics. So it is necessary to discuss the revision that post-industrial cultural capacity of the middle class has made to the driving forces. After a brief overview of this theory, we discussed the impact on the socialization and spatial shift in gentrification again based on Pierre Bourdieu's concept of culture ability, and analyzed the differentiation of culture capacity. By reanalyzing the socialization and spatial shift, followed by a brief review of process and the phenomenon of gentrification, this paper expounds upon the influence of culture on the middle class, the two loops of socialization and spatial process. The author believed that culture ability becomes the most important capital after economic capability and material capital, and revised the double-circle path of gentrification, which separated the socialization and spatial shift from gentrification. So inner city will start to show the characteristics of fragmentation and lose the middle-class. Culture ability also contributes to the spatial shift in a society and socialization of middle-class in a space, and becomes the security of middle-class' reproduction.
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    Application of GIS
    Synthesizing service resources in support for urban-rural planning: Status and prospects
    MA Yan, SHEN Zhenjiang, GAO Xiaolu, DANG Anrong
    2013, 32 (11):  1670-1680.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (10661KB) ( )   Save
    With the development and application of Information Technology and Geographic Information System in the past decades, the traditional approach in the research on space and land use changes has changed from statistical analysis to dynamical simulation and forecasting. As policy prescription has increasingly favoured a planning approach to regulate and control urban spatial changes, decision-making support for urban and rural planning has attracted a great focus from scholars in this area. Research approaches in this field, in a vast and varied range, include spatial analysis, urban modeling, geosimulation, virtual reality, etc. In this article, based on the review of research progress around the world in this field and the discussion on future research trends, a new concept, namely, service resources, in planning support systems for urban and rural planning, was introduced. The service resources in planning support were divided into three categories: data as a service (DaaS), application programming interfaces as a service (APIaaS), and Platform as a Service (PaaS). In order to explain this new concept well, the researches on planning support systems (PSSs) worldwide were reviewed in the three aspects. Many case studies and researches in this area, from the development of GIS to employment of cloud computing for urban simulation, were also reviewed, and the review helped further discuss how the service resources are integrated into the researches to change PSSs development. Detailed information about the synthesis of DaaS and APIaaS with PaaS for planning support was introduced and emphasized as well. The development of PSSs has gone through the stages from statistical analysis to presentation by 2 dimension GIS or remote sensing data, to dynamical simulation by combining GIS or remote sensing data in simulation models. As for the development of Virtual Reality (VR), VR technology began to be used to visualize and present urban planning and design schemes, which allowed PSSs turn into 3 dimension visualization and modeling. In the meantime, the concept of collaborative planning was gradually replacing traditional planning concept, and the researches on PSSs also started to focus on this topic. GIS dataset, simulation models and web service began to be integrated into one platform, made possible by the development of cloud computing. Thus, the development of DaaS, APIaaS and PaaS will be a new trend and also a necessity for the researches on the support for urban and rural planning. This paper includes 4 sections. Section 1 introduces the background of the current work. The concept and classification of service resources for planning support of urban and rural planning is introduced in section 2, as well as a detailed review on current development regarding to these service resources. Then, how to develop PSSs by integration of the DaaS, APIaaS and PaaS is discussed in section 3. Last, in section 4 the current status of the development of the integration is reviewed and the future developmental trend in this research area is also discussed to help researchers to do more standardized and systematized researches in the future.
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    Simulation of spatial distribution of population and its evolution before/after the Grain for Green Project in agro-pastoral zone: A case study in Taips County
    LAN Yufang, XU Xia, JIANG Li, JIN Dongyan
    2013, 32 (11):  1681-1691.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8411KB) ( )   Save
    The information of spatial distribution of population plays a significant role in the studies on resource environment, social economics, evaluation of the loss caused by a natural disaster, land use change, and other topics in geography and related disciplines. Traditional method hypothesizes that a population is distributed uniformly in a region, but the actual situation is not like that. Spatialization of census data for a population becomes rather important for a comprehensive analysis which combines social economics with natural environment. Therefore, the research on spatialization of census data has become a hot spot in geographic science and other social sciences. In this paper, Taips County, a typical region in the agro-pastoral zone of North China, was taken as a study case. This region has been heavily affected by the Grain-for-Green Project in China, and the population in the region has changed dramatically since the implementation of the project. Based on the characteristics of each of the 175 administrative villages in the region in 2000 and 2008, different scales were applied in the analysis. Through multi-variables regression analysis of the population's census data and various impacting factors, including land use indexes, topographical indices (mean elevations and mean slopes), and distance to main roads and rivers at the village's level in Taips County, using GIS software and SPSS statistical software as the tools, a model for the spatial distribution of population was established. In the meantime, the actual population density of each administrative village was used to validate the precision of the model. In this study, the number of independent variables was gradually increased to explore the model of the population's spatialization to achieve higher precision and make the model more suitable to the study area. It was found that there was a significant correlation between population density and land use type of each administrative village. The correlation ratio between actual administrative village's population density and the density calculated by spatialization model reached to 0.961 and 0.881 in 2000 and 2008, respectively, and the linear fitting slopes of both simulation results were close to 1. These results indicated that the spatialization model worked very well for simulation, and the accuracy satisfied the application of the model to the research on population's spatial distribution in small scales. And also, dividing spatial scales can improve the precision. In addition, the population in the region has changed dramatically during the 8 years. The population grew rapidly near the town center and in the suburban areas but dropped sharply in the other areas, indicating the trend that the population became concentrated near the town center and the surrounding areas. In conclusion, Grain-for-Green Project is one of the most important driving factors of the change of the spatial pattern of population in the regional scale.
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    Research progress in spatialization of population data
    BAI Zhongqiang, WANG Juanle, YANG Fei
    2013, 32 (11):  1692-1702.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (528KB) ( )   Save
    Readily available and accurate data on spatial population distribution is essential for understanding, and responding to, many social, political, economical and environmental issues, such as humanitarian relief, disaster response planning, environment impact assessment, and development assistance. Research on spatialization of demographic data plays an important role in grid transformation of social-economical data. Furthermore, as gridded population data can be effectively interoperate with geospatial data and remote sensing images, it is a useful supplement to census data. This paper reviewed spatialization methodologies, predictive modeling factors and typical datasets in the literature of population data spatialization research. Shortcomings of demographic data and advantages of spatial population distribution data are compared and summarized firstly. The spatialization methodologies are grouped into three categories, i.e., population distribution models from urban geography, areal interpolation methods and spatialization methods based on remote sensing and GIS. Population models from urban geography include the Clark's model and allometric growth model. The areal interpolation methods had been distinguished by point based method and area based method. Spatialization methods based on remote sensing and GIS are most widely used in nowadays, which can be further grouped into three categories for two reasons: one is the relationship between population and land use, urban area, traffic network, settlement density, image pixel characteristics, or other physical or socioeconomic characteristics, and the other is the calculation strategy. Various methods mentioned above have their own application environment and limitations. We reviewed the principles and applicability of every method in detail. After that, we generalized the frequently used factors in the spatialization process, involving land use/land cover, traffic network, topography, settlements density, night light, texture variable, and spectral reflectance. In the meantime, some typical research cases about the factors also were exemplified and analyzed. In addition, we introduced a few widely used spatial population distribution datasets or influential population spatialization projects. They consisted of China km grid population datasets, UNEP/GRID, GPW/GRUMP, LandScan, AfriPop & AsiaPop & AmriPop. The producers, resolution, characterization year and generation method of each one were presented exhaustively. Based on the above review, we discussed the current research problems and outlined research priorities in the future. The problems include the temporal inconsistency of input data, coarse resolution of demographic data, lack of in-depth study on scale effect, the scarcity of time series products and few validation works. To deal with these issues, more studies should be conducted to the following aspects: comprehension of population distribution mechanism, calculation of consistency and validation of existing datasets, application of multi-sources remote sensing data and volunteered geographic information, continuous space-time simulation of population distribution in the typical areas, sub-block-level population estimation, self-adaptive spatialization method which integrates multiple elements and multiple models. In summary, the research on spatialization of demographic data has made breakthroughs in the past two decades. Meanwhile, there are a few problems that need to be solved immediately. Since these two aspects had been reviewed as comprehensively as possible, we hope issues discussed in this paper could enlighten and promote the future study in this field.
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    Climatic and Environmental Change
    Effect of industrial growth on atmospheric pollution and its spatio-temporal pattern in Shandong Province during 1991-2011: Taking SO2 and dust emissions as example
    CHENG Yu, XU Chenglong, LIU Lei, REN Jianlan
    2013, 32 (11):  1703-1711.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5131KB) ( )   Save
    Economic growth is considered to be leading causes of ecological crisis. With rapid industrialization and urbanization, environmental problems inevitably have become the important factors that affect regional sustainable development. Recently, the spatio-temporal pattern of environmental pollution caused by industrial development and economic growth became a hot topic in geography. In this paper, we took Shandong Province as an example, selected SO2 and dust as two indicators of atmospheric pollution, and used LMDI model, decomposition model and geographic (spatial) analysis to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of industrial growth and atmospheric pollution in Shandong Province from 1991 to 2011, and drew conclusions as follows. (1) SO2 emission showed a trend of a downward-upward cycle, followed by a second downward-upward cycle, with the inflection points in 1997, 2002, and 2005, respectively, and, generally speaking, the dust increased first and then decreased, with the inflection point in 1997. The two atmospheric pollutants basically changed from relatively decoupled to absolutely decoupled, indicating an overall improvement of the atmospheric environment. (2) The results of the overall total amount and annual amounts of pollutants indicate that the overall scale of industrial and economic activities is the main cause of atmospheric pollution with SO2 and dust, the effect of technical efficiency is the main reason for the reduction of total pollutants, and the structure effect played certain, but limited, roles in the reduction of pollutants. So adjustment of industrial structures, especially reducing the pollution-intensive industries, is the main approach to pollution control. (3) Overall pattern of SO2 and dust pollution suggested that the situation of pollution control was getting better. SO2 emissions per unit area are high mainly in Laiwu, Zibo, Zaozhuang and other areas, and relatively low in Heze, Linyi and other western and southern areas. Dust emissions per unit area are mainly high in Ji'nan, Zibo, Laiwu, Yantai and Zaozhuang of the middle, southern, and western areas. Based on the above research results, we propose that different regional policies need to be implemented, industrial layout optimized, environmental management measures innovated, environmental information disclosure, in addition to other relevant countermeasures. In order to solve the current atmospheric\ environmental problems, this research is of practical significance for the establishment of atmospheric environmental governance and the mechanism of sustainable regional development in Shandong Province, and promotion of the coordination between regional economic growth and environmental protection.
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    Contributions of moisture from local evaporation to precipitations in Southeast China based on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes
    MA Qian, ZHANG Mingjun, WANG Shengjie, WANG Baolong
    2013, 32 (11):  1712-1720.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2296KB) ( )   Save
    Stable isotopes are considered as a diagnostic tool which has been utilized in different media and widely used in geosciences and environmental studies, including use of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rivers, lakes and groundwater to investigate the circulation mechanism as well as the surface runoff composition in drainage basins, and use of isotopic data from speleothems, tree rings and ice cores to reconstruct paleoclimate. Precipitation is a main input factor in atmospheric water cycle and contains two natural tracers (18O and 2H) with strong signals for tracking the trajectories of water vapor. Rayleigh model is a popular model used in the methods to investigations the changes in moisture sources. Many investigators have used the model to simulate the variations of δ values in different study areas and got better results. In this paper, the study area in Southeast China is mainly influenced by summer monsoon during the period from June to September. However, with depletion of moisture in clouds, the impact of monsoon moisture changes from coast to inland. Based on Rayleigh theory and an evaporative model used by many researchers to calculate the contribution rate in different areas, we investigated the atmospheric water cycle mechanism, the contribution rate of evaporative vapor and the effect of secondary evaporation in Southeast China during the summer monsoon. (1) The comparison between the modeled values and the observed values indicated that the movement of water vapor abided by Rayleigh theory. (2) It was found that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface increased from coast to inland. The contribution rate of evaporative vapor, varying from 1.4% to 4.1% in the area, was 2.2% on average. (3) By comparison of the observed d excess to the global average d excess (10‰), it was inferred that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface and the effect of secondary evaporation both existed in this area. However, the effect of secondary evaporation decreased from coast to inland, suggesting that the decrease of the secondary evaporation may have been compensated by the supply of evaporative vapor from land. Based on the results in this research, it was concluded that the supply of evaporative vapor from surface area and the effect of secondary evaporation both had influences on water circulation in the study area. However, the value of the supply of evaporative vapor and the impact of the secondary evaporation could only be roughly estimated. Related investigations on the supply of evaporative vapor and the effect of secondary evaporation are few and far between in the area. If the problems above can be comprehensively solved, it will be of great significance not only studying the regional water cycle, but also providing basic data for agriculture, meteorology and other purposes. Thus, more sampling sites should be built in this area for detailed studies.
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