Table of Content

    25 May 2013, Volume 32 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Basic procedures of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating
    LAI Zhongping, OU Xianjiao
    2013, 32 (5):  683-693.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4088KB) ( )   Save
    Since its development in the 1980s, optically stimulated luminescence(OSL) dating has been improved significantly. Even though the error is larger(normally 5%~10%), it has obvious advantageous over radiocarbon dating: larger dating range from decadal up to ~700 ka, abundant dating materials(quartz or feldspars), dating directly the sediment, etc. The purpose of the paper is to introduce the method to those geoscientists who intend to use OSL dating for chronological control so that the sampling in the field will satisfy OSL chronologists. We describe the procedures of OSL dating in the luminescence dating laboratory of Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, CAS, including sampling, pretreatment, equivalent dose (De) and dose rate determination. We make some suggestions for OSL sampling from strata or drilling cores. In our laboratory we combine the single aliquot regenerative-dose(SAR) and standardised growth curve(SGC) techniques together for De determination, which we call SAR-SGC method with the advantage of reducing machine occupation time for at least 60% compared to that of the SAR method. The abstract of pure quartz of middle grains (38~63 μm) using fluorocilicic acid (H2SiF6) could be much easier and simpler compared to that of coarse grains(90~120 μm) and fine grains(4~ 11 μm), without the use of dangerous hydrofluoric acid(HF). Our systematic investigations on the use of SAR-SGC method for different sediments(aeolian, lacustrine, marine, and glacial, etc.) have shown that the method is valid, even though some factors may result in complexity, e.g. the contamination of heavy minerals and feldspars, the thermal history of quartz grains, etc. Since 2008, we have been applying, with success, the SAR-SGC method to dating loess, desert, lacustrine, ocean, glacial, earthquake, and archaeological site sediments, etc.
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    Global shifts, theoretical shifts: Changing geographies of religion
    Lily KONG
    2013, 32 (5):  694-709.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.002
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    The paper evaluates the burst in geographical research on religion in the last decade. It examines: (1) the relative emphases and silences in analyses of different sites of religious practice, sensuous geographies, population constituents, religions, geographies and scales of analyses; (2) the rise in the discourse of postsecularization; and (3) four contemporary global shifts (growing urbanization and social inequality, deteriorating environments, ageing populations, and increasing human mobilities), the ways in which religion shapes human response to them, and the implications for new research agendas.
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    Research progress on human settlement evolution
    ZHANGWenzhong, CHEN Li, YANG Yizhao
    2013, 32 (5):  710-721.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.003
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    Human settlement is a general term used for a temporary or permanent living space of human beings. It is also the place where human activities have most severe effects on the natural environment, hence the focus of academic studies. In this article we reviewed the development of human settlement research and summarized theories and methods on human settlement evolution at home and abroad. We discussed the research progress on data platform monitoring the dynamic changes, indicator system evaluating evolutional trends, key influence factors and mechanisms, and integrated simulation models. Generally speaking, the concept, content, influence factors, and evolutional mechanisms have not been clearly understood yet. Overseas researches are using modern geographic approaches and modeling methods to generate insights into the dynamic changes of human settlements. They also introduced integrated researches from geography, urban planning, sociology and ecology into the mechanism studies. However, the focus of Chinese researches is mainly the evaluation of human settlement; there is little research on the evolutional mechanism of human settlement. We suggested that more inter-discipline collaborations, integrated databases, modern analytical approaches, and modeling methods are needed in this research realm. We pointed out that the regions undergoing rapid urbanization in China are experiencing drastic environmental and social changes and are worth studying.
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    Research progress on spatial behaviors of the elderly in China
    ZHOU Jie, CHAI Yanwei
    2013, 32 (5):  722-732.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.004
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    Along with the increase of aging population and empty-nest families in China, a series of social issues with the aging population have become the focus of academic studies. The Researches at macro-level, such as aging process and ways of caring for the aged, provide policy guidance for the government. On the other hand, if we want to estimate the effects of the government's policies, especially for aged people's daily lives, we should analyze the interactions between the elderly individuals and the environment at micro-level, namely, the research on spatial behaviors of the elderly. Moreover, the research helps provide guidance for urban planning which could improve aged people's life quality and promote social justice in space resources by controlling structural evolution of urban spaces based on the demands of the elderly's lives and their living conditions. In this paper we discuss the current multi-disciplinary researches on the elderly's daily lives in China. Based on the awareness of the elderly's lifestyles and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, we conclude that health seeking, shopping, and leisure behavior are the main activities of senior citizens' daily lives in China. Therefore, this paper focuses on these three types of behaviors, reviews the progress of correlational studies by combing through the domestic literature on the subject, then summarizes the behavioral characteristics of the elderly and the influencing factors, especially the interactive mechanism between urban space and residents' behavior during the transition time in China. We synthetically assess the advantage, disadvantage and inadequacy of the studies we have covered, based on the analyses of the current status and the trend of the elderly's behaviors at home. By comparing to the research status of international geographical gerontology which is composed of multiple academic disciplines, we predict the trend of further studies in the macro background of social-cultural and spatial environment changes, and expect that the high-level needs of self-fulfillment of the elderly could be met in a favorable environment with supporting service facilities and community services.
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    Urban compactness index and its application: Compactness of built-up areasin Nanjing and Suzhou
    YAN Yue, CHEN Shuang, LI Guangyu, YU Cheng
    2013, 32 (5):  733-742.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2928KB) ( )   Save
    As compact cities are being promoted in sustainable development policies in many countries, including the developing regions, research on urban compactness is still hampered by the lack of consensus on its meaning and negligence of the applicability of the indicators for compactness measurement. In this paper, we aim to clarify the confusions in the selection of indicators and their applications. Firstly, we introduced recent studies on the measurement of compactness from six different perspectives: shape, size, density, structure, function and process, and discussed the applicability of each individual indicator. Then, by analyzing the practicability and limitation of specific structural indicators based on their stability in reaction to the change of grain size, we evaluated the existing methods for the selection of evaluation indicators. Sample results from the cities of Nanjing and Suzhou showed that four selected indicators don't have so strong reactions to scale change, which qualifies them for reliable measurements. These results serve as a reference to the measurement of compact cities and provide guidance for urban planning and decision-making of management policies.
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    Urban expansion and its driving mechanism in China:From three main shools' perspectives
    GAO Jinlong, CHEN Jianglong, SU Xi
    2013, 32 (5):  743-754.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (723KB) ( )   Save
    As the largest developing country in the world, China is facing the most challenging situation in its urban land use. The study of urban expansion is becoming the focus of attention in the academic community as the problems of urban expansion are becoming increasingly prominent. After summarizing the studies on the speed and scale, mode and type, and the evolution of urban spatial structures in China, we first reviewed the driving mechanism of cities' expansion from economic, institutional and empirical perspectives, and then gave a brief overview of the characteristics and limitations of the studies in each school.We concluded that Chinese urban expansion clearly has stage, regional and hierarchical characteristics. In other words, the cities of different levels, in the different regions and at different stages of development are showing different trends of expansion, so are the expansion mechanisms. Therefore, the follow-up study on urban expansion in China should focus on both current stage and long time range of the representative cases, use comprehensive data and integrated approaches, combine different schools of thought, and conduct more comprehensive and scientific researches on urban expansion in China.
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    Progress and prospect of urban vulnerability
    WANG Yan, FANG Chuanglin, ZHANG Qiang
    2013, 32 (5):  755-768.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.007
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    In the process of rapid urbanization, cities are facing more and more conflicts between the use of natural resources and the protection of ecological environment,which hinder the sustainable urban development. As one of the core issues in sustainability studies, vulnerability research has always been a subject that receives extensive attention. In this paper, we discussed the progress of urban vulnerability research, reviewed the concept, classification, analysis framework, dynamic mechanism and evaluation method in the studies of urban vulnerability. Urban vulnerability research addresses mainly two types of vulnerability: internal vulnerability (urban ecology, economy, society, population) and external vulnerability (global climate change and natural disaster). Urban vulnerability analysis frameworks include risk and disaster framework (RH), pressure release framework (PAR), local disaster vulnerability framework, and vulnerability framework under the background of global change. Urban vulnerability assessment methods mainly include comprehensive index method, functional model, set pair analysis, data envelopment analysis, scenario analysis and layer stacking method. Current studies on urban vulnerability still have the following problems: (1) a unified conceptual framework or a comprehensive evaluation index system have not been yet formed; (2) studies on the mechanism and countermeasures are not sufficient; (3) there are very few studies on vulnerabilities of urban coupling system. In the future, efforts need to be made to establish a unified conceptual framework and a comprehensive evaluation system. After constructing a comprehensive evaluation model, it is necessary to choose particular areas for vulnerability assessment. We hope urban vulnerability research can provide the scientific basis for sustainable economic and social development.
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    Urban residential amenity index and its composition factors:The case of Changsha County in Hunan Province
    LIU Peilin, LIAO Liuwen, LIU Chunla
    2013, 32 (5):  769-776.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (504KB) ( )   Save
    With economic globalization, rapid urbanization, and steady improvement of productive forces, urban populations and scales have been continuously increasing and expanding. However, there is an obvious trend of deterioration of the urban residential environment. Improving the urban residential environment plays an important role in enhancing the comprehensive competitiveness of small and medium-sized cities and promoting urbanization process, hence one of the major tasks of the urban construction in China is to improve urban residential environment. Based on structured interview and 120 sets of questionnaire survey data of residential amenity satisfaction degree in Changsha County, an index system for urban residential amenity evaluation was established. The results of index calculation and analysis showed that: the residential amenity index of Changsha County is 0.82, which belongs to a good level, but local residents' satisfaction degree for the urban residential environment is mediocre. The influencing composition factors of the urban residential amenity index were analyzed from the physical and socio-economic aspects. The authors put forward that, to improve the urban residential environment, the government should strengthen the construction of infrastructure and public service facilities, develop cities slowly, and improve related management systems.
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    Characteristics and mechanism of manufacturing industry shift in the Pearl River Delta during 1998-2009
    LI Yan, HE Canfei
    2013, 32 (5):  777-787.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (955KB) ( )   Save
    As the forefront of China's reform and opening up, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has become one of key research areas. Recently, the PRD experienced manufacturing relocation due to severe land and labor shortages as well as rising rents. Hence, issues of manufacturing industry shift in the PRD have increasingly become an important policy and academic focus. This paper intends to capture the characteristics of manufacturing industry shift from both industrial and regional perspectives, by using a micro firm-level census data. In general, industry agglomeration showed a U-shape tendency at two-digit industry level during 1998-2009. However, there were huge disparities in agglomeration level among different industries: resource-intensive industries have the highest level of agglomeration; the agglomeration level of technology and capital-intensive industries is lower than the average value of manufacturing industry in the PRD. At the regional scale, the disparity of regional specialization increased gradually along with the regional integration. The functional division of "Guangzhou-Foshan- Zhaoqing", "Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen" and "Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou" group is becoming clear. To explore the mechanism of manufacturing industry shift in the PRD, we applied Industry-Region interaction model to test the proposed hypothesis stated in comparative advantage theory and new economic geography theory. It was found that: (1) manufacturing industry in the PRD has shifted to regions with low transportation costs, low labor wages and land rents, or loose environmental regulations; (2) similar industrial structure in the PRD drives manufacturing shift; (3) industries with scale economies tend to move to regions with low transportation costs, and industries with close upstream and downstream linkage tend to move to regions with large market potential; (4) considering both industry and region heterogeneity, different industries have different shift direction, which means, besides comparative advantages, industry and region characteristics both significantly affect manufacturing industry shift. In the post-crisis era, deepening the understanding of manufacturing industry shift is beneficial to policy-making to drive the continued growth of the PRD economies.
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    Evolutionary economic geography: The second bridge between economics and geography
    YAN Yingen, AN Husen
    2013, 32 (5):  788-796.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.010
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    For a long time, there have been few exchanges between economics and geography. The lack of spatial dimension in economics is so common that economists could not discard such an assumption as constant return. In this paper, we explained why geography and economics neglected each other and in which field the two disciplines may cooperate in the future. If new economic geography is the first bridge between economics and geography, then the evolutionary economic geography can be considered as the second bridge between the two. While evolutionary economics is gradually reaching its maturity, evolutionary economic geography, as a new subject based on evolutionary economics, starts to gain attentions. We explained the formation, advantages and applications of evolutionary economic geography. Evolutionary economic geography inherits the factors such as time and history from evolutionary economics, thus it covers a cross field between evolutionary economics and economic geography. Evolution economic geography is used widely at the micro, meso and macro scales, and it also has important implications in China's socio-economic development: (1) industrial dynamics indicate that the shift of industrial gradients doesn't necessarily lead to coordinated regional development; (2) relation networks suggest that it is necessary to ease the Hukou system and the system may even become obsolete; (3) the diversity shows that a single industry development strategy is risky; (4) policies and the change of the policies need to be "coherent".
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    Regional policy change and multinational corporations' space layout evolution in the Yangtze River Delta
    LIU Kewen, CAO Youhui, MOU Yufeng, SUN Xiaoxiang
    2013, 32 (5):  797-806.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.011
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    Multinational corporations tend to be located in the areas where transaction and transformation (production) costs are low, and implementation of various regional policies in China effectively helps reduce the transaction costs. By collating and quantifying the regional policies in the Yangtze River Delta, this paper analyzed the correlation between regional policy change and multinational corporation space layout evolution in space and time. The results are as follows: there has been a diffusion trend in the space layout of multinational companies in the Yangtze River Delta. Regional policy change and multinational corporation space layout both had three stages simultaneously: (1) the primary stage, in which the correlation between multinational corporations' layout and regional policy is weak; multinational corporations were located mostly in the regional center city Shanghai; (2) the agglomeration stage, in which multinational corporations gathered in cities along the Shanghai-Nanjing line, where the production costs were low and they enjoyed favorable policies; (3) network stage, in which multinational corporations formed regional production networks in the areas with low production costs, favorable policies and industry clusters, and diffused to marginal zones of the Yangtze River Delta. There are differences among the stages in terms of the mechanisms of multinational corporations' layout.
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    Research progress on accessibility to regional transportation infrastructure
    JIANG Haibing, ZHANGWenzhong, QI Yi, ZHOU Liang
    2013, 32 (5):  807-817.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (530KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid development of regional transportation infrastructure in our nation, the research on accessibility to transportation infrastructure has been increasingly receiving attentions from academia and scholars in planning field. This article attempts to review the literature of domestic and foreign studies on accessibility to regional transportation in the recent 20 years, summarize characteristics and prospects of the studies from the aspects of temporal-spatial variations of accessibility and the aspects of its regional spatial effect, and predict hot topics of the related domestic research in the future. Through systematically comparing the similarities and differences of domestic and foreign research, we conclude that the research on temporal variations of regional accessibility is still an important topic at home and abroad. As shown in the related foreign literature, there are numerous evaluation indicators; spatial resolutions of accessibility have been continuously improved; more and more analytical technique and methods are being developed. When simulating accessibility, more complex and realistic factors are taken into account, such as traffic congestion, transfer, etc. Foreign research tends to be more diversified, and continues to explore new fields and new applications, such as spillover effect, etc. In the related domestic literature, the research develops quickly and adopts foreign research methods and ideas, but more studies on index system are needed and spatial resolution needs to be further improved. We should also consider more important realistic factors in accessibility research, such as traffic demand and policy intervention etc.
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    Progress and prospect of world energy geography in China
    YANG Yu, LIU Yi
    2013, 32 (5):  818-830.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (871KB) ( )   Save
    It is an important mission for economic geographers to work on world energy geography to meet with major national strategic demands and to face the increasingly severe international energy environment. Current studies lack systematic investigation of the world energy based on economic geography, and the studies only focus on political science, diplomacy, economics and other fields. Generally speaking, the studies of world energy are mainly concentrated in three areas: (1) study on the energy geopolitical situation; (2) national energy security based on the energy geopolitical situation including energy supply, transport, storage, etc.; (3) China's energy cooperation and energy diplomacy. Looking forward, geographical study of world energy should be strengthened in three aspects: (1) to establish a systematical framework and get a comprehensive grasp of the status, pattern and evolvement of world energy; (2) to built a dynamic database of world energy and enhance simulation analysis with visual communication tools; (3) to strengthen the establishment of research platform and training of research teams.
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    Spatial evolution of county economy in Anhui Province during 2001-2010
    FANG Yelin, HUANG Zhenfang, CHENWendi, XIE Huiwei
    2013, 32 (5):  831-839.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.014
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    By selecting per capita GDP of every county in Anhui Province from 2001 to 2010, comprehensively using the methods of G index, economic gravity centre, standard deviational ellipses and G(1, 1) prediction model, this article analyzes and forecasts the evolution of county economy, and, combined with the rank-size principle, analyzes the mechanism of spatial differences. Generally speaking, the county economy of Anhui Province presents a weak clustering distribution trend and shows a spatial pattern of "low in the north and south but high in the middle" and "low in the west but high in the east". The scope of economic gravity centre is 117.569°~ 117.598°E, 31.672°~31.760°N, and has the trend moving to the southeast. The change of standard deviational ellipses is very small; basically the core is capital economic circle, covering the most areas of Wanjiang City Belt. The spatial distribution of county economy presents a "northwest-southeast" pattern, and has the trend changing to "north-south" pattern. The county economy meets the rank-size principle and performs a low-level decentralized equilibrium pattern. Regional resources endowments and location, the development of central cities, and policies are the main reasons that cause the spatial differences.
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