Table of Content

    25 August 2011, Volume 30 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Studies of Urban Regeneration
    YAN Ruogu, ZHOU Suhong, YAN Xiaopei
    2011, 30 (8):  947-955.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (437KB) ( )   Save
    “Urban regeneration”is a re-development process which is an inevitable experience at certain urbanization stage, and urban regeneration under different backgrounds and geographical environments has different motivation mechanism, development mode and power relations, and has different economic, environmental and social effects. Based on the English literature in recent years about "urban regeneration" and the literature about urban renewal in China in the past 30 years, this paper summed up the studies on urban regeneration from the perspectives of geography, including the research scope, the study characteristics and the theories related to urban regeneration, to explain the formation mechanism of urban regeneration, the regeneration policy, the regeneration mode, the regeneration tools and the methodologies, as well as the developers in the regeneration project and the regeneration effects in different regions at different developing stages. Urban renewal movement originated the massive urban renewal activities in the West after World War II. Because this kind of physical renewal destructed the previous social fabric and the integrity of the internal space, it was widely questioned. The term “urban regeneration”originally referred to an urban renaissance strategy which responded to the decline of old industrial cities after the transfer of the global industrial chain in the West, especially in Britain. Then it gradually evolved to a city's comprehensive urban redevelopment activities, including other improvement areas within the city, to stimulate economic growth, to enhance urban vitality and to improve the competitiveness. With the “globalization”and“localization”, the researchers in the world began to show concern on various types of urban renewal movement and re-urbanization strategy. This paper summed up three future research directions of urban regeneration, including the internal mechanism between urban regeneration, city construction and economic development, the micro-study of the individual behavior in urban regeneration and integrated urban redevelopment under the concept of sustainable development, and gave some suggestions to studies on future urban redevelopment in China.
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    Multi-agents Model for Simulation of Urban Residential Space Evolution
    SHAN Yuhong, ZHU Xinyan
    2011, 30 (8):  956-966.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1404KB) ( )   Save
    Multi-agents model (MAS) is an effective tool for studying and simulating complex social and economic systems. MAS model itself does not have complicated modeling steps, but gives a modeling ideas and mechanisms of "from micro to macro and from bottom to up". In China, market mechanism and planning mechanisms are the major driving and regulation forces of urban residential space evolution. This paper builds an urban residential space expansion model based on GIS and MAS that contains micro intelligent agents and environment agent, aiming to investigate the interactions between the market mechanism and planning mechanism in the process of urban residential space transformation. On the basis of the cognition of the behavior characteristics of the market mechanism agents of urban residents and property developers, the model analyzes the impact of the two market mechanism agents on the evolution direction of urban residential space, and the paper points out that under the policies of state-owned urban land in China, the urban government's land supply decides the urban residential evolution patterns and the total benefits of residential land development. Thus, by adjusting the land use and environment protection policies of urban government, the model sets three policy scenarioes and achieves the preview of the evolution of residential space for each scenario, which can provide guidance for land use planning in advance. Wuchang and Hongshan districts in Wuhan city are chosen as the experimental areas. By the MAS model the paper compares the land use structure and land use benefits in the process of the residential space evolution from 1998 to 2008 among the three scenarioes and the actual situation respectively. Some main conclusions can be drawn as follows from the model’s outputs. Firstly, there are always intersections between the real residential space evolution and the model’s simulated results under different scenarioes, which means that because of the influence of macroscopic environment, urban government may adjust its land use policy, natural environment protection policy and so on in different periods. this is just one of the characteristics of Chinese real estate market. Secondly, urban residents’residential favor can affect the spatial form and the speed of urban residential space’s growth. The third is that compared with land redevelopment of the old urban area, newly developed land in inner suburban districts has a lager proportion in the evolution process of the residential space from 1998 to 2008 in the two experimental districts. In fact, the government of Wuhan city had focused on the development of new residential land in the suburban fringe areas before 2004, but the emphasis has been transferred to the old city transformation and land redevelopment after 2004.
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    Spatio-temporal Evaluation of Urban Planning Implementation
    LONG Ying, HAN Haoying, GU Yizhen, SHEN Zhengjiang, MAO Qizhi
    2011, 30 (8):  967-977.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1131KB) ( )   Save
    Urban planning implementation evaluation (UPIE) has attracted great attention from the urban planning profession as well as local governments in recent years. The existing literature mainly focuses on the conformity approach and does not take careful account into the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the urban planning implementation effectiveness. Moreover, previous studies fail to distinguish the effects of the urban planning from other institutional forces as well as the market forces on urban expansion. Therefore, we introduce a spatio-temporal dynamic approach for UPIE using logistic regression to evaluate the effectiveness of the urban planning on urban expansion. The empirical research is conducted in the Beijing Metropolitan Area (BMA) by the analysis of five versions of the city master plans issued in 1958, 1973, 1982, 1992 and 2004 respectively. According to the temporal phases of implementing the plans, five phases are divided from 1947 to 2008 to evaluate the temporal dynamics of urban plans and the effectiveness of other factors. In addition, the effectiveness of the 2004 City Master Plan of the 16 districts of the BMA is estimated respectively to identify the spatial variations of the planning implementation. The results show that the effectiveness of urban planning increases over time, and is significantly stronger in remote areas than in the central city and sub-urban areas.
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    Comprehensive Evaluation and Spatial Pattern of Regional Urbanization Level in Henan
    CHENWenfeng, MENG Deyou, HE Zhen
    2011, 30 (8):  978-985.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (714KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the urbanization connotation, an indicator system for evaluating urbanization level is put forward to reflect the urbanization levels and distinctions of the districts in Henan Province. By the entropy weighted technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method (TOPSIS), the synthetic urbanization level is evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2009 in Henan, and then, the evolvement of spatial pattern from 2001 to 2009 of the urbanization level is also probed deeply by the exploratory spatial data analysis method (ESDA). Results show that the synthetic urbanization level has been enhanced continuously since 2001, and the extent of urbanization has been extending continuously too. Although the geographical distribution of urbanization hotspot areas has been evolved from concentration to random, the core-periphery spatial pattern composed of central plain urban agglomeration and borderline regions is greatly remarkable. The evaluation and spatial statistical analysis of integrated urbanization level is beneficial to identifying the timing sequence and spatial characteristics of urbanization process in Henan Province, but also can provide theoretical reference to the urbanization policy making. And at last, it is considered that great efforts should be made to promote the urbanization process in the marginal traditional agricultural areas in Henan, which will play a key role in coordinating regional urbanization development.
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    Urban Economic Linkage Research under the New Division of Labor
    LI Yan, HE Canfei
    2011, 30 (8):  986-994.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.005
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    The shift of urban economic linkage research is closely related to the change of urban specialization. Therefore, this paper provides a literature review on urban economic linkage from the perspective of urban specialization. In the paper, we focus on urban economic linkage theories and measurement methods, and furthermore discuss the merits and drawbacks of various approaches. According to the neoclassical theory, comparative advantage determines spatial division of labor and cities specialized in different industries. Urban economic linkage is dominated by population mobility and commodity trade linkages determined by the city size and distance. The earliest theory related to urban economic linkage is“central place theory”, proposed by Christaller in 1933 and developed by Losch in 1939. If all urban activities involved in the same degree of scale economies and transport costs, a regular lattice of equal-sized urban places shows that on a homogeneous plain there are Losch’s famous hexagonal market areas. When activities differ in scale effects and transportation costs, there would be urban areas of different types, which is argued by Christaller as a hierarchical structure. The gravity model is widely applied to estimate urban economic linkage. As economic globalization and regional integration proceed, spatial division of labor is largely determined by the secondary natural factors and the cities specialized in different functions along a value chain. Urban economic linkages have gone beyond the population migration and commodity trade, with flows of capital, information, technology, talents and services among cities. As a consequence, regional and global city networks have been developed. Correspondingly, gravity models are less suitable to study the current urban economic linkages, and network analysis is therefore widely applied in the study of urban economic linkages. For further studies, the integration of theories of urban economic linkage’s elements and the deeper discussion of the mechanism is necessary. This paper finally points some directions for further studies on China’s urban economic linkage.
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    The Progresses of Seaport City Studies in the Last Fifty Years
    WANG Haizhuang, LUANWeixin
    2011, 30 (8):  995-1005.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1326KB) ( )   Save
    As a special urban type, seaport cities have aroused wide concern from academic communities at home and abroad since the 1960s. Nowadays, there are plenty of academic outputs in this field, which are classified into several research topics such as port-city relationship, port development and evolution, integrated planning of port and city, and spatial structure of port cities. Although several scholars reviewed some subjects in this field recently, there is not a complete literature review of seaport city studies. This paper collected academic works related in recent more than 50 years, sorted them out in term of study topics firstly, and then summed up, analyzed and compared these subjects to show the research context and to find study shortages and future directions in this field. After reviewing, we can draw the following conclusions. Firstly, the attention to seaport cities is increasing worldwide, but it lacks coherence at home. Secondly, research perspective has transferred from port-city evolution to port-city relationship, but the latter is relatively confined at home. Thirdly, the study method has changed from qualitative to quantitative analysis, but still lacks interdisciplinary approach. Fourthly, spatial analysis is an essential method all the time, and scale and indicators shall be supplemented in the future study. Finally, there are many studies in this field that focus on evolution process and status of seaport cities, but there are relatively few studies on theories and their applications to newly built seaport cities.
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    Progress and Prospects of the Research on Shopping Behavior of Urban Residents
    HAN Huiran, JIAO Huafu, WANG Rongrong, DAI Liuyan
    2011, 30 (8):  1006-1013.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (452KB) ( )   Save
    Shopping behavior of urban residents is the main content of the research about urban commercial activities, and researches on its characteristics and decision-making process can provide a basis for urban commercial network planning. Shopping behavior is one of the most important research fields of urban geography and behavioral geography, and it is necessary to review its developing history, appraise its research progress and discuss its future developing trends. Geographical researches on residents’consumption behavior particularly emphasize on consumers’spatial selection activities and spatial-temporal characteristic of obtaining goods or services. The shopping behavior is the basic consumption behavior as a dynamic link within the urban activities system, so most researches on consumption behavior take residents’shopping behavior as a case. Shopping behavior study of Chinese urban residents refers to corresponding detailed study on type of goods, trip distance, travel time, travel frequency, travel mode and trip purpose of urban residents according to the different ages, different occupations and different income. Based on explaining the foreign theory and method study of shopping behavior, the paper reviews the domestic study progress of related shopping behavior. The review indicates that the studies on shopping behavior were shifted from the macroscopic supply level to the demand level at home and abroad; the foreign studies mainly concentrated on basic theories, characteristics and influence factors, forecasting and model simulation and so on; the domestic studies mainly focused on the macroscopic level studies of commercial spatial structures based on shopping behavior, the spatial-temporal characteristics, decision-making and influencing factors of shopping behavior. Through comparing the research situation of domestic and foreign residents’shopping behaviors, it has been found that there was a large gap between our country and the western counties in the field, especially on the starting time, levels of development and the technical means. Based on reviewing the contents and situation of shopping behavior research at home and abroad, we propose several possible future research directions including virtual shopping district, the new retailing pattern, housing and employment factors, the new low-carbon consumption and cross-border consumption.
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    Evaluation of Chinese Urban Compactness
    MALi, JIN Fengjun
    2011, 30 (8):  1014-1020.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.008
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    Rapid urban expansion in China has led to the plowland reduction, energy consumption and pollution discharge increase. The concept of compact city prevailing in western countries since the 1960s has become the choice for China's urban development with the character of high density of industrial sectors and population in limited space. However, the route and characters of Chinese urbanization are rather different from those of western countries. It is necessary to study the feasibility on whether compact city could lead to the decrease of traffic energy consumption and pollution, and increasing economic efficiency of urban land infrastructure. Based on the analysis of compact cities, this paper built the urban compactness evaluation indicators of Chinese cities, evaluated the urban compactness of 120 cities above prefecture level, and studied its correlation matrix with urban size, resource consumption and pollution factors. The results show that many cities were in the low degree of compactness in China, and there is a weak correlation between urban compactness with the size of urban population and economy. And it is the same to the resource consumption and pollution release. There are three factors which lead to this dilemma, including rapid urbanization process, characters of urban industrial structure and low investment on public infrastructure. Finally, this paper discussed several questions: (1) what is the ultimate aim of city development? (2) what compact cities does China need? (3) how could China build compact cities?
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    Spatial Distribution and Influencing Factors of Chinese Virtual Enterprises
    SONG Zhouying, LIUWeidong
    2011, 30 (8):  1021-1027.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1010KB) ( )   Save
    It is now widely recognized that new information and communication technologies (ICTs) are getting more and more important for firms to achieve competitiveness in the era of internet. Indeed, ICTs have been helping firms to evolve towards new models for the organization of production, such as lean production, agile manufacturing and virtual enterpsies (VEs). Among these new models, VE is considered as one of the most promising model, while it can meet the demands for quick response to changing technological innovations, production specifications, globalizing markets and customized orientation. In particular, VE is a network of organizationally independent and geographically distributed companies that cooperate to address business opportunities, in which member enterprises share information, costs and skills. In China, the development of VEs in the last several years has been incredibly fast. It is against such a background that this paper investigates the development of VEs in China with special attention to its geographical features and then analyzes the factors behind the spatial distribution of VEs, through a case study of 317 Chinese virtual enterprises. The results indicate that VEs development in China in the last several years shows very clear features of spatial concentration in major cities and developed regions, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and Jilin. And the results of a multiple regression model suggest that ICTs are clearly important in deciding the provincial distribution of VEs in China, while the influence of internet and population quality is also significant.
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    The Constraining Factors of Building New Countryside in China and Corresponding International Experiences
    HU Zhichao, LONG Hualou
    2011, 30 (8):  1028-1036.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.010
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    The existing problems in the process of implementing the building new countryside policy in China were concluded as follows: (1) the rural hollowing phenomenon is widespread; (2) shortage of funds for rural development is universal and the construction of rural financial system is lagged behind; (3) the development of rural organization is inadequate; (4) the supply of basic public-service and public-goods cannot meet the basic demands in the rural areas; (5) the decision-making system of rural construction is not perfect; and (6) the participating consciousness of farmers is still at a low level. There are some constraining factors in three aspects, i.e., low serving capacity, low safeguarding ability and low public participating level, which hinder the smoothly implementing of building new countryside in China. By analyzing the international experiences of Germany, Belgium, Israel, Netherlands, France, Hungary, England, America, Japan, Korea, Australia and Italy concerning these constraining factors, e.g. land resources supply, talent availability, agricultural industrialization, farmers cooperative organization construction and rural public-goods supply, some policy implications for carrying out new countryside construction in China were obtained in the three aspects of governments, social organization and farmers, respectively.
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    The Spatial-temporal Evolution of Regional Economic Pattern at Prefecture Level in China: 1990-2008
    WANG Yang, XIU Chunliang
    2011, 30 (8):  1037-1046.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1586KB) ( )   Save
    Although the increasing regional economic pattern of China is commented and studied extensively, relatively few studies are available on small spatial units, level of economic development and economic growth rate. The focus of this research is to examine spatial inequality, polarization and autocorrelation of the economy in China. Population and GDP data for prefectures in the period 1990-2008 were used. Level of economic development, economic growth rate and economic status were evaluated with Gini coefficient, Theil index, Wolfson index, H index, ESDA and specific gravity method. Main driving factors and the mode of evolution were then summarized.
    The research reveals that (1) there has been an overall upward trend of spatial inequality and polarization since 1990, and it has been still obvious since 2003; (2) economic hotspot areas include coastal urban agglomerations, provincial capitals and special resource-concentrated cities. There exists an increasing gap between economic hotspot areas and other regions; (3) the trend of spatial conglomeration of the level of economic development and economic growth rate at prefecture level in China is obvious, which is also interrelated to economic growth rate of the whole country; (4) the main driving factors of the evolution of regional economic pattern can be identified, such as economic location, regional development policy, special resources and background of historical development.
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    Driving and Pulling Simulation of Tourism on the Tertiary Industry in China since 1982
    SU Jianjun, SUN Gennian, WANG Lifang
    2011, 30 (8):  1047-1055.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.012
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    Tourism has a great effect on the growth of the tertiary industry. With a theoretical model and a framework for analysis, the paper uses non-stationary time series, Granger causality and elasticity coefficient methods and time series data from 1982 to 2008, and analyzes the linkage relationship between tourism development and the growth of tertiary industry. The results can be obtained as follows. (1) Time-series data shows that there is a long term linkage relationship between them. In addition, a single-direction Granger causality relation is found between inbound tourist and tertiary industry. Domestic tourism and tertiary industry also have Granger causality relations. Tourism development promotes the growth of tertiary industry, and inbound tourism development has greater effect on the tertiary industry than the domestic tourism. Inbound tourism and domestic tourism have certain impetus to each other. (2) The elasticity coefficients of inbound tourism to tertiary industry and the sectors of tertiary industry are 1.090079, 1.024949, 1.047349, 1.110070, 1.044185, 1.139565 and 1.177425 respectively, and the elasticity coefficients of domestic tourism to tertiary industry and the sectors of tertiary industry are 0.789943, 0.744285, 0.759301, 0.806053, 0.755764, 0.826966 and 0.855732 respectively. Inbound tourism development contributes to tertiary industry more than domestic tourism.
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    Temporal and Spatial Variance of Event Tourism in Beijing Suburbs
    DAI Linlin, GAI Shijie
    2011, 30 (8):  1056-1064.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.013
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    With event and event tourism prevailing in rural areas of China, events no longer just belong to local economic development strategy, but part of regional development strategy. At a regional scale, different host regions vary in natural resources, social economy and traffic locations, along with changeable macroscopic economic policies, leading to an unbalanced development of events in both temporal distribution and spatial distribution which presents transitional and differentiation characteristics. Hence a comprehensive understanding of the space-time characteristics of events and corresponding influential factors will do a great help to the analysis of the evolution rule of spatiotemporal structure of events, as well as to the distribution optimization and resource integration of event and event tourism. Above all, this paper takes Beijing suburbs as a regional case and collects a database from 1980 to 2009 in the ten counties including Tongzhou, Shunyi and Daxing. Based on which, first it presents the inter-annual and intra-annual distribution rules of events through SPSS regression analysis, then divides the development of event and event tourism into three stages: nascent stage, promotion stage and generalization stage, and summarizes the features of the above three stages respectively. Secondly, to probe into the spatial variance of event and event tourism, the paper divides the ten counties into four quadrants by introducing Boston matrix method, and concludes their spatial differential features correspondingly. Further, using the altitude tinting method of GIS, it sums up the three spatial differential features throughout the region: heterogeneity of geographical distribution, non-positive relation between event development level and economic performance, and coordination between geographical distribution of event styles and urban tourism functional areas. Finally, from the perspectives of urbanization level and spatial accessibility, this paper estimates and evaluates the relationships between the above factors and the spatial differential phenomenon. The results indicate that urbanization level has not only a certain relationship with rural event development level, but also an apparent relationship with event frequency, while spatial accessibility is highly related to the rural event development level, and even directly affects the economic benefits of rural tourism. On this basis, combining the experience of rural events application at a regional scale in Beijing suburbs with the above results, it further explains and explores the causes and influential factors of the spatial differential phenomenon.
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    the Spatial Characteristics and the Diffusion of Foreign Religions in a Port City: A Case Study of the Protestant Churches in Fuzhou
    ZHANG Yun, WANG Bin, ZHU Hong
    2011, 30 (8):  1065-1072.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1115KB) ( )   Save
    The religious landscape study in cities is an important part of religious and cultural geography. Church, as the core of religion cultural landscape studying, is also the focus of religious geography researches, and its time and space distribution and changes can often reveal the formation and diffusion mechanism of urban religious landscapes. The paper, by extracting geographical information on religious cultural landscape such as basic spatial data of different historical periods and churches from historical literature, establishes a historical GIS database for Fuzhou. Based on it, the paper takes the Protestant churches as a clue in the interpretation of important spatial meanings connoted in the temporal-spatial changes occurred in religious cultural landscape in a port city by the means of spatial analysis and historical analysis. The results show that, before 1860, there was a small number of Protestant churches in Fuzhou and they were mainly distributed in the Minjiang River estuary and along the river sides, that is, Chating and Cangqian areas; after 1860, the churches in Fuzhou was located in along the two sides of the Minjiang River and in the old town (Gulou District); after the period of the Republic of China, along with the improvement of traffic condition, the newly-built Protestant churches began to spread quickly outward; after the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the distribution of churches in Fuzhou showed a shrinking trend. The way of Protestant missions in Fuzhou was constantly changing from the traditional way of preaching to the way of using modern media, complemented by publishing religious books and newspapers and establishing schools and hospitals. These schools and hospitals promoted the development of modern health care and education in Fuzhou.
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