Table of Content

    25 December 2012, Volume 31 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    China’s Spatially-explicit Historical Land-use Data and Its Reconstruction Methodology
    ZHU Feng, CUI Xuefeng, MIAO Lijuan
    2012, 31 (12):  1563-1573.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.001
    Abstract ( 688 )   PDF (5549KB) ( 1159 )   Save
    To facilitate the study of spatiotemporal dynamics of land-use and its impacts on climate and ecology, it is crucial to reconstruct the historical land-use in long time series. Some scholars have made efforts to reconstruct the quantitative information on China’s historical land-use, but the results were presented as statistical information in the administrative units without geographical distribution characteristics, which limits their applications in climatic and ecological models. Thus it is necessary to discuss the ways to reconstruct spatially-explicit historical land-use data. This paper presents a review, from a methodological point of view, on the historical land-use databases with spatial-explicit characteristics such as SAGE and HYDE, hoping to come up with better ways to reconstruct China’s spatial historical land-use data and to provide data-support for the simulations of land-use change and its impacts on regional climate and ecology. The authors expound the relationship between different materials and their roles in historical reconstruction; emphasize the dual functions of population data in quantitative reconstruction and spatial allocation as well as its limitations; analyze the hypothesis of spatial allocation methods and the degree of dependency of different methods on current land-use patterns. In final discussions, the authors argue that more attention needs to be paid to the historical reconstruction of forest for the sake of the study on historical terrestrial carbon cycle, recommend to use the method of‘typical year control’to deal with the impacts of unquantifiable socio-economic factors on historical land-use patterns, and propose to make separate reconstructions for different regions and put more focus on the integrated regional studies in the future.
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    A Review on the Accuracy Analysis of Spatial Scaling Data
    XU Zhiying, HU Yunfeng, LIU Yue, YAN Yan
    2012, 31 (12):  1574-1582.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.002
    Abstract ( 811 )   PDF (481KB) ( 1175 )   Save
    Scale is like a lens through which geographers observe and study the world. Scale dependence is one of the key studies and a challenge in geography, ecology, hydrology and meteorology in recent decades. One of the core scale issues is spatial scaling. Different scaling methods produce different resulting data with different degree of information loss. Thus, quantitative and qualitative assessment of scaling accuracy for spatial data is critical for correctly understanding and using scales. In the scaling research the basic theoretical frameworks include level theory, fractal theory, regional variable theory and first law of geography. In eco-geographical fields, scaling methods mainly are: spatial allometry, the dynamic model-based scaling method, wavelet analysis, autocorrelation analysis, fractal methods, semi-variogram method, and so forth. For the last ten years, remote sensing, GIS, and large-scale computer simulation technology have become more and more important in scaling research. As an important part of scaling process, accuracy analysis qualitatively or quantitatively evaluates the resulting data, based on the rules such as spatial composition, area precision, spatial pattern, patch characteristics, etc. Certain evaluation models and methods also involve type area statistics, landscape metrics, geostatistics, wavelets analysis, etc., with several indexes. In addition, comparing the simulation results of scaling data is also an important method in accuracy analysis. Although there are several methods of scaling accuracy analysis, few researchers have tried to develop a systematic methodology to evaluate resulting data. Therefore, it is an inevitable trend in scaling research to improve or even develop a new methodology for scaling accuracy analysis.
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    The Hub-and-Spoke Logistics Network System in Central China Based on Road and Railway Transportation Cost
    WANG Xinlei, WANG Shengyun
    2012, 31 (12):  1583-1590.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.003
    Abstract ( 521 )   PDF (1990KB) ( 789 )   Save
    Modern logistics industry plays a pivotal role in driving economic development in the central region of China. Thus, establishment of a scientifically proven logistics network would have a significant impact on the spatial pattern of economic structures of the region. A capacity assessment system is introduced for the logistics network in central China, evaluation analysis is conducted to acquire a comprehensive logistics capacity index value for each unit area in the study, and the hub cities of different levels are identified in the network. Then, the time cost of transportation from a node to a logistics center is calculated using weighted average travel time. Based on the potential model, the coverage areas of the hub cities are determined, leading to the layout of the hub-and-spoke logistics network for the region. This study indicates that the logistics network has already been formed in central China, with Wuhan as the first-level hub, Changsha, Hefei, Zhengzhou, Nanchang, Taiyuan as second-level hubs, Wuhu and other nineteen cities as third-level hubs, and the rest of prefecture-level and county- level cities as peripheral cities. In terms of the impact of the logistics network on central China, the coverage areas of the network match well with the administrative boundaries of the provinces, and nodes are closely tied to hubs. However, problems remain on issues like unbalanced development of the logistics network among the areas and loose connections between the areas.
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    Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Road Network Accessibility in Anhui Province
    JIANG Xiaowei, CAO Weidong, LUO Jian, ZHU Shengqing, TANG Yunyun
    2012, 31 (12):  1591-1599.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.004
    Abstract ( 693 )   PDF (2827KB) ( 809 )   Save
    Based on the road network maps in 1996, 2004, and 2010, choosing weighted average travel time as an indicator, the spatial pattern and evolution of major cities’road accessibility in Anhui Province are studied. Results are shown as follows: In the study period (1996-2010), the spatial structure of accessibility in Anhui Province shows little change; Hefei area is the center with the lowest accessibility level; the value increases from the center to the surrounding areas, and its distribution is alongside with the directions of traffic arteries. The improvement of road networks greatly increases the accessibility of major cities in the region, and the accessibility increase in the first period (1996-2004) is greater than that in the second period (2004-2010). The extent of accessibility change is related to the initial level. In the first period, the rate of the accessibility change decreases from the“T-shaped”region, covering the areas along the“Xu-He”,“He-Wu-Xuan”highway and the Yangtze River, to periphery areas. However, the second period sees a multi-core spatial pattern in which the rate of accessibility change decreases from the areas with newly constructed highways to the surrounding areas. Different areas benefit from the access to the road network differently, with Jiangnan area benefiting the most, Huaibei and Jianghuai areas the second. With the improvement of road networks, the accessibility gets optimized from a center to periphery in layered circles with the accessibility levels evenly and smoothly distributed. Among the cities, the difference of accessibility gradually narrows, and accessibility coefficient gradually reaches an equilibrium distribution.
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    A two-step Floating Catchment Area (2SFCA) Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Primary Healthcare Searvice in China: A Case Study of Donghai County in Jiangsu Province
    Hu Ruishan, Dong Suocheng, Hu Hao
    2012, 31 (12):  1600-1607.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.005
    Abstract ( 1133 )   PDF (5148KB) ( 1470 )   Save
    In the poor rural areas of China, the population far away from the hospitals, not having immediate access to primary care, is showing rising trend on a yearly basis. The measures to improve the spatial accessibility to primary care in the poor areas are important for achieving equality in the public healthcare system in rural regions. To accurately evaluate the variations of the accessibility to medical services is a prerequisite for rationally allocating medical resources. After reviewing the studies at home and abroad on spatial accessibility to medical services, by using the two step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method in the case study of Donghai County in Jiangsu province, and taking administrative villages and hospitals as study units, this paper analyzes the variations between the villages’levels of the accessibility to primary care based on the shortest travel time from a village to a hospital calculated by Dijkstra method. In order to investigate the spatial distribution of the areas lacking access to primary care, the authors further analyze the spatial variations of the accessibility by choosing two service time threshold values (catchment sizes). In comparison to traditional measures such as ratio of population to provider (demand to supply), distance/time to the nearest service provider and gravity model, the 2SFCA method reveals a good spatial pattern of the variations of the accessibility to primary care. When a bigger service time threshold value is used, the spatial variations tend to be smoother. When a smaller service time threshold value is used, the spatial variations become more striking and the area lacking the access to primary care expands. The spatial pattern of the variations of the accessibility to primary care in Donghai County has characteristics of a single core structure. The areas along major transportation networks have higher levels of spatial accessibility, while the remote villages and townships lack the access. Promoting the level of the hospitals of the administrative villages in the remote townships and improving the road conditions should help improve the spatial accessibility to primary care in the areas.
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    Researches on Decisions about Car Ownership and Usage in Urban Areas
    HUANG Xiaoyan, CAO Xiaoshu, LI Tao
    2012, 31 (12):  1608-1619.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.006
    Abstract ( 473 )   PDF (600KB) ( 837 )   Save
    Researches on decisions about car ownership and usage, as the basis of urban traffic planning, investment in transportation and policy making, has become an important discipline and academic focus which capture the attention of the international academic communities. This study focuses on the decisions about car ownership and usage, and analyzes the development of the relevant studies in foreign countries from the aspects of theoretical foundations, empirical studies and research approaches. In addition, the paper summarizes the basic categories and theoretical models. Based on that, we systematically review the important topics in domestic studies. The review indicates that the studies on the decisions about car ownership and usage have gone through the shift from macroscopic level to microcosmic level at home and abroad. The foreign studies mainly concentrate on basic theories, characteristics and influencing factors, research of models, and so on. The domestic studies have shifted from only focusing on the consequences of a rapid increase of car ownership and the countermeasures to investigating the mechanism by which car traffic and urban environment affect each other. Finally, based on the analysis of insufficient areas of the current research, the paper predict a trend for the related research and puts forward an analysis framework for the future research on the decisions about car ownership and usage.
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    Research Progress on Traditional Settlements Landscape’s Gene
    HU Zui, LIU ChunLa, DENG Yunyuan, YANG Liguo
    2012, 31 (12):  1620-1627.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.007
    Abstract ( 794 )   PDF (751KB) ( 1013 )   Save
    Several years ago, inspired by Urban Morphology Theory and Gene Theory, the“Traditional Settlements Landscape’s Gene (TSLG)”theory was proposed in the studies of traditional settlements. This paper covers the literature of new discoveries and the applications of the TSLG theory in recent years, and provides a review in the aspects as following: (1) The basic concept of landscape gene and its theoretical background. (2) The status quo of TSLG theory and its applications, including: the method to identify landscape genes in traditional settlements; categorization of the traditional settlements’landscape areas in a hierarchy; improvement of the TSLG theory and development of more applications; possible roles of GIS technology in the establishment of a traditional settlement landscape genetic map for a unique area. (3) Systematic summary of the theoretical framework of TSLG theory and analysis of the basic characteristics of the research based on the theory. The authors point out the four major improvements required for the TSLG theory: (1) Technical specifications and standards need to be established for identification of the elements of TSLG. (2) Issues such as theoretical basis, expression, data structure and organization, need to be resolved for the constructions of TSLG maps and cultural landscape gene database, which is important for the new development of TSLG theory itself. (3) The TSLG theory- based discipline remains to be fully established. (4) The applications of TSLG theory remains at low levels in the practices. Therefore, an index system or an evaluation model is necessary for the assessment of traditional settlements landscape’s genes or cultural landscape genes.
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    Spatial Relationships Between Central Places in the Central Region of Jilin
    WANG Shijun, WANG Yongchao, FENG Zhangxian
    2012, 31 (12):  1628-1635.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.008
    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (2648KB) ( 819 )   Save
    As the most dynamic and potentially the core region, central Jilin plays a vital role in the distribution of productive forces for future economic development of Jilin province. It is important to organize the central urban agglomerations in a more rational way. This paper presents a futuristic view of the central urban agglomerations and control structures by using Central Place Theory as a work hypothesis and Fractal Theory as a quantification tool. Fractal theory is an excellent tool to study the mathematical rules of random aggregation and physical mechanism of urban spatial expansion in the systems of cities and townships. In this study, swing radius method is used to measure the fractal dimensions of the central places at four levels in the central region of Jilin province, with Changchun city as the first level city at the center. The fractal dimensions are calculated as follows: D=2.342 as the second level, 1.842 as the third level, 1.026 (for Changling system) and 1.212 (for Jiaohe system) as the fourth level. Analysis of the fractal dimensions suggests that the three levels of central places have different structural characteristics. The second level central places don’t have clear functions and are nearly nonexistent, because they are either shadowed and inhibited by Changchun city, or functionally substituted by the third level central places. By contrast, the third level central places show well-defined identities with clear boundaries. The fourth level central places are spatially scattered and their development is directly impacted by the natural environment. Based on the Vector data of settlements in the central region of Jilin, the original view of the places’hierarchy in the central region of Jilin is reconstituted by using the rules of space and composition, and a hexagonal network is completed through patching and abstracting. Based on the space compositions, the central region of Jilin appears to belong to K=3 system (the marketing principle in Christ?ller’s Central Place Theory). It differs, however, from a conventional K=3 system. With regard to the establishment of a balanced and optimized system of cities and townships in the central region of Jilin, the development of certain third level central places needs to be facilitated in order for them to be upgraded to the second level, and the problem of scattered distribution of fourth level central places needs to be solved.
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    Economies of Scale, Foreign Trade and the Dual-core Spatial Structure in Regional Development
    SHENG Kerong, SUN Wei
    2012, 31 (12):  1636-1644.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.009
    Abstract ( 680 )   PDF (1554KB) ( 843 )   Save
    The dual-core spatial structure is an important economic-geographical phenomenon. From the perspective of new economic geography, based on analytical frameworks, a model is proposed to analyze the economic mechanism of how economies of scale and foreign trade promote the formation of a dual-core structure. Subsequently, taking Jinan-Qingdao dual-core structure in Shandong peninsula as an example, empirical research is conducted. The model shows that economies of scale and foreign trade are the two basic factors in shaping the dual-core spatial structure in the regional development. First, at early stages, with small returns of local economic activities, the centripetal forces are weak relative to the centrifugal forces, leading to an even distribution of small cities of about the same size. Then, the growth of economies of scale for manufacturing magnifies the home market effect, causing the concentration of production factors in the district with a large consumer market. As a result, economies of scale are the key to the emergence of a regional big city, which in turn is a prerequisite for the formation of regional dual-core structure. Second, foreign trade improves the economic-geographical position of coastal areas, serving as a direct driving force for dual-core structure formation. When the foreign trade volume is small, the spatial structure has a core-periphery form. With gradual deepening of foreign trade relation, the inland city and the port city both become economically important at the same time. The model predicts that if foreign demand becomes larger and larger, the dual-core structure will eventually collapse, and the economies of the port city will reach a new equilibrium. The empirical study of the evolving process of urban spatial structure in Shandong Peninsula shows that, Jinan-Qingdao dual-core spatial structure emerges only after modern manufacturing dominates the regional economies and the regional business environment changes from a closed and autarky economy to an open economy.
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    Regional Policies, Industrial Attributes and the Evolution of Central Enterprises' Spatial Distribution
    LIU Kewen, CAO Youhui, WANG Cong, YUAN Feng
    2012, 31 (12):  1645-1655.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.010
    Abstract ( 710 )   PDF (2705KB) ( 722 )   Save
    y creating a“push-pull”model for enterprises’location choices, this paper investigates the change of spatial distribution of the central enterprises with different characteristics at different stages of regional policies, and analyzes the mechanisms and the processes by which the regional policies and the enterprises’attributes affect their spatial distribution. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Driving force for the spatial distribution of the enterprises comes from pushing from inside and pulling from outside, with the former including enterprises’attributes and the industries’characteristics, and the latter including regional policies and regional conditions. (2) Regional policies and industries’characteristics are the major factors affecting the spatial distribution of central enterprises. (3) Overall the change of the spatial distribution of central enterprises coincides with the change of regional policies. However, differences exist between the industries. (4) The central enterprises in capital and resource- intensive industries are affected in large part by the regional policies and regional conditions, while those in the labor-intensive industries prefer the locations with preferential policies and easy transportations. The central enterprises in the high and new-technologies and modern service industries reply more on the factors such as the network of innovation and social capitals, and their spatial distribution is less affected by the regional policies. The central enterprises located at regional metropolises, and those in public services and special industries are hardly affected by the pulling forces from outside.
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    The Relationship Between a City’s Size and Its Centrality in the Regional City Network: A Case Study of the City Network by Linkage of Basic Sectors in Shandong Province
    CHAI Qing, WANG Maojun, XU Jie
    2012, 31 (12):  1656-1667.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.011
    Abstract ( 522 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 780 )   Save
    The factors that influence a city’s size are the important topics in the study of city networks. Based on a basic economic model, and using a series of tables showing the basic input-output economic data in Shandong province, this paper creates a city network by linkage of basic sectors, discusses the cities’centrality levels in the network and the spatial distribution and characteristics of the cities’sizes, and analyzes the correlation between the size and centrality level. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the city network by linkage of basic sectors in Shandong province is a high density and multi-centered network. Each city serves as an opportunity and also constrain of the linkage to other cities. (2) the cities’centrality levels in the network shows a liner distribution without an obvious hierarchy, with majority of the cities at middle and low levels. (3) the cities’population sizes show a power-law distribution with a clear hierarchy. The populations of high level cities are dominantly large, and there is a dramatic drop in sizes from high to middle and low level cities where the population sizes continue to drop by gradually smaller decreases. (4) the cities’centrality levels in the city network are positively correlated to their population sizes, especially more striking for the cities with population sizes over 500,000, indicating that in the city network by linkage of basic sectors, more powerful a city is and more economic links the city has, more positive effects there are on the city’s population size.
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    Analysis on the Process and Spatial Evolution of Economic Polarization in the Yangtze River Delta
    YE Lei, OU Xiangjun
    2012, 31 (12):  1668-1677.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.012
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (1891KB) ( 594 )   Save
    Based on the studies on economic polarization previously done by others, the ER index and TW index are used to measure the trend of economic polarization in the Yangtze River Delta from 1990 to 2010, and the overall process of economic polarization during the period of the study is analyzed. Then, from the perspective of polarization effect and diffusion effect, the processes of economic polarization in the Yangtze River Delta in four typical turning-point years (1997, 2001, 2006 and 2010) are analyzed, and the ways of economic spatial evolution are preliminarily summarized. The study concludes that: (1) the dynamic process of polarization indexes’evolution indicates that the economic polarization level of the Yangtze River Delta displays a rising trend from 1990 to 2010 with fluctuations, and the conclusion on economic polarization has been supported by the observations confirming the definition of the concept itself:“disappearing middle class”. (2) As far as the two effects of the polarization theory are concerned, the polarization effect of the Yangtze River Delta first expands, and then shrinks during the period of the study, whereas the diffusion effect gradually increases throughout the time period. (3) As more and more industrial enterprises are being relocated or transformed, the trend of economic polarization in the whole region begins to be attenuated and economies gradually expand to the periphery areas, hence in recent 10 years the economies of Yangtze River Delta show a transition from“arrow”type to“Z” type to“M”type to“区”type (a Chinese character meaning“zone”). Eventually the spatial pattern of the region ’s economies will be transformed into a network type, driven by the diffusion effects of the development of infrastructure beams.
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    Key Indicators and Their Data Requirements for Supervision and Evaluation of MFOZ Planning
    WANG Chuansheng, ZHU Shanshan, FAN Jie, LIU Hui
    2012, 31 (12):  1678-1684.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.013
    Abstract ( 801 )   PDF (406KB) ( 817 )   Save
    MFOZ (Major Function Oriented Zoning) planning is a high precision strategic guideline for spatial development planning and land use management for a full nationwide implementation for the first time since 1949, which not only sets higher standards for the methodology, techniques and tools of planning, but also demands higher qualities of data sources for the planning in county-level administrative regions or in the spatial scales of even higher precision. By examining the 9 indicators for the province-level MFOZ planning, the characteristics of data requirements of MFOZ planning are analyzed, and four major issues in the data support aspect are discussed: (1) data lack precision, (2) data lack economic meanings, (3) data standards are not uniform, (4) original data for some indicators are missing. Based on the analysis of the performance review of MFOZ planning and future goals of spatial development and land use management, the authors propose the design principles of the indicators for supervision and evaluation of MFOZ planning, and put forward an indicator system from four aspects such as agglomeration effects, social development, food and resource supply, and ecology and environment protection. By doing so, the authors intend to provide a reference for scientific assessment of the nationwide land use management and spatial and functional development, and for establishment of the data system for MFOZ planning for the 12th five-year plan and the future years.
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    Evolution of Industrial Structure in Airport Economic Zone: Taking Hub Airports in the Yangtze River Delta as Examples
    ZHANG Lei, CHEN Wen
    2012, 31 (12):  1685-1692.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.014
    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (571KB) ( 1137 )   Save
    This paper takes four hub airports in different sizes in the Yangzi River Delta for an empirical study to investigate the evolution of industrial structures in the airport economic zones. A number of indicators are created to evaluate the characteristics of the overall economy, the airport orientation, and the industrial organization during the evolution of the airport economy. The conclusions are as follows: (1) As the airport expands, the overall economy starts to have more and more characteristics of service industries, with the traditional services leading and the modern services following. Besides the size of the airport, the location of the airport relative to the city has great impact on the evolution of the industry structure. (2) Airport-orientation of the airport economic zone gradually strengthens in the early development stages, and then move into a steady state. (3) As far as the industrial organization is concerned, the air transportation industries are organized in orderly fashion and the industrial chains are gradually extended. Due to the difference between the expansions of the air transportation for passengers and for cargo, cargo transportation is leading in the development of airport economy, while passenger transportation is lagged behind. Currently, in the airport economic zones in the Yangtze River Delta, modern service industry accounts for a small portion of the overall economy, and the airport-orientation remains weak. Air transportation industrial chains need to be further extended, so that air transportation functions of the airport economic zone can be transformed into comprehensive industrial functions.
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    On the Decision-making of Mineral Resource Development Models in the Inner Mongolia Grazing Areas
    TONG Baoquan, A Rong
    2012, 31 (12):  1693-1699.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.015
    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (881KB) ( 623 )   Save
    Inner Mongolia grazing areas are rich in mineral resources, but the ecological environment is sensitive and fragile. The national strategy of "energy security" necessitates large-scale development and utilization of coal resources, but at the same time the strategy of“ecological security”demands ecological and environmental protection, causing the conflict between development and protection in the areas. Resolving this conflict is of practical importance and profound significance for the mineral resource development and environment protection in the ecologically sensitive areas of western China. This paper argues that the coal-rich and ecologically sensitive areas need to be analyzed from the perspective of spatial balance, and a model of development is chosen accordingly. The thought process for choosing a model of development should be: First, select a typical area of coal resource development, analyze the spatially coupling relationship between the developmental areas and ecological areas, reveal the spatial imbalance by comparing the spatial coupling types, and explore the reasons for the spatial imbalance. Second, build index system and structural matrix, and categorize the supply capacity of the areas. Finally, taking together the reasons for spatial imbalance, categorization of the areas’supply capacities, and demands for resource development and ecological protection, propose a model of spatial balance and necessary countermeasures for the regional development.
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    A Review on Three-Dimensional Ecological Footprint Model for Natural Capital Accounting
    FANG Kai, HEIJUNGS Reinout
    2012, 31 (12):  1700-1707.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.016
    Abstract ( 768 )   PDF (683KB) ( 803 )   Save
    Natural capital accounting is one of the key research topics in the field of quantitative sustainability assessment. The ecological footprint, which has reached considerable popularity over the past few years, offers us an opportunity to evaluate the natural capital appropriated by humanity. This paper first introduces the research achievements of the ecological footprint applied to the natural capital measurement. Afterwards a three-dimensional ecological footprint model, the latest development in relevant fields, is introduced in terms of its concept, calculation method and main characteristics. In response to the existing shortcomings and deficiencies we identify, the paper makes a great contribution to the model modification and extension in the following two aspects. One attempt is to modify the calculation methods of three key indicators-regional footprint depth, regional footprint size and regional ecological footprint, so as to avoid underestimating the depletion rate of natural capital stocks, and to avoid the possibility that the ecological deficit and ecological surplus are partly offset by each other because they are in different natures from a perspective of natural capital. The differences exist in results before and after the modification of the three-dimensional ecological footprint model, where a fundamental change is that the classification and measure of the capital stocks and capital flows are extended to the specific land types within a given region. The other attempt is to build three indicators, namely Per Capita Historical Cumulative Footprint Size, Gini Coefficient of Footprint Size, and Theoretical Footprint Size. They are designed for representing the historically cumulative appropriation of natural capital, the inter-regional inequalities in natural capital appropriation, and the impact of decline in natural capital stocks on natural capital flows, respectively. Finally, this paper discusses the limitations of the three emerging indicators, and proposes some priorities for further improvement on measuring the use of natural capital stocks.
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    Characteristics of the Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Profiles of the Soils Fertilized with Different Livestock Manures
    YE Bixiong, LIU Yuan, YU Jiangping, YANG Linsheng, LI Yonghua, WANG Wuyi, OUYANG Zhu
    2012, 31 (12):  1708-1714.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.017
    Abstract ( 482 )   PDF (430KB) ( 717 )   Save
    Based on the source of different livestock manure, three livestock areas in Yucheng city are selected, and different soil profiles are collected. The heavy metals in the soil profiles are monitored from three aspects as following: variations of heavy metals with various extent of livestock manure application, characteristics of the vertical distribution of heavy metals in the soil profiles, and differences in the vertical distributions of heavy metals in soils fertilized with different livestock manures. As shown in the results, (1) the pollution level of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and As in the profiles of the soil with continuous long-term application of manure is higher than that in the profiles of control soil, with Cu and Zn in even more excessive amount. The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and As in the profiles of the soil with intermittent applications of manure is less than that in the profiles of the soil with contentious long-term application of manure, but shows little difference from that in the profiles of control soil. (2) Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Ni in profiles of the soil fertilized with cow dung clearly show downward leaching, but Hg and As concentrate in the surface or sub-surface layer of the soil. With exception of Cr and Ni, other heavy metals in the profiles of the soil fertilized with pig dung concentrate in the surface or sub-surface layer as well. Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni leach down in the soil fertilized with chicken manure. Zn, Hg and As, however, show significant enrichment in the surface or sub-surface layer. (3) Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb show clear variations in the soils fertilized with different livestock manures, while As and Hg show insignificant variations. There is no difference in Zn between the soils fertilized with cow dung and chicken manure, and there is no difference in Cu between the soils fertilized with pig excrement and chicken manure.
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    Research Progresses on the Effects of Global Change on Microbial Community Diversity of Grassland Soils
    SUN Liangjie, QI Yuchun, DONG Yunshe, PENG Qin, HE Yating, LIU Xinchao, JIA Junqiang, CAO Congcong
    2012, 31 (12):  1715-1723.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.018
    Abstract ( 926 )   PDF (496KB) ( 1172 )   Save
    The effects of global change on the living environment of humans have become a focus of great concern of the whole world. Grassland, widespread on the earth and generally located in ecologically fragile zones, is very sensitive to global change. Researches on the impacts of environmental changes on grassland ecosystems mainly focus on grassland vegetation at ground level; little is known about how the microbial diversity of grassland soils responds to global change. This paper presents a review on the effects of global change, including elevated CO2, warming, precipitation regimes, and increased nitrogen deposition, on the structure and diversity of soil microbial community in grassland. In conclusions, the authors suggest that the future work on the responses of grassland soil microbial communities to global change needs to emphasize on: (1) multi-factor synthetic experiments; (2) combination of short-term and long-term studies; (3) relationship between soil microbial diversity and grassland vegetation in the background of global change; (4) integrated studies on soil microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems.
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    Review of Researches on Biomass Carbon Stock in Grassland Ecosystem of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    GAO Tian, XU Tian, YANG Xiuchun, JIN Yunxiang, MA Hailong, LI Jinya, YU Haida
    2012, 31 (12):  1724-1731.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.019
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (451KB) ( 808 )   Save
    It is critical to know Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’s grassland biomass carbon(C) stock and its dynamics in order to study the regional C cycle and sustainable use of grassland resources. After reviewing the publications, the authors present a summary of methods and results in the studies of biomass C stock in grassland ecosystem of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. (1) Four methods are mainly used in this field: searching in literature and documents, field measurement, remote sensing of vegetation/vegetation indices, and process modeling. In the practice, methods of estimation, quality standards for sample collection, and underground biomass estimation are the most important factors impacting the results. (2) According to the published literature, biomass C density of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’s grasslands is approximately 223g/m2, and can be translated to a total grassland biomass C stock of 277 Tg C (1Tg=1012g). (3) The estimation results based on remote sensing indicate that the biomass C stock of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’s grasslands increased over the past 20 years, suggesting that alpine grasslands might have functioned as a biomass C sink. (4) The above ground biomass C stock of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau’s grasslands is strongly affected by precipitations, while the role of temperature is unclear. In addition, human activities are considered to be a crucial factor affecting grassland biomass C stock as well. Problems remain in the studies of biomass C stock in grassland ecosystem of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; more thorough investigations are needed in the fields such as data acquirement in the basic field measurements, optimization of algorithms for remotely-sensed vegetation indices, and process modeling of carbon- nitrogen- water coupling cycle in the alpine ecosystem.
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    Models for Analysis of the Spatial-Temporal Changes of a Single-Type Landscape: A Case Study of Oasis-Making Process in Jiuquan Basin
    MA Zongyi, XIE Yaowen, YU Lin, ZHAO Hong, GAO Qiao, QIAN Fu
    2012, 31 (12):  1732-1738.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.020
    Abstract ( 527 )   PDF (3954KB) ( 584 )   Save
    Inspired by the dynamic model for single land use, this paper proposes a grid-transformation model for single-type landscape change rate, which reflects well the changes of a single-type landscape in the time period of interest. The paper also puts forth the models for cumulative change rate and spatial and temporal variation index to describe the details of spatial-temporal changes of a single-type landscape in long time series. The models are tested by studying the oasis-making process of Jiuquan Basin in western China from 1963 to 2009. The results indicate: (1) the grid transformation model reflects well the local subtle changes of the single-type landscape for the beginning part and the ending part of the time period of the study, including speed and spatial distribution of the landscape change; (2) the cumulative change rate comprehensively integrates the influence of the data from each time period of the process, and well describes the amplitude and spatial distribution of the single-type landscape change in long time series; (3) the spatial-temporal variation index reflects the different form of the single-type landscape change, and can further describes characteristics and trends of the process of the change; (4) use of all three models provides the whole picture of the characteristics and the process of the single-type landscape change.
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    Research Progresses on Driving Forces of the Changes of Landscape Pattern
    WU Jiansheng, WANG Zheng, ZHANG Liqing, SONG Jing
    2012, 31 (12):  1739-1746.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.021
    Abstract ( 975 )   PDF (516KB) ( 870 )   Save
    Research on driving forces of the changes of landscape pattern is a basis for understanding the relationship between human activities and evolution of landscape pattern. In recent years, a large number of case studies at home and abroad have done qualitative or quantitative analysis on the driving forces. This paper provides an overview of the categorization of driving factors, analyzes the effects of dominant driving factors in terms of time scale, spatial scale and landscape themes, and discusses research progresses (or lack thereof) on interactions of the driving factors, identification of the driving mechanisms, and adaptation and feedback of landscape systems to the driving factors. The methods of driving force identification have been going through the change from qualitative analysis to quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis, and sample collection methods are in fast-paced improvement, thanks to the progress on remote sensing technology. Multidisciplinary integration has become an inevitable trend in the research on driving forces of landscape patterns. With the characteristics of a problem-oriented landscape research, this field lacks cross-time, cross-space, multi-factor comparisons for a specific type of driving force. Thus, cross-board studies on the changes of landscape pattern would help with a better understanding of the mechanisms of the types of driving forces such as political systems and culture.
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    Quantitative Analysis of the Impacts of Climate and Socio-economic Driving Factors of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Services Value in the Qinghai Lake Area
    LI Huimei, ZHANG Anlu, GAO Zebing, ZHUO Macuo
    2012, 31 (12):  1747-1754.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.12.022
    Abstract ( 563 )   PDF (787KB) ( 696 )   Save
    By calculating the value of ecosystem services for wetland, grassland, forestland and farmland in the Qinghai Lake area from 2000 to 2008, presents a quantitative analysis of the sensitivity and the correlation between the changes of ecosystem services value and climate as well as socio-economic factors impacting land use changes including NPP(E), GDP, personal savings and urbanization level, and, by doing so, identifies the main factors and provides a basis for regulations and management of the protection of the Qinghai Lake ecosystems in order to achieve ecological and economic sustainable development for the region. The methods used include: a model for valuation of ecosystem services values, a multiple linear regression model in Matlab7.0, and the coefficient of sensitivity analysis. The results indicate: (1) From 2000 to 2008, the average ecosystem services value is 119.226 × 108 yuan, and the ecosystem services value decreases by 3.98%; (2) From 2000 to 2008, the changes of ecosystem services value in Qinghai Lake area have an obvious negative correlation with air temperature, GDP and the urbanization level from 2000 to 2008, with elastic coefficients of 0.896, 0.249 and 0.2988, respectively; (3) the changes of ecosystem services value in Qinghai Lake area are more sensitive to urbanization level and air temperature, and the coefficient of sensitivity are 4.979 and 1.712, respectively. These results demonstrate that warmer and drier climates are the major reasons for land use change in the Qinghai Lake region, and economic development and human activities in the region also affect land use change and cause the deterioration of the ecological environment and decrease of ecosystem services value. The authors suggest that attention needs to be directed to the livelihoods of the farmers and herdsmen in the Qinghai Lake area, and an ecological compensation system needs to be established, in order to achieve a strategy for sustainable economic growth and ecological protection.
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