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Table of Content

    25 October 2012, Volume 31 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Review on the Resilient City Research Overseas
    CAI Jianming, GUO Hua, WANG Degen
    2012, 31 (10):  1245-1255.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.001
    Abstract ( 1110 )   PDF (902KB) ( 1781 )   Save
    How can a city survive and keep its vitality in facing to various disasters and crises altogether is an urgent issue to deal with nowadays. In this context, the concept of resilience is increasingly getting more and more attentions worldwide. This paper firstly summarizes the four major research areas in the current studies on resilience, i.e. ecological, engineering, economic and social resilience, as well as their respective connotations and representative scholars. Based on this summary, the paper secondly reviews on the resilient city studies overseas from the similar four areas and their research focuses. Thirdly, the paper points out the possible future research trends in resilient city studies, which include: (1) how to promote equity in pursuit of resilience; (2) how to promote resilience through applying the technique innovations; (3) how to build a resilient city through the cooperation and integration of different disciplines. Given the wide disparity of development process and spatial outcome in China, a Chinese oriented resilient city study is badly needed. Maybe a more resilient consideration needs to be introduced in research on resilient city.
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    Basic Perspective and Preliminary Framework for the Theoretical Innovation and Development of Central Place Theory in New Times
    WANG Shijun, FENG Zhangxian, LIU Daping, ZHANG Ziwen
    2012, 31 (10):  1256-1263.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.002
    Abstract ( 635 )   PDF (427KB) ( 733 )   Save
    The Central Place Theory is one of the important thinking modes and methods to solve practical problems and reveal the regulations in urban geography. Facing times development, social transformation, technique progress and the results of great changes in the city and the region, the Central Place Theory calls for theoretical innovations and development. Firstly, eliminating theoretical limitation to broaden the range of application. The traditional Central Place Theory is based on severe assumptions and is weak for its characteristics of dynamics and property of synthesis on natural-human factors.. Secondly, it needs to re-survey changes in the Central Place System of its external conditions, internal factors, organization form and mechanism in the new background dynamically. And the system acquires perspectives of theoretical innovations, which includes the following. The first perspective is the one of macro-background changes, such as spatial transference of population distribution, urban system recombination and global value chain rising. The second perspective is of influencing factors and mechanism, such as recombination of modem traffic conditions and the Central Place System, information technology and organization networking of producing and living, technology revolution and transference of central place and its diffusion domain, system reform and principles of central place system organization. The third perspective is on changes in Central Place System organization form, such as global city networking, polymerization of cities, and base central place organization. The last one is the perspective of modern technology application, such as RS, GIS and modem statistical method. Finally, it is necessary to step into a stage of improving integrally from researching fragmentary in order to construct a basic framework of innovations and development of the Central Place Theory, which is learnt from the history. (1) Innovations and development aim to guide practical applications and form research paradigms of theory and method. (2) Key contents of innovations and development are as follows: centrality measuring model, strict research conditions alleviation, dynamic Central Place System, Central Place System distortion model, and space nesting of diffusion domain. (3) Three issues are to be solved: modeling natural-human influence mechanism and the central place system, tracing the development of urban environment and central place structure morphology and changing static study into dynamic developing study.
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    Review on Transnational Institutions in World Cities: A Geographical Perspective
    MEI Lin, XUE Desheng
    2012, 31 (10):  1264-1273.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.003
    Abstract ( 516 )   PDF (1060KB) ( 787 )   Save
    With the impact of globalization, world political geographical pattern is changed by various cross-boundary actors or embedded actors. The role of transnational institutions, including International Organizations (IGOs), International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs), Transnational Governmental Organizations (TGOs) and Transnational Non-governmental Organizations (TNGOs), is rising dramatically in global geopolitics. The research in western contemporary geography with a global dimension argues that various transnational institutions create complicated and diversified global political geographical structure, and also global cities system with political features. Moreover, researches with a local dimension argue the role of transnational institutions in the top world political cities. Transnational institutions embed international regulations into the city and also changes urban spatial formation, which becomes the significant influence factor for the development of world cities.
    The summary and review on transnational institutions in western contemporary geography in this paper point out the weakness through geographical perspective, which reflects not only nowadays the essentiality of transnational institutions’research, but also some implication and revelation in contemporary political and urban geography in China.
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    Urban Elders’Desirable Caring Patterns and Its Rationality: A Decision Tree Analysis
    GAO Xiaolu, YAN Bingqiu, JI Jue
    2012, 31 (10):  1274-1281.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.004
    Abstract ( 783 )   PDF (756KB) ( 925 )   Save
    Based on a questionnaire survey in Beijing, the desirable caring patterns of urban elderly were investigated. With a decision tree analysis approach, the respondents’choices among four different caring patterns (living independently, family care, community care, and institutional care) in two scenarios were revealed, one in the healthy stage and one that a person was in need of long term care. Then the rationality of the preferred caring patterns was examined. First of all, the study manifested the lifestyle change of Chinese elderly, which was characterized by a tremendous number of no-child families. There was a huge gap between the needs of people in different health stages. In particular, about half of the respondents intended to go to nursing homes if they were in need of care, while only 5.7% intended to do so when they were healthy. However, the severe shortage of caring facilities was a critical issue, especially those for the disabled and semi-disabled people, and it would be unrealistic to provide enough nursing beds in the future. Considering the capacity of service supply, it was proposed that the appropriate ratios for the (semi-)disabled elderly to choose institutional care and community care in the year 2020 could be 35% and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, people aged under 70 should be the main target of demand management, most of whom had demonstrated a strong preference for institutional care in the future.
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    Research on Urban Home-Work Separation Influenced by Information and Communication Technologies: Taking Nanjing as an Example
    ZHAI Qing, ZHEN Feng, KANG Guoding
    2012, 31 (10):  1282-1288.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.005
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (450KB) ( 636 )   Save
    Employment and residential space is an integrated part of urban space. It is also becoming the focus of urban geography. The influence of information and communication technology, which has permeated into different aspects of residential production and living, is beyond the traditional influence in terms of work-residence separation, which arouses broad concern from home and abroad. Through empirical research and factor analysis great achievements have been made. This paper, taking Nanjing, a higher level of information and economy city as an example, conducts a household survey. In the survey, two indicators were selected: residential socio-economic attributes and residential information level, followed by eight subdivided indicators: gender, age, type of occupation, personal monthly income, the number of mobile phone owned by individuals, the number of family- owned portable computer, mobile internet traffic, and the length of home network. This paper, from ICT development perspective, aims to analyze the influence of home-work separation. The paper has obtained 477 valid questionnaires survey data and built an ordered multinomial logistic regression model. The paper puts forward three theoretical assumptions, which have been partially validated through empirical analysis. First, taking into account only the residential socio-economic attributes, residents engaged in service industry are negatively correlated to work-residence separation, while residents engaged in manufacturing industry have no relevance. Second, mobile internet traffic and the length of home network has significant, but weaker positive relevance, but the number of mobile phones owned by individuals and the number of family-owned portable computers have no correlation with work-residence separation. Third, personal monthly income has the biggest positive relevance, while gender and age has no correlation with work-residence separation.
    In the context of information and communication technologies, the research on work-residence separation is of great value since it can be comprehensively analyzed from different perspectives of urban living space, urban employment space and urban residential behavior. However, the impact of information and communication technologies is an ongoing complex process, and it has emerged as time goes on. Currently, ICT can not function well enough to identify the impact on work-residence separation yet. Relevant outcome needs further study.
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    Services Size Structure and Evolution of Three Major Urban Systems
    LIU Kun, SHEN Yuming, LIU Hui
    2012, 31 (10):  1289-1294.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.006
    Abstract ( 850 )   PDF (575KB) ( 525 )   Save
    The paper examines size structure and evolution characteristics of regional services, based on the value- added data in service industry during 2000-2010 of prefecture-level cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region, Pearl River Delta megalopolises and Yangtze River Delta megalopolises under rank-size rule and fractal theory. The results are shown as follows. (1) Distribution of services size based on the value-added data of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region is in line with the rank-size distribution and the coefficient of determination shows a good fit result. (2) According to the fractal dimension, the services size structure of the Yangtze River Delta cities is close to the optimal status and relatively stable. The primate city, Shanghai shows a good radiation effect in the development of regional service industry. Services structure of the Pearl River Delta megalopolises and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region is unbalanced and it is unlikely to change the fact in short term due to size effect and inertia of primate and significant cities. (3) Guangzhou’s position as a regional service center tends to be weakened. Beijing and Shanghai, respectively, the theoretical position of the regional service center matches the actual position with no trend to be weakened. Meanwhile, Beijing shows its strong concentration effect.
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    Changes of the Spatial Pattern of Beijing City Parks from 2000 to 2010
    MAO Xiaogang, SONG Jinping, YANG Hongyan, ZHAO Qian
    2012, 31 (10):  1295-1306.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.007
    Abstract ( 802 )   PDF (2360KB) ( 1255 )   Save
    By using the city parks data grounded on Beijing green space census, based on ArcGIS and Fragstats and landscape metrics, this paper conducted a quantitative analysis of the variation of overall, zoning and gradient pattern of Beijing city parks' spatial pattern from 2000 to 2010, and revealed the driving factors of the changes. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) In the overall pattern, the number and area of city parks have increased substantially, especially those of special parks and community parks. The distribution of comprehensive parks and special parks has an absolute advantage. The contagion of parks has been changing from "center high peripheral low" to "center high peripheral improving high". The aggression has changed from center aggregation to peripheral multi-dimensional aggregation. (2) In the division pattern, all types of city parks’ERI varied significantly in sectors, rings and administrative districts. The variation of the curve of eveness rate is complex. Also, all kinds of city parks are distributed unevenly in different districts. (3) The analysis of eight-direction gradient pattern indicated that the distribution of Beijing city parks was unbalanced and changed significantly. Large parks were mainly distributed in the "north" and "northwest" directions. The areas and number of parks in the west, east, northwest and northeast were larger, and the increasing rate were comparatively high. (4) Events, green policy, rapid urbanization and residents’increasing environment demands, which can contribute to growing number, areas of parks and the unbalance of their space distribution, are the four major driving factors of the variation of spatial pattern of Beijing city parks in recent 10 years. This paper provides valuable references for the future construction and optimization of the distribution of Beijing city parks.
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    Research Progress in Time Series Clustering Methods Based on Characteristics
    SONG Ci, PEI Tao
    2012, 31 (10):  1307-1317.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.008
    Abstract ( 1233 )   PDF (736KB) ( 3349 )   Save
    As terabyte time series data pour into the world, more and more attentions have been paid to the technique of analyzing this data. To understand discrepancy between these data, time series clustering methods have been used to divide them into different groups by similarities. Due to high dimension of time series, the traditional clustering methods for static data is not valid for time series clustering problem when they are susceptible to noise, and can hardly define suitable similarity which are prone to a meaningless result. It is also vexatious for many other methods to solve the clustering problem with missing or unequal data. Time series clustering methods based on characteristics could deal with these problems and discover the essential similarities of time series in all directions. According to characteristics of time series, this paper aimed to review the research progress of characteristics-based clustering methods for time series. Firstly, we introduced the definition and classified the different characteristics of time series. Then we reviewed different time series clustering methods based on characteristics and summarized the generality of each method. Finally we discussed some deficiencies of existing methods, and predicted the future of the relative research.
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    An Integrative Sampling Scheme for Digital Soil Mapping
    ZHANG Shujie, ZHU Axing, LIU Jing, YANG Lin
    2012, 31 (10):  1318-1325.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.009
    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (991KB) ( 598 )   Save
    In most areas there exist some soil field samples “( existing samples data”) which were accumulated through two historical soil surveys and/or specific field studies. The accuracy of soil property map predicted based on this kind of samples is lower, because the size of these samples is limited and the global representativeness is poor. However, these samples are valuable resource because they do capture the relationship between soil and environment conditions. This paper presents a stepwise and effective method to design additional samples by integrating existing samples. The aim of the method is to design as few additional samples as possible to complement the global representativeness of the existing samples and improve the accuracy of predictive soil mapping. The detail process is as follows. First, we determine the spatial extent which can be represented by the existing samples. Second, each location (grid) can be considered as a candidate for additional sampling in the area which the existing samples do not cover and the area which can be covered by each candidate was then calculated. Third, the location which can represent the largest additional area was chosen as the first additional sample. Finally, the above procedure was iterated until the new sample set covered the whole study area. This integrative sampling scheme can not only determine the number and the locations of additional samples, but also give the order of the samples. It provides samplers with the important information on how many points can be sampled reasonably when the available resources are limited.
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    Effect of DEM Error on Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Models
    BAO Lili, QIN Chengzhi, ZHU A-Xing, HU Xuemei
    2012, 31 (10):  1326-1333.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.010
    Abstract ( 533 )   PDF (974KB) ( 752 )   Save
    Terrain attributes (such as slope gradient and slope aspect) computed from a gridded digital elevation model (DEM) are important input data for landslide susceptibility mapping. Elevation error in DEM can cause uncertainty in terrain attributes and further influence landslide susceptibility mapping. However little research has concerned about this issue. This paper studies this issue by a Monte Carlo simulation method for an expert knowledge-based approach to landslide susceptibility mapping and the logistic regression model, which are chosen as representatives of two main types of current landslide susceptibility mapping models, i.e. the expert- knowledge-based models and the multivariate statistical models. The study area is located in the Kaixian County of Chongqing Municipality, and belongs to the middle-upper reaches of the Yangtze River, China. The grid size of DEM is 5 m. Sequential Gaussian simulation was conducted to simulate a total of 12 DEM error fields with combinations of three error magnitudes (i.e., standard deviation values are 1, 7.5, and 15 m) and four spatial autocorrelation levels of elevation error (i.e., range values are 0, 30, 60, and 120 m). Each simulation included 100 realizations. Overall uncertainty of each landslide susceptibility mapping model associated with each simulated DEM error field was evaluated based on both a map of standard deviation of resulted landslide susceptibility from the simulation and a percentage map of classification consistency of landslide susceptibility from the simulation. The uncertainty assessment shows that the trends of the overall uncertainty of either landslide susceptibility mapping model changed with the spatial autocorrelation level of simulated DEM error are different under each simulated error magnitude. The trends of the overall uncertainty of expert knowledge-based model changed with increasing error magnitude are different under different spatial autocorrelation levels of simulated DEM error, while the overall uncertainty of logistic regression model monotonously increases as the magnitude of simulated DEM error increases. In general, the overall uncertainty of logistic regression model is more sensitive to DEM error magnitude than expert knowledge-based model.
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    Calculation of Geographic Sunshine Hours Based on Direction Nonidentity Relief Degree by GIS
    LI Chuanhua, ZHAO Jun
    2012, 31 (10):  1334-1340.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.011
    Abstract ( 920 )   PDF (960KB) ( 806 )   Save
    Relief is the essence of shade for sunshine.With the solar movement, the same relief can have a different influence on sunshine in different directions. According to this idea, this article discusses a computation about geographic sunshine hours based on direction nonidentity and takes 634 weather stations as an example to educe geographic sunshine hours empirical model about relief, which is [Hourt=0.866·Rr + 131.3 ]. The result shows that the model has good fitting accuracy and the regression coefficient is 0.841. The correlation coefficient of geographic sunshine hours calculated by empirical and theoretical models is 0.953. The model needs only one parameter, relief degree, which is simple and easy to obtain. Weather station’s position is a fixed value, whose relief degree is also a constant within a certain range. And the relief degree can be used as an invariable geographical parameter for weather stations. So the model can be used widely in the future.
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    Analysis and Evaluation of Methods for Household Carbon Emissions Calculation
    ZENG Jingjing, ZHANG Zhiqiang, QU Jiansheng, LI Yan, LIU Lina, DONG Liping
    2012, 31 (10):  1341-1352.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.012
    Abstract ( 795 )   PDF (567KB) ( 914 )   Save
    Quantitative evaluation of carbon emissions is the basis for carbon emission reduction policy making. As the main consumers of products and services, household’s energy use and related carbon emissions have received extensive concern from the international community and scientific community increasingly. Based on the definition of household carbon emission and its composition, the main calculation methods for household carbon emissions were reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each calculation method were compared and analyzed carefully. According to the composition and characteristics of China’s household carbon emissions, the index framework and calculation methods were established, which was of great practical significance to the research on household carbon emissions.
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    Research on Fluctuation Characteristics and Combined Forecasting of Tourist Arrivals in Huangshan Scenic Areas
    YU Xiangyang, SHA Run, ZHU Guoxing, HU Shanfeng
    2012, 31 (10):  1353-1359.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.013
    Abstract ( 625 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 859 )   Save
    The research on dynamic evolution of tourist destination has been confined to the path of Bulter’s destination lifecycle model so that other research perspectives including fluctuation model have been neglected. Taking Huangshan Scenic Areas as a case study, this paper analyzes fluctuation characteristics of tourist arrivals by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), and employs a combined forecasting model to predict tourist arrivals based on EMD and LS-SVM (Least Squares Support Vector Machines). The results show that the fluctuationof tourist arrials in Huangshan Scenic Areas present such patterns as continuously increasing trend, seasonal fluctuation, tourism cycles and economic cycles, and the combined forecasting model can predict tourist arrivals more rapidly and more accurately. All in all, EMD from fluctuation perspective can disclose dynamic evolution more directly, deeply and accurately, and combined with LS-SVM it can accurately predict tourist arrivals, which is conductive to planning management and strategic decision of scenic areas.
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    Research on the Characteristics of Beijing Passengers and the Distribution Rate of New Airport
    CHENWeizhong, HUANG Jinchuan, YAN Mei, ZHANG Jinying
    2012, 31 (10):  1360-1368.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.014
    Abstract ( 946 )   PDF (1418KB) ( 1329 )   Save
    Based on a large number of surveys of air passengers in Beijing Capital International Airport, this paper quantitatively analyzes 4340 valid questionnaires by the models of structural similarity coefficient, multiple logistic regression, logit model, and concludes travelling-preference mechanism and the characteristics of air passengers. The passengers in Beijing prefer long distance trips to short distance trips whose selections of the way of travelling have the spatial feature of“short distance trips by vehicles and long distance trips by air flights” and development tendency of“increasing preference of air flights while decreasing preference of ground transportation”. With respect to four factors affecting passengers’travelling: costs, time, comfort level and flexibility, according to passengers’decision-making mechanism and the supplies structure, passengers select the ways of travelling on the basis of the similarity coefficient between passenger demand structure and traffic supply structure. In accordance with logistic regression model of passengers’travelling intention, education level and income positively affect“time value of passengers”,“proportion by plane”and“frequency by plane”of travelers. According to microcosmic demand and supply analysis model of passenger travelling, air flight is the primary priority of business travelers in Beijing, followed by bullet train; holiday travelers prefer air flight and then bullet train, travelers who are visiting relatives and friends tend to choose long distance coach or drive by themselves; most of students travel by train and long distance coach. Based on time value and utility function, this paper concludes the distribution rate of passengers in the new airport is about 41.2%.
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    Evaluation of Tourist Satisfaction of World Intangible Cultural Heritage Based on SEM: A Case Study of Kunqu
    LIU Changxue, WANG Degen
    2012, 31 (10):  1369-1376.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.015
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (836KB) ( 645 )   Save
    The paper, based on a series of CIS models, presents a case study of World Intangible Heritage Kunqu and puts forward a CSI model evaluation for tourist satisfaction of Kunqu. By means of SEM, the paper analyses the relationship among variables (6 major variables:“inherent value”,“external value”,“perceived value”, “perceived quality”,“satisfaction”and“loyalty”. The results show that: the inherent value and external value have a significant impact on the perceived value and perceived quality, through which, they also influence tourist satisfaction. Ensuingly the tourist satisfaction will affect loyalty. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the inherent value of Kunqu and place emphasis on the external packaging of the product so as to improve the tourist perceived quality, satisfaction and loyalty.
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    Progress and Enlightenments of Foreign Leisure Constraints Research
    LIN Lan, SHI Linying
    2012, 31 (10):  1377-1389.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.016
    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (527KB) ( 827 )   Save
    Leisure research in the western countries is one of the oldest domains of social science research, which has a long history of more than 100 years. The research involves leisure motivation, leisure attitude, leisure behavior, leisure experiences, leisure satisfaction, leisure consumption, leisure education, leisure constraints, leisure service, and so on. Leisure constraint research can be dated back to more than 20 years ago, which has nowadays become a clear and unique sub-field. This paper summarizes the recent status of international leisure constraint studies, from 109 pieces of literatures published in Journal of Leisure Research (1992-2010), Leisure Sciences (1998-2010), and Journal of Park and Recreation Administration (2001-2010), and reveals some research features. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. The focus of researches has been changed, from superficial phenomenon to mechanism. At present, many scholars conduct studies by combining the quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as theoretical and empirical analyses, and the subjects and topics of research are in a wide range. Besides, this paper proposes some suggestions on the future development of the leisure constraint research. These researches in the West are of great significance to the theoretical and practical studies of China's leisure constraints.
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    A Review on the Foreign Criminal Geography Research
    YAN Xiaobing, JIAO Huafu
    2012, 31 (10):  1390-1398.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.017
    Abstract ( 653 )   PDF (539KB) ( 858 )   Save
    Urban crime, one of the most important problems affecting people’s life, has strong geographic color. Criminal geography study is multi-discipline research concerning criminology, urban social geography and other related subjects. This paper reviews the development of foreign criminal geography in five aspects. (1) The development in theory. Social disorganization theory is the first to focus on communities as a relevant geographical unit of inquiry. It explains higher rates of delinquency through the structural characteristics of neighborhoods, including low economic status, residential instability, and ethnic heterogeneity. But, it does not tell us how environmental characteristics are linked to individual action. Routine activity theory originally identifies three elements necessary for a crime to occur, a motivated offender, a suitable target and the lack of a capable guardian. The rational choice perspective addresses how offenders make the decision to offend under the rational choice perspective, offenders use a form of“bounded rationality”when making the decision to commit a specific offense. They explain the interaction between individual characteristics and environment, but, individual characteristics and experiences are treated equally to crime causation. Situational action theory aims to provide a truly ecological perspective in the analysis and study of moral action and crime. It is a general theory that seeks to integrate personal and environmental explanatory perspectives within the framework of a situational action theory. (2) Visual criminal behavior. How to describe the spatial criminal behavior is the first step of criminal geography. (3) Criminal pattern. Criminals do not move randomly through their environment. How do we reveal its geographic law? (4) Spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The presence of spatial autocorrelation may lead to biased and inconsistent regression model parameter estimates and increase the risk of a type I error in statistics. Using the spatial weights matrix W and putting WY, WX and into the regression model is the solvable method. Then, GWR can solve spatial heterogeneity. (5) Computational experiment. What can the computational experiment do for the criminal geography research? (6) Changing in criminal geography. The development in GIS presents a new tool for a better understanding of criminal activity. The criminal geography is undergone a process from motive to action, and from macro-level to micro-level. Some fields in criminal geography have expanded so much. The rapid development of criminal geography in the Western countries will provide reference for similar studies in China.
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    The Review on Tourism Research about Urban Inland Rivers at Home and Abroad
    HU Minjie, SONG Lizhong
    2012, 31 (10):  1399-1406.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.018
    Abstract ( 932 )   PDF (478KB) ( 1007 )   Save
    Urban inland rivers have the multiple functions, such as carrying cultural heritage, adjusting ecological environment, constructing urban image, and so on, which have became the main direction of tourism development of the urban inland waterways in domestic and foreign cities, and one of the important leisure sites in people’s daily life. Literature reviews show that the research of urban inland rivers tourism abroad includes product types, tourism impacts, tourism management, theories and methods, while its domestic research mainly focuses on landscape layout, tourism planning, and learning experience abroad, but lacks systematic elaboration. This paper aims to provide important references for tourism research of domestic urban inland rivers.
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    A Review of Tourism Cluster Research
    WANG Run, LIU Jiaming
    2012, 31 (10):  1407-1412.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.10.019
    Abstract ( 636 )   PDF (386KB) ( 1052 )   Save
    After cluster theory was put forward, cluster research has become popular in many industry fields. Tourism cluster is one of these fields. Tourism cluster research has been involved in conception, cluster types, necessary conditions, level of network, and mechanism of development so far. Literature research is also concerned with it; however, there have been fewer research papers to cover the new trends in tourism cluster. Contrast to academic research, practice in tourism research in China is increasingly common. This paper, based on the new literature on tourism cluster at home and abroad, makes a more detailed review and analysis of study focuses. Finally, the authors briefly discuss the enlightenment from clusters research and domestic tourism clusters studies.
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