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Table of Content

    25 June 2012, Volume 31 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Review for Space-time Behavior Research: Theory Frontiers and Application in the Future
    CHAI Yanwei, SHEN Yue, XIAO Zuopeng, ZHANG Yan, ZHAO Ying, TA Na
    2012, 31 (6):  667-675.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.001
    Abstract ( 952 )   PDF (489KB) ( 904 )   Save
    In the last decades, great advances have been made in data collection, mining, geo-computerization, 3Ds visualization and space-time simulation and others aspects. Owing to these technological improvements, we are embracing a new research stage that data are increasingly multi-sourced, methods scientific, objects microcosmic and practical. In other countries, space-time research has exerted widespread influences on the theory of structuration, GIS and other social sciences. In China, followed by about 20 years' introduction and innovation, especially study on the interactive mechanism between urban space and space-time behavior, and explorative real- time data collection experiments using LBS, solid foundations have been laid to further our research towards application. We believe that space-time behavior studies have great potential application in urban planning, social governance, citizen services and other domains.
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    Space and the Theoretical Construction of Economic Geography
    HU Zhiding, GE Yuejing, XU Jianwei, CAO Yuan
    2012, 31 (6):  676-685.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.002
    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (483KB) ( 941 )   Save
    Space is one of the core concepts of geography, and space has been playing a central role in geography study for a long time. Geographers’understanding towards space is in constant evolvement and development caused by the impacts and inspiration of many subjects and the profound impacts from philosophers and sociologists in particular. As one of the important branch disciplines of geography, economic geography has experienced a number of changes in the trend of thought and experienced the rise of the branch within a history of less than 100 years. All these cannot be separated from the fact that economic geography is rooted in space, and it is space that sustains the source of theoretical innovation in economic geography. The article explains the concept of space in geography with the development of economic geography for clues to further confirm the above viewpoints. Furthermore, the article holds that space cannot be condescended to the parallel position as place, location and region, for space contains the latter ones. Therefore, the first position should be conferred upon space. We should not ignore methodological innovation in economic geography either, for each breakthrough in understanding towards space is surely accompanied by a certain innovative research method. However, innovation of method has to be put in the second position, because every innovation of method always follows the change of the understanding towards space.
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    A Spatiotemporal Location Model for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
    SUN Xiaohui, LIU Kai, ZUO Zhi
    2012, 31 (6):  686-692.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.003
    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (1573KB) ( 1113 )   Save
    The conventional and popular alternative-fuel stations locating models that based on the the space distribution of traffic demand have already managed to minimize total demand-weighted travel distance or to maximize capturing, as well as to satisfy multiple purposes. While for the case of locating Elective Vehicles (EV) charging stations, the minimum requested charging time for EVs introduces a new factor for consideration, time constraints. The decision behaviors such as when and where to charge, and how to deal with the queuing problem due to the simultaneous recharging capacity limitation are realized to have great impact on EV stations location optimization, therefore all those factors should be considered carefully for modeling. Based on the related research of refueling behaviors and refueling demands, this paper developed a new dynamic model, named as the Spatio-temporal Location Model, with dual purposes of achieving minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for a given number of EV charging stations. A micro simulation method has been employed on a 25-node network to figure out the optimal locations, and results of the model mentioned above are compared with the results of the traditional flow-capturing location model. Results suggest that time constraints do have great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model improves the optimization results by discarding some unreasonable hypotheses on charging behaviors and giving more attention to the time constraints that exist in the real world.
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    Research on the Residential Segregation in Beijing
    LI Qian, ZHANGWenzhong, YU Jianhui, CAO Jing, DANG Yunxiao
    2012, 31 (6):  693-700.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.004
    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (989KB) ( 905 )   Save
    With the acceleration of urbanization, the urban residential segregation become more and more remarkable. Living segregation is not a simple social stratification phenomenon, it also leads to social conflicts, and thus controlling the residential segregation becomes an urgent task. Under this circumstance, this paper aims to describe the living segregation in Beijing and analyze the reason for this phenomenon. Based on a wide-scope resident investigation of Beijing in 2009, taking the residents on each block as the research objects, local families are divided into three groups according to their income levels: Poor Families, Working Families and Wealthy Families. After using isolation index analysis method to calculate the living segregation of these families, and extracting the serious residential segregation area by cluster analysis, results show that there is no serious residential segregation in the areas inside the 3rd Ring Road, while the segregation phenomenon become obvious outside the 4th Ring Road. Then through dividing the segregation areas into six rich-gathering areas and eight poor-gathering areas by the proportion of each kind of families, results show that the rich-gathering areas get more better infrastructure and public service facilities where most of the people get higher education, better jobs and own houses themselves, while the people in poor areas get lower education, low-ranking jobs and mainly rent houses except those having old houses.
    There have been relatively few studies on living segregation in China, and the present research is mainly about the living status and the cause of the isolation. In addition, the research of the social influence caused by the living segregation and its solution are not mature, which will be an urgent topic in the future.
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    The Spatial Fractal Characteristics of Teahouse’s Random Aggregation in Chengdu City
    CHENG Gong, LI Renjie, ZHANG Junhai, FU Xueqing
    2012, 31 (6):  701-710.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.005
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (1675KB) ( 646 )   Save
    This paper selects the teahouse system in Chengdu as the object of this research. The city-scale, tourism landmark and famous teahouses are regarded as the center point, the calculation is done on the teahouse’s dimension of the random aggregation in different spacial scales. In the city-scale, teahouses present a centrifugal distribution, with the Tianfu square (which is the center of the spatial distribution in the city and the administrative center) being the center point and the random aggregation of the spatical structure is relatively weak. Within the 0.5 km away from attractions, with the tourism landmark as the center point, the teahouse subsystem’s fractal structure characteristics are not obvious; With ten famous tea-houses being the center point, the spatial structure of the tea-house subsystem appears to be the centripetal distribution and its random aggregation is relatively strong. Within the 1.0 km away from the attractions, the spatial structure of each teahouse subsystem appears to be the double fractal structure when the five famous teahouses are regarded as the center point, and the teahouse subsystem’s fractal structure characteristics become increasingly obvious with the enlargement of the scale. With the ten famous teahouses as the center point, the random aggregation of the spatial structure of the tea-house subsystem is relatively strong,which demonstrates that the scale of 1.0 km is the aggregation center when the famous teahouse subsystem conducts self-evolution,and the spatial structure appears to be evident fractal structure. The case demonstrates that the fractal theory could be applied to indicate the microscopic spatial structure of the recreation space in city in different scales.
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    A Computational Algorithm of Urban Accessibility Based on Experiential Taxi Path
    HU Jihua, ZHONG Guangpeng, XIE Haiying
    2012, 31 (6):  711-716.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.006
    Abstract ( 723 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 970 )   Save
    Path search between OD is a main factor in urban accessibility calculation. The traditional shortest path search algorithm does not match the reality, so taking experiential path of taxi as travel path is considered more reasonable. Based on potential model, this paper proposes a computational algorithm of urban accessibility, which takes into account the distribution of population, the characteristics of traffic network and the distribution of POI, and it takes the travel time of experiential path as the time cost between OD. Then it chooses Guangzhou city as the study area, and divides urban areas into cells, and the OD is composed by different cells. At the same time, GPS data of Guangzhou taxi in a month was explored, and mass experiential paths were abstracted and stored in database, travel time of each experiential path was computed. Finally, urban accessibility of Guangzhou city was computed and analyzed. As the result shows, urban accessibility of Guangzhou city was a typical potential distribution, its value in central area is the highest, then it decreases as getting closer to suburban areas. The result also proves the computational algorithm’s practicability and its calculability.
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    The Evolution Characteristics and Influence Effect of Spatial Conflict: A Case Study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration
    ZHOU Guohua, PENG Jiajie
    2012, 31 (6):  717-723.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.007
    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (909KB) ( 699 )   Save
    With the accelerating process of industrialization and urbanization, China has entered a period of rapid urbanization, which brought along a series of increasingly serious problems of spatial conflict. And the spatial conflict has gradually affected regional harmonious development, even threatened regional security. It is of important theoretical and practical significance to understand the spatial characteristics in the process of urbanization and organic regulation of spatial conflict, to construct the theoretical framework of spatial conflict and to analyze the concept connotation, formation, evolution rules and influence effects of spatial conflict based on introducing sociology conflict theory into geography. Research results can be conducted as follows. Spatial conflict is a objective geographical phenomena emerging with the competition for spatial resources, which stems from the scarcity of space resources and the spillover of space functions. And according to causes, conflicts can be divided into spatial economic conflict, spatial ecology conflict, spatial social conflict and spatial complex conflict. The spatial conflict intensity shows an inverted "U"-shaped change, and its controllability level is divided into four levels of stable and controllable conflict, basically controllable conflict, basically controllable conflict and seriously controllable conflict. Once the conflict upgrades to the controllable level, it will lead to disorders of spatial development, mismatch of spatial resources, serious environmental pollution, ecosystem imbalance, instability of social development and other problems.
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    Spatial Accessibility of Road Network in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region
    BAI Yongping, CHEN Bowen, WU Changyan
    2012, 31 (6):  724-732.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.008
    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (1986KB) ( 859 )   Save
    Accessibility is a research topic in the field of human geography, urban and regional planning, and transportation economics. With a rapid increase of application demands and the unceasing development of technology researches, accessibility measurement approaches are developing quickly and the methodology is being formed. This paper attempts to combine factors such as cities, transport access and region to elaborate the accessibility in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. Based on space syntax, accessibility and isochronous rings derived from calculation of feature points, the spatial patterns of accessibility of road network are evaluated synthetically from a multi-angle. The results are shown as follows: (1) The system of road network is better and the concentration of road network is obvious. The spatial pattern of segment type stretches along the“point-axis” style while the spatial pattern of axis type stretches along the“trunk-branch”shape. Core ring, middle ring and periphery ring of the three-grade level as well as“Britain flag-shaped”road network are preliminary forms. It is shown that there exists a strong reciprocal-coordinate relationship between the regional accessibility pattern and the entire development level of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. (2) Urban accessibility, to a great extent, depends on the regional geometric centre and the development level of the surrounding road network. The phenomena of single-center polarization of regional road network is obvious. And the control effects of Xi’an city to the road network is too outstanding. (3) The spatial distribution of regional accessibility is different, the continuity of the core plate is better, and the fragmentation of the extended plate is obvious. It is different between Guanzhong area and Tianshui area, so that the area with medium and high values is broken between Guanzhong and Tianshui areas. Considering tha fact that the regional geometric center is partial in the western part of Xi’an city, Yangling city or Baoji city should be treated as a sub-center city of the regional road network. Promoting the construction of Guanzhong-Tianshui high-grade rapid transit is quite useful for the regional integration of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region.
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    Research on the Evaluation and Spatiotemporal Changes of FDI Utilization Efficiency in China
    LIWeiwei, YANG Yongchun, ZHAO Sidong
    2012, 31 (6):  733-741.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.009
    Abstract ( 545 )   PDF (1532KB) ( 591 )   Save
    Improving FDI utilization efficiency is the key way to transfer the mode of using FDI into a quality emphasized strategic one, which has important practical and theoretical significance. Based on this aim, this paper introduces DEA model, chooses labor, capital, capital input indexes and technology spillover, economic and social output to construct an evaluation index system, and analyzes empirically temporal-spatial variation characteristics of FDI utilization efficiency in China. The results show that: 1) FDI utilization efficiency is generally low, and the change range of FDI utilization efficiency is not wide in the past 10 years. The technology efficiency of FDI utilization is higher than scale efficiency of FDI utilization, and the scale efficiency of FDI utilization is higher than comprehensive efficiency of FDI utilization; 2) As for spatiotemporal variations, the change of FDI utilization efficiency in connection with the space differentiation is significant. The spatial distribution patterns of“big concentration-small dispersion”and“big dispersion-small concentration”coexisted in 2000, and the space differentiation changed into“big concentration-small dispersion”pattern in 2009. In the long term FDI utilization efficiency of western China is greater than that of eastern and central China. Thus the western region will be in a dominant position among the regions with diminishing and unchanged return to scale for a long time across the country; 3) The technology and scale efficiency of FDI utilization together determine comprehensive efficiency, and the technical efficiency has stronger decisive effects. The regions whose efficiency in the use of FDI needs to be optimized should pay attention to the first three factors and foreign management as well as monitor the directions of flows and the flow volume of FDI, so that FDI gradually flows out of the redundancy region.
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    The Spatial Characteristics of Producer Service Agglomeration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region
    ZHANGWang, SHEN Yuming
    2012, 31 (6):  742-749.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.010
    Abstract ( 527 )   PDF (503KB) ( 740 )   Save
    Promoting the coordinated development of producer service agglomeration in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region is an important approach which propels the progress of manufacturing, accelerates the upgrade of industrial structure and improves the comprehensive regional competitiveness. Mainly based on using Generalized Principal Component Analysis, Location Quotient, Krugman Specialization Index, Spatial Gini- coefficient, and other methods and indicators, this article measured the model of locality distribution, the industrial characteristics, the specialized rate of producer service industry in each city of this region from 2003 to 2008. The analysis results indicate that the general spatial distribution shows itself to be the situation of a typical non-balancing single center, large gradient-level development trend; and those knowledge-intensive, technology- intensive and capital-intensive industries such as business services, information services and technology services have significant specialization advantages; there are big structure differences among internal sectors in producer service industry and the division of labor based on specialization in each city is distinct; the high-end producer industry of Beijing has absolute competitive advantages and industrial advantages, and the other nine cities also have some comparative advantages.
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    Study on the Characteristics of Community Human Settlements in Peri-urban Area during Urbanization: A Case of Jimei District, Xiamen City
    HUANG Ning, CUI Shenghui, LIU Qiming, WEN Chen, CHEN Xiaomei
    2012, 31 (6):  750-760.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.011
    Abstract ( 592 )   PDF (921KB) ( 625 )   Save
    Different types of community exist in peri-urban area during urbanization, including rural type, urban- rural transition type containing small town, village in suburb, village in the fringe of built-up area, village in built-up area, and urban type such as residential community. The urbanization gradients of these communities are from low to high. Human settlements of these communities thus present diversity and variability. And affected by urbanization, the human settlements of these communities take on certain characteristics. Taking Jimei District of Xiamen City as a case, the characteristics of human settlements of different types of communities in peri-urban area during urbanization were analyzed with seven study communities, using landscape pattern analyzing method and questionnaire survey techniques based on human settlements assessment index system. The results are shown as follows. (1) From rural community to urban-rural transition community, the proportion of building area increased significantly, but little change took place in road area, and the proportions of woodland and grassland area decreased gradually. The landscape pattern had been turned into less types of community and modern building landscape being the dominant state. And the holistic landscape tends to the state of fragmentation and a little more complex. For urban residential community, the proportions of all kinds of landscapes area are relatively reasonable, but the holistic landscape is highly fragmentized and the shape of landscape is more regular. (2) The qualities of human settlements of all types of communities were gradually getting better during urbanization, especially for urban-rural transition community and rural community. But the quality of human settlements of urban residential community is much higher than that of urban-rural transition community and rural community. And except village in built-up area type, from rural community to urban residential community, a positive correlation exists between the quality of community human settlements and the urbanization degree of community. (3) On the whole, urbanization has promoted the improvement of the quality of community human settlements. But its impacts on different aspects of community human settlements have played different roles, and it had some negative impacts on environmental quality and human environment of community, which needs to pay more attentions in the future during the formulation of sustainable urbanization strategy.
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    Application of Multi-agent System in Simulation of Urban Development: A Review
    CHENWei, GAO Xiaolu, SHEN Zhenjiang
    2012, 31 (6):  761-767.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.012
    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (403KB) ( 1270 )   Save
    The multi-agent system (MAS) is a loose network composed of mass Agents, each agent communicates and cooperates with each other based on its own properties and behavior rules. MAS studies the macro regularity of the whole system through simulating and observing a large number of agents’micro behaviors. The evolution of complex system mechanism has developed to a more reasonable and more accurate extent, therefore, MAS has a large application prospect in urban development simulation. This paper introduced the basic framework of multi-agent system, reviewed present research progress of the application of MAS theory, and analyze the five key topics of MAS in urban development simulation: acquisition of micro individual data, selection of agents, extraction and set of behavior rules, expression of interactions between agents, extraction and import of environment variables. Research shows that the prediction and evaluation of urban development policy is the key breakthrough in the application of MAS.
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    A Literature Review of Progress in Regional Plan Assessment Theory and Methodology
    GUO Yao, CHENWen
    2012, 31 (6):  768-776.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.013
    Abstract ( 686 )   PDF (431KB) ( 649 )   Save
    Regional planning has been increasingly regarded as an important way to manage regional resources and coordinate regional development. Practically, regional planning is in face of severe challenges in its implementation stage. Plans are always revised or even collapsed during the actual implementation process. Presently the work of planning is attracting more and more concerns, as well as criticisms. One of the reasons that planning fails in implementation lies in the reason that planning is, by nature, a long-term procedure, which involves a lot of uncertainties. Plans should be evaluated according to the real situation to generate feedbacks and carry out necessary adjustments, so that plans could achieve their best efficiency. Therefore, evaluation is considered as an indispensable process that can ensure the plans will be implemented successfully. Evaluation is not only necessary for building up and stabilizing the social status of regional planning, bu also helpful for understanding the defects and the failure of plans so that evaluation would practically promote the progress of planning in the future. However, research and application of evaluation falls behind regional planning presently. This paper, by reviewing a large amount of past literatures, advocates that the evaluation of regional planning is experiencing the shift from "planning outcome as blueprint" to "the process of planning decision and implementation". The paper also summaried the most popular evaluation methods and issues affecting plan implementation based on the evolution of evaluation theories, and proposed ideas for future studies.
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    The Essential Theories and Models of Rural Land Consolidation in the Transitional Period of China
    LIU Yansui, ZHU Lin, LI Yuheng
    2012, 31 (6):  777-782.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.014
    Abstract ( 728 )   PDF (540KB) ( 836 )   Save
    Rural land consolidation is an important approach to supplying cultivated land, revitalizing the stock land, optimizing rural-urban land, using land intensively, and increasing land productivity. At present the phenomenon of rural settlement hollowing during rapid urbanization is severe in China. The Chinese rural population is characterized by a huge base, the distribution in widely scattered villages, and a remarkable quantity of rural households. To solve the serious problem of aggravation of rural hollowing and the abnormal increase of rural residential land in the rural-urban transformation period of China, the article analyzed the strategic targets and practical significance of promoting rural land consolidation. The essential theories of rural land consolidation which include the optimal allocation of land resources during rural land consolidation,“Three Integration” model of hollowed rural land, the lifecycles of rural hollowing evolvement and Christaller's Central Place Theory, were also interpreted. Besides, this article made a thorough study on the models of rural land consolidation such as regional difference model, urban-rural integration model,“One Consolidation and Three Returning”integrated model and overall planning-collaborative decision model. And the mechanism innovation of rural land consolidation was also put forward in the paper.
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    Food Security-oriented Urban Agriculture Development Typologies: A Case Study of Vegetable Production in Peri-urban Beijing
    DU Shanshan, CAI Jianming, GUO Hua, FAN Ziwen
    2012, 31 (6):  783-791.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.015
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (803KB) ( 1251 )   Save
    With the improvement of people's living standards and enhancement of public awareness, people's concerns and demands for a more healthy life are becoming increasingly stronger. Hence, stimulated by frequent media reports on food safety problems and bad cases in recent years, nowadays food security issue has become the hottest topic in society, particularly about vegetable and milk products. Urban agriculture, with its great advantage of "shorter-distance supply and less intervention chains", should be an important channel for urban residents in their vegetable supply and play a key role in improving their vegetable safety. Taking Beijing as a case, this paper conducted an analysis and study on the typologies of vegetable production in peri-urban Beijing in its pursuit of food security driven by urban agriculture development. This paper firstly analyzed the supply sources of fresh vegetables in Beijing, and identified the various disadvantages of "longer-distance supply with more involving chains" in providing high quality vegetable products compared with those from urban agriculture. Then this paper summarized 5 typical urban agricultural development models in vegetable production in peri-urban Beijing, including their background, operation and management characteristics. Based on these studies, this paper lastly put forward some policy-oriented protection mechanisms for promoting the development of urban agriculture.
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    An Overview of Farmers’Livelihood Strategy Change and Its Effect on Land Use/Cover Change in Developing Countries
    WANG Chengchao, YANG Yusheng
    2012, 31 (6):  792-798.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.016
    Abstract ( 708 )   PDF (428KB) ( 806 )   Save
    Farmers’livelihood strategy change is a rational choice for rural households who are faced with global environmental change and their livelihood capital adjustment. It could affect the interaction between human activity and natural environment, driving the evolution of rural human-environment system to a great extent. Therefore, farmers’livelihood strategy change analysis has been a vital framework to analyze the complex and multi-dimensional relationship between human activity and natural environment in rural areas. After offering a systematical and theoretical review of farmers’livelihood strategy change at home and abroad, this paper summarized the research with an emphasis on the connotation of livelihood strategy change, sustainable livelihood framework, and the influence of farmers’livelihood strategy change on rural land use/cover change (LUCC). Moreover, it is put forward that livelihood non-farm process and agricultural intensification should form the current principal trend and typical characteristics of farmers’livelihood strategy change in most developing countries and regions, rather than livelihood diversification. Finally, the main research directions of farmers’livelihood strategy change in the future are proposed with the present requirements in socioeconomic practice and scientific study in consideration.
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    A Literature Review of Second Residence Tourism: Implication on Mobility Analysis
    WU Yuefang, XU Honggang
    2012, 31 (6):  799-807.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.017
    Abstract ( 828 )   PDF (512KB) ( 935 )   Save
    The development of second residences and second residence tourism emerges from the macro background of greater mobility and diverse residential choices in post-modern cities. New residential space and physical landscape are created and reshaped by the newly established second residence communities, which in the meantime significantly influence the motivation, perception and behavior of both the residents and tourists in the generating region and destination. The social, cultural and environmental status in the urban areas is experiencing constant changes.
    From the perspective of mobility, second residence-related mobility can be placed in the broad spectrum from temporary travelling to permanent migration. It is a typical pattern of seasonal migration, which is as changeable as that of individual’s encountering and life path. In the meantime, it provides a new angle of view to investigate into the consumption-oriented tourism migration, in contrast with production-led tourism mobility. However, due to the difficulty in getting access to second residences and the lack of statistics, investigations into second residence tourism and related consequences are still invisible in Chinese scholars’gaze. Based on the analytical framework of mobility, this paper reviews the research development of second residences and second residence tourism from both overseas and domestic scopes. An analytical framework of mobility is constructed with the composition of tourist in-flowing region, tourist out-flowing region, tourism transit and macro background. Further research potentials were also examined in this paper while suggestions were given about alternative data and the change of methodology.
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    Tourism Potential Analysis of the Medium and Small-sized Cultural Tourist Cities Based on Accessibility
    HU Hao, WANG Jiao'e, JIN Fengjun
    2012, 31 (6):  808-816.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.018
    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (963KB) ( 718 )   Save
    Tourism potential is an important part of tourism industry planning studies. As the antecedent condition of tourism development and potentiality exploitation of cities, tourism traffic accessibility is always the key to breakthrough the bottleneck of tourism, especially in the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities that are under the effect of shielding in tourism development. There is a large quantity of tourism potential measurements and evaluations based on a certain type of tourism from the perspectives of markets and resources in the large and medium-sized cities, but relatively few studies are available on the tourism potential study of the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities by using accessibility concepts of tourism affected by the traffic of different scales of regions. With the building of evaluation index system, this article evaluates the tourism traffic accessibility for the nationwide 34 medium and small sized cultural tourist cities from macro scale, and analyzes the tourism traffic accessibility in the region of time accessibility hinterland based on 1h, 2h and 3h traffic circles on the micro scale. Combined with the evaluation and analysis results,we analyzed the tourism potential under the influence of the tourism traffic accessibility, and drew the conclusions that the tourism potential displays a high coefficient of correlation with the coefficient of traffic accessibility in medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. What is more, near the Sichuan Basin, the downstream and delta of the Yangtze River, cities with a high traffic accessibility coefficient will enhance the tourism accessibility of the small and medium-sized tourist cities under their governance, and will become the tourists stopover stations or important tourists potential markets of the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. The higher economic output and better traffic conditions of the country regions and the adjacent areas provide the necessary financial support, the travel gathering and diffusing function conditions for the small and medium-sized tourist cities, and thus, the small cultural tourist cities have more comparative advantages on tourism potential compared to other areas.
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    Analysis on the Features and Causes of Seasonality in Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Beijing Suburbs
    MAShihan, DAI Linlin, WU Bihu
    2012, 31 (6):  817-824.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.019
    Abstract ( 834 )   PDF (662KB) ( 899 )   Save
    As one of the most distinctive features of tourism, seasonality has long been recognized and studied by tourism researchers worldwide. The first part of the paper did a comprehensive review of the relative domestic and international research on this topic. In recent years, rural tourism has been spreading quickly in Beijing suburb, which gradually becomes one of the hotspots of urban recreation destinations in Beijing. However, the destination is suffering from the sereve fluctuation of tourist flows throughout the year. Hence this paper takes the rural tourism in Beijing suburbs as a case study, aiming to find out the seasonality features and their influencing factors, as well as possible measures to overcome it. Based on the monthly tourist data series over the period 2008-2010, the study first used Seasonal Ratios combined with K-means non-hierarchical cluster analysis to obtain the seasonal pattern of Beijing suburban tourism, in which 12 months could be classified into 3 seasons: peak season (April to May, July to August, October), low season (November to January) and normal season (all the rest), and the months in respective seasonal partitions are extracted as well. The paper then explored the influencing factors of the seasonality in two aspects: natural factors and social factors. Results show that natural elements (mainly geographic features and climatic factors) greatly affect the behavior of rural travelers, especially in winter; however it is still not the leading role in seasonality, whereas social factors including public holidays, social traditions, and festivals & events play a more important role. After analyzing the seasonality feature and the distribution of national holidays throughout the year, the paper indicated a close correlation between these two elements. In conclusion, the paper found out that public holiday (with low flexibility) and festival & events (with high flexibility) are the predominant factors that affect the seasonality pattern in Beijing suburban tourism.
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    A Review on Gentrification in European and North American Countries
    SONGWeixuan
    2012, 31 (6):  825-834.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.06.020
    Abstract ( 857 )   PDF (477KB) ( 1958 )   Save
    The gentrification research of Europe and North America represents the mainstream and direction of the world's gentrification research. On the basis of an introduction to the tradition and derivational concepts of gentrification, this article analyzed and summarized the main theoretical explanation schools developed since the formation of concept of gentrification, especially on the two leading camps: explanation from production or supply and the explanation from consumption or demand. This article introduced three development tides of gentrification of Europe and America, and divided all gentrification research conducted since half a century ago into four development stages. They are stage of phenomenon description on gentrification, stage of fireworks between two camps, stage of theoretical integration and stage of political reply discussion on gentrification. After a simple evaluation of gentrification serving as a development strategy of the global cities and of main social-spatial effects of gentrification, this article made an investigation into the prospect of the worldwide gentrification research, and pointed out that there was still enormous space for the gentrification research even though much gentrification research has been conducted. This is because, firstly, in the aspect of theoretical research, gentrification has become an important topic in urban research, city planning and urban geography, and has always been a hot topic and academic frontier in other related social sciences. Secondly, in the aspect of empirical research, gentrification was found in almost all the big cities in the world, the process, causes, features and effects of gentrification in different countries or areas are significantly different, as a result of various social, political and economic backgrounds among countries. Therefore, there is plenty of work to do in empirical research in each country or area. Thirdly, in the aspect of expended gentrification research, the research scope and the definition of gentrification has changed remarkably since 1964, and even the concept of gentrification in the 21st century is different from the concept in the 1990s. The construction of“geography of gentrification”should be attributed to the temporaniess and variability of gentrification.
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