Table of Content

    25 April 2011, Volume 30 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Perspective on the Development Process of Human-Economic Geography and Regional Development Studies: On the Evolution of the Field in the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of CAS
    FAN Jie
    2011, 30 (4):  387-396.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (583KB) ( )   Save
    Reviewing the evolution of the field of human-economic geography and regional development studies in the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of CAS, this paper clarifies the history of the discipline construction. In the second half of the 20th century, first of all, the nature of the discipline was determined as interdisciplinary, and its development orientation as serving national economy and social development demands. The research methods of techno-economic analysis were also explored. Secondly, great achievements have been made in the study of territorial differentiation pattern of human-economic geography, especially in the study of territorial differentiation system, represented by agricultural regional planning and land use research, and in the study of spatial structure organization, such as the location theory and pole-axis theory. In the first decade of this century, on the one hand, following the history line of territorial differentiation and spatial structure research, influential achievements were also made in the area of spatial organization, such as in the formation and evolution of territorial functional zones, interactions between spaces, and coordinated development of urban and rural areas. On the other hand, due to the humanity tendency arisen from the study of new territorial spaces and new factors and the emerging of new fields, including the research on responses to informationization and globalization, tourism geography, and financial geography, etc., more vitality and diversity were brought into human-economic geography. Thanks to the establishment of earth system science and the lead of solving important realistic problems in regional sustainable development, great importance has been attached to resource and environment carrying capacity and resource-environment effect research. The research direction characterized by socio-economic development and resource environment interaction research centered on regional sustainable development was established in the Institute. At present, the Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling of CAS and the Regional Sustainable Development Modeling and Decision-Making Support System are in construction based on database, supported by model base, and reflected through visual expression of geographical processes and realization of human-computer interaction-aid decision-making process. Efforts are made in promoting a remarkable enhancement in the ability construction of the discipline through improvement of techniques and methods. The focus of future discipline construction will be on innovation and application of the theoretical system of man-land relationship territorial system.
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    China's Urban Geography Marching into the New Era: The Achievements and Perspective of Urban Geography and Urban Development since 1940
    FANG Chuanglin, CHEN Tian, LIU Shenghe
    2011, 30 (4):  397-408.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.002
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    This paper reviewed the development process of urban geography and urban development research during the past 70 years, since IGSNRR was found in 1940, and divided the long time into four stages: slow exploration stage (1949-1980), energetic participation stage (1981-1990), fast expansion stage (1991-2000) and gradual deepening stage (since 2000). It also systematically summarized the pioneer research achievements obtained by the urban geography research workers in China's urban construction forecasting and planning adjustment, theory and methodology of China's urban system planning, China's urbanization and its resource and environment effects, China urban agglomeration and typical urban agglomeration areas, urban development and planning of different types and at different levels, urban spatial structure at different spatial scales and decision support system for town industrial distribution, and a series of significant issues for urban development. In the future, urbanization process and level of resource and environment protection, urban-rural integrated development mechanism, urban agglomeration development, dynamics mechanism and buttressing effect of industrial agglomeration and space reorganization, urban development strategy and urban spatial structure optimization, and development models of new-type city like low-carbon city and eco-city should be important directions in further studies.
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    Agricultural Geography and Rural Development in China: Research Progress and Prospect
    LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou
    2011, 30 (4):  409-416.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.003
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    This paper reviews the development course of the disciplines of agricultural geography and rural development in China, analyzes the related research progress, major achievements and their social impacts, and prospects for the new innovative research tasks and scientific propositions in the fields of agricultural geography and rural development to meet the needs of national strategies. In the future, there will be an obvious trend of regionalized and base-oriented agricultural production, and also an increasing trend of urbanization and industrialization in the rural development in China. As such, there is an urgent need for the innovative researches on agricultural geography and rural development to provide strong support to realize the coordinated and balanced rural-urban development, and the balance between agricultural economy and social issues, and to appropriately deal with the relationship between rural development and environmental protection. In order to keep up with the pace of the national economic development, agricultural and rural geographers should continue the tenet of geography research serving for the development of agriculture and rural areas, and solving new problems under new situations to make more contributions to meeting the needs of national strategies.
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    Growth and Development of Transport Geography in IGSNRR
    JIN Fengjun, ZHANG Wenchang, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Chengjin
    2011, 30 (4):  417-425.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    The Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), CAS has been founded for 70 years and has achieved great success. IGSNRR has established a strong basis for geography research of China. Each branch has made its own contribution to the growth and development of IGSNRR, including transport geography. This paper mainly summarizes and assesses the foundation and growth of transport geography in IGSNRR since the 1950s, and also introduces IGSNRR's research fields, research groups, and research achievements in transport geography. Transport geography in IGSNRR grew from nothing to something,and from little to much, and mainly aimed at satisfying the central government's strategic demands. The research group completes some practical projects, and meanwhile summarizes relative theories and methods. Recently, the research group tries to enhance international exchanges and cooperation, and promotes the internationalization of research subjects.
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    Progress and Achievement of Industrial Geography: Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of the Founding of IGSNRR
    ZHANG Lei, GAO Boyang, LIU Weidong, LU Dadao, CHEN Hanxin, ZHAO Lingxun
    2011, 30 (4):  426-432.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.005
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    With 70 years of development, the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR, Chinese Academy of Sciences) has made great contributions to the development of industrial geography in China. The purpose of this paper is to review the research history of industrial geography at IGSNRR. First, three principal development stages are outlined, namely the stage of snaking growth (1945-1979), the stage of entire growth (1980-1997) and the stage of thriving or booming growth (1998-2010). All of the studies in industrial geography have been done with concern on the national economic development. Even though, there are different features among them, especially, a diversification of the subjects in the third stage after the booming of socialist market economy in the country. Secondly, the paper presents four major achievements, namely, progresses relied on the principle that practices lead subjects, introduction of foreign experiments with books and publications, improving and upgrading industrial theory rooted upon the principle that gnosis comes from practices, and opening new fields with the development in the corporation between geography and high-tech industry. Finally, it gives a general conclusion on the future development of industrial geography.
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    Review and Prospect of World Regional Studies
    MAO Hanying
    2011, 30 (4):  433-441.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.006
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    In the 70 years after the founding of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of CAS, adhering to the principle of serving national political struggle and social economic construction, world regional studies have made a series of significant achievements, including the geopolitics and geo-economics, comprehensive study of national and regional geography, branches of geography and thematic studies, comparative studies between China and foreign countries, and popularization of world regional studies. There are some problems in the research work: lack of advance, non systematic work, backward research methods, single information source and shallow study depth. According to the demands for domestic and foreign political and economic development, the future world regional studies should take geopolitics and geo-economics as the main line, strengthening the major thematic studies of surrounding nations and regions, expanding the research on marine geography and maritime rights, facilitating the research team-building and innovation of research methods.
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    The Achievements and Future Work of Historical Geography in IGSNRR, CAS
    WANG Shouchun
    2011, 30 (4):  442-451.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.007
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    The group of historical geography in the Institute of Geography under the Chinese Academy of Sciences was established in 1956. Since then, the group has obtained a lot of results in the fields of historical physical geography (including climate changes, changes of rivers courses, changes of historical vegetation and changes of animal geography), historical human geography (including the geography of historical cities, the geography of historical traffic, geography of historical nations, geography pf historical population, and geography of historical minerals production), and historical regional geography (including the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the Loess Plateau and Xinjiang), as well as editing the Atlas of Historical Geography, and has had some influence at home and abroad. Historical geography should be an important field in the IGSNRR, CAS (Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences), and has many important issues to research.
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    The Evolution of Spatial Structure of Rural Households'Consuming Behaviors in Undeveloped Rural Areas and Its Influencing Factors: A Case of Ercheng Town in Hubei Province
    LI Bohua, LIU Peilin, ZHANG Boye, TIAN Yaping
    2011, 30 (4):  452-462.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.008
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    The space for rural households' consuming behavior space is a part and a parcel of rural spatial structure. Under the influence of the existing rural material spatial structure and social spatial structure, rural households' consuming behavior space forms a new rural spatial structure. Based on the interviews and questionnaires to 100 rural households of 8 villages in Ercheng Town, Hubei Province, this article summarized the general rule and the mechanism of the spatial structure evolution of rural households' consuming behaviors. The results show that the average distance of rural households' consuming behaviors reduces in general, the characteristics of places and structures of circles and layers of households'consuming behaviors become different, and spatial hierarchy structures of rural households' consuming behaviors change greatly and move down in general except for household appliances. Influencing factors mainly include system factors, transportation conditions and individual preference of consumption demand. The spatial structures of rural households and urban inhabitants consuming behaviors have a great discrepancy although they have certain degree of similarities.
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    Respond of Farm Household to Eco-immigration in Sangong River Basin of Xinjiang
    TANG Hong, YANG Degang, ZHANG Xinhuan, WANG Guogang
    2011, 30 (4):  463-469.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.009
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    Based on questionnaire and farm household interview survey, the article investigates about farmer's production and lives and land use change, discusses problems in the process of policy implementation and provides experience for continuing to implement eco-immigration policy. This investigation helps to understand the effects of eco-immigration policy. The results show that: (1) the will of farm households'eco-immigration is relative to the age of the householders and family's size, but not to the householders'educational attainments. (2) The main pocketbook of farm households has been changed after migration. The number of farmers engaged in stockbreeding reduces slightly, and the number of farmers engaged in tourism reduces greatly. (3) Because of the difference in cultivated land quality, cropping is changed from corn to wheat. (4) The way of livestock breeding has been changed. Scattering rate is declined greatly, captive period is expanded, and grass overloading is improved notably. On the whole, the environment in Sangong River Basin has been improved notably after eco-immigration, but management system and policies have not been carried out well, so the farm households'income level is not stable and immigrant attitude is not actively enough. In the future, the government should implement proper policies and provide support to promote migration positivity of farm households.
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    Spatial Pattern Evolvement and Characteristics of the Economy in Xinjiang at the County Level
    WANG Jing, ZHANG Xiaolei, DU Hongru
    2011, 30 (4):  470-478.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.010
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    This article describes the spatia1 changes of the economy in Xinjiang at the county leve1 since 1985 by using the ESDA as well as other tools such as Moran's I, Getis-0rd Gi* and function of variogram and 3-dimension figure. Based on six time discontinuity surfaces, some conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Considering the overall spatial economic framework, the county level economy of Xinjiang shows a weak trend of spatial self correlation, with cluster function continuously strengthened on the whole. (2) The spatial structure of hotspot distribution tends to have a circular spatial structure centered on Kuitun, Kelamay and Wusu city, and the hotspots have been remarkably increased after 2000, converging in the central part of Northern Xinjiang, Eastern Xinjiang and the northeastern part of Southern Xinjiang. The coldspots converge in the southwest of Southern Xinjiang and tend to extend to the Aksu region in recent years. (3) The development of spatial economic growth framework is likely to be more unstable and heterogenous, and the convergence level is low and tends to be depressed. Hotspot areas are changing frequently without obvious geographica1 concentrations and tend to be converged in the Hami region of Eastern Xinjiang and the Kashi region in the southwest of Southern Xinjiang. The coldspots converge in the Aksu region and the west of the Hotan region in Southern Xinjiang, and the trend of regional difference of economic growth at the county level is opposite. (4) According to the spatio-temporal characteristics, multi-core is a remarkable character in the evolvement of spatial pattern of the economy in Xinjiang. The spatial economic framework is strong and self-organized, but tends to be weakened. The random of the spatial differential patterns keeps low and the mechanism of the structural differentiation caused by self correlation in space is quite remarkable. The spatial difference is low in the SE-NW direction. The heterogeneity of economic development in the NE direction is typical, and the spatial difference is great.
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    Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Food Provision in Jiangxi Province
    WANG Qing, YUE Tianxiang, FAN Zemeng, SUN Xiaofang, XIN Xiaoping
    2011, 30 (4):  479-484.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.011
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    Jiangxi Province is one of the most important grain-production provinces in China. It is significant to understand the detail of food provision in Jiangxi Province. This paper analyzed the yield trend of food production in Jiangxi during 1980-2005. Food nutrition conversion formula and nutrition consumption standards were used to calculate the food provision. Overall food provision as well as spatial-temporal pattern of food provision and equilibrium of supply and demand were elucidated and demonstrated. The results show that, (1) rice accounts for 95% of total plant food output and the production of rice has been rising with tiny waves throughout the studying period, while the outputs of oil seeds, soybean, potato and sugarcane show downtrends since 1998, after rising for 15 years or so; (2) on the whole, food provision in Jiangxi Province is surplus. Taking the year of 2005 as an example, the outputs of food calorie, protein and fat amount to 80.76 nut12 kcal, 2.2267 million ton and 1.3768 million ton respectively, which can support 97.94, 75.32 and 55.88 million people respectively with a full-well-to-do living standard; (3) food provision of Jiangxi Province is increasing steadily, especially food fat provision, which increased 7.4 times in 2005 copmared to that in 1980 and provision of food calories and protein increased by 1.84 and 2.30 times respectively compared to 1980; (4) food provision of Jiangxi faces the problem of imbalance, food calories superabundance and food fat deficiency, so it is necessary to improve the planting structure and more fat-rich crops should be planted to heighten food fat provision so as to balance the food supply; (5) counties near the Poyang Lake and Ganjiang River basin has higher food output than other regions in Jiangxi, thanks partly to better availability of water resources. Therefore, it is important to protect the cropland in these high-yield regions and make a full use of the unused lands to maintain the sustainable food provision for Jiangxi as well as for China.
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    Nodal Attractions Estimation and Their Influencing Factors Based on Reverse Gravity Mode
    JIN Fengjun, LIU He, XU Xu
    2011, 30 (4):  485-490.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.012
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    Based on a reverse gravity model, endogenous nodal attractions of 28 cities are estimated using the algebraic method with a Chinese railway passenger database with known exogenous spatial interaction and impedance. Then nodal attributes that contribute to the nodal attractions are examined using correlation index and linear regression function. We find that the 28 cities'nodal attractions show a decreasing trend from east to west and the hierarchical structure presents a "spindle" feature. Among many factors, the employees is the best indicator of nodal attractions and whether the city is a transport hub or not has an important influence on its nodal attraction in the "axis - spoke" network. The linear fitting results of nodal attractions indicate that the composite index can achieve better fitting effect than a single indicator.
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    Spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration in Liaoning Coastal Area
    QIN Zhiqin, ZHANG Pingyu
    2011, 30 (4):  491-497.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.013
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    Urban agglomeration in Liaoning coastal area which lies around the Bohai Bay is the only access to the sea in Northeast China. Since 2009, the region has been the focal point in national strategy, so the spatial structure is facing transformation and restructuring. In this paper, we analyze the spatial structure characteristics of the urban agglomeration from the following three aspects: the urban scale ranking, economic development level and the spatial accessibility. All of the cites in this region are ranked by the calculated results of index models and mathematical approaches correspondingly. The authors also discuss the spatial structural characteristics by using the relative analysis, fractal theory and ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis) and topology analysis. It is concluded that: (1) the differences in scale ranking are evident, and the urban system is distributed with high urban primacy ratio; (2) the differences for economic development are also great, and the phenomenon of spatial agglomeration of cities with equal economic level is distinct; (3) the spatial variation of accessibility is obvious, and the transport network still has much potential for development; (4) on the basis of the above analyses, it is concluded that the spatial structure of urban agglomeration in Liaoning coastal area shows a core-periphery- edge pattern. There are three strong core cities, Dalian, Jinzhou and Yingkou, and DaLian is the most centralized city.
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    Review of the Researches on Producer Services from an Angle of Space
    LIU Shuhua, SHEN Yufang
    2011, 30 (4):  498-503.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (424KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 1980s, human geography has been involved in the research on producer services from the angle of space. Some related theories and research topics were gradually formed. The theory from the spatial view on the study of producer services concentrated on location choice and spatial layout largely, and formed the central place theory, bid-rent theory, spatial selective diffusion theory and agglomeration theory. The related issues included location choice, location mode and spatial layout of producer services, spatial behavior of service firms, and impact of the spatial layout of producer services on urban structure and regional economy. Overall, the spatial research findings and fields of producer services were increasing, which became the theoretical and empirical basis for related policy formulation. But a whole and theoretical framework for the study of producer services from the angle of space has not been formed yet. The difference of spatial layout, industrial function, and spatial decision-making of service firms need further studies, and the production and exchange character of producer services and their relevance to the dynamics of new economic spaces need to be explored in more details.
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    Virtual Expression and LOD Model Designing for Theme Park Based on Semantic features: A Case of the Water and Soil Conservation Technology Park
    LI Renjie, LU Zi
    2011, 30 (4):  504-512.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.04.015
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    The virtual expression for theme park, using the virtual reality (VR) technology, has achieved not only for achieving a high degree of realism for every element of the landscape in appearance texture, but also for showing landscape construction, landscape evolution and the man-land relationship and describing the geo-spatial pattern. The latter is paid less attention by researchers. Designing the landscape model based on semantic features in Virtual Geographic Environments (VGE) is a good idea to achieve the two-level modeling, and a case of a water and soil conservation technology park, located in the Yanqing County, Beijing, China, is selected to demonstrate the idea. The water and soil conservation technology park is a special form of theme park, which is designed for the experiments of water and soil conservation technology, popular science education of protection of ecological environment, and leisure and recreation activities. But the park's functions are greatly restricted by the park's area, location and ecological capacity. So it cannot satisfy the multi functional needs for the education of ecological environment protection, technology demonstration and ecotourism development. The authors design a classification system of themes and virtual objects in the water and soil conservation technology park, and build a layer of details (LOD) model for describing the theme park in the computer virtual environment based on semantic context of the ecological landscape. The LOD model can show the features and landscapes of the theme park at different view scales such as the whole view, middle scale view, and some special partial views, even a special feature view in the virtual environment. The LOD model can also construct the virtual environment based on different themes and functions or design a special sight-seeing route by the describing of different scale LOD models and other landscape features together. This case study is done in the ArcGIS 9.2 and the Skyline software platform. The ArcGIS9.2 is used to build the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Park. And the Skyline is a good software for VGE modeling, which is selected to locate the 3D models and express the special semantic contexts. The experiment proves that LOD models based on semantic context of the ecological landscape are better than the traditional LOD models which focus on the details of a single feature in various scale views, and can easily express the multiple functions of scientific research, technology demonstration, popular science education, and leisure and recreation. The virtual expression model can also link easily to various user terminals, especially the Internet, and solve the problems in field trips, such as the restriction of the space, limited ecological and environmental capacity and the low assessibility because of the trip distance. LOD model based on semantic context is an important supplement for theme park developing and a good case of VGE in the tourism researches, especially in the ecotourism researches.
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