Table of Content

    25 March 2011, Volume 30 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    An Overview on the Water Science Researches at the Experimental Catchments in China and Abroad
    FU Congsheng, CHEN Jianyao, ZENG Songqing, JIANG Huabo, DONG Linyao
    2011, 30 (3):  259-267.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (548KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the review and analysis of the conceptions and connotations of small catchments and experimental catchments, this paper overviewed the development history and research situations of experimental catchments in China and abroad. Survey, measurement and relevant researches at experimental catchments in the world began in the 1930s, and underwent rapid development since the International Hydrological Decade (1965-1974), focusing on the following aspects: hydrological cycling, watershed environment, soil erosion and sediment transportation. In China, small catchment study began in the 1950s, and underwent three development stages of‘golden stage (1956-1966)’,‘backward stage (1966-1978)’and‘stagnant stage (1978-2006)’. It gets new impetus since 2006 with more funds from the research institutes, universities, and central and local governments. The existent and ever-existed experimental catchments in China have been tabulated according to their main characteristics, research focuses and brief history. Data continuity, systematicity and observation standard at experimental catchment scale have been compared briefly between China and the developed countries, indicating that China is still far behind these developed countries. Further development in experimental catchment in China has been proposed so as to strengthen the comparison study between varied climatic and geographical conditions, and to set up national rules or standards for hydrological observation.
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    Effect of Socio-economic Factors on Soil Erosion: A Literature Review
    WANG Hongbin, XU Jiongxin, YAN Ming
    2011, 30 (3):  268-274.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (430KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the summarization of the research on man-made accelerated erosion, this paper introduced the four social-economic factors which affect soil erosion including population growth, policy, economic development and land use changes, and reviewed the research methods for the social-economic factors affecting soil erosion both at home and abroad. After that, it is proposed that three aspects of the research need further study: interdisciplinary studies, social-economic models and regional differences.
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    Progress and Perspective of the Research on Hydrological Effects of Urban Impervious Surface on Water Environment
    LIU Zhenhuan, LI You, PENG Jian
    2011, 30 (3):  275-281.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (421KB) ( )   Save
    The environmental change impacted by rapid urbanization is a hot topic to global environmental change. In this area, research on water environmental effects of urbanization focuses on water quality, water quantity change and hydrological process and feedback disturbance. This paper reviews the mechanism between water environment change and urbanization, and summarizes the research issues we have face in this area, the methods we need, and how water environmental change responds to urban impervious surface. We also discuss the problems in the research of water environmental effects of urban impervious surface. Obviously, urbanization often directly changes natural land cover to impervious surface, but how to link urban land cover change with hydrological process and water quality is still a critical problem. The index of impervious surface area (ISA) was used to characterize land cover in urban area, and was a hot landscape indicator used to combine water environmental effects and urbanization processes. This paper indicates that the impacts of impervious surface on urban hydrology are mainly in two aspects. One is that it can increase the ratio of runoff and the amount of precipitation in a rainfall process in a short period, and the other is that it also can subsequently increase the higher runoff peaks and total volume of runoff in receiving waters and decrease the lag times in a long period. Changing natural land cover to impervious surface cover can obviously increase non-point pollution loadings and degrade water quality. In many urban areas, we depend on urban hydrological and water quality monitoring to link the relationship, and use urban hydrological and water quality model to simulate the impacts. However, the mechanism of impervious surface impact on urban water environment is still not clear. To solve this critical problem needs to know the impacting mechanism of non-point pollution loadings and to develop hydrological and water quality model suitable for urban areas. Overall, ISA is relatively simple for land planner and water quality administrator to use. This research indicates that ISA will be an important indicator to study water environmental effects of urbanization, and can also improve the modelling methods.
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    Advances in Researches on Mechanism Construction of Farmland Protection in China
    LI Guangdong, QIU Daochi,WANG Ping
    2011, 30 (3):  282-289.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (483KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review on studies on mechanism construction of farmland protection in China, to explore the main problems and to find further research subjects and directions. Methods of documentary and comparative analyses are employed. The results show that the existing studies focus on economic compensation mechanisms and common responsibility mechanisms in China. The research focuses on the overall framework and design of economic compensation model, the criteria of economic compensation, management and operation of economic compensation, the central government - local government relations in farmland protection, and relations of common responsibility of farmland protection and other issues studied. It is concluded that mechanism construction is a fundamental strategy for farmland protection. Behavior and willingness of farmers, non-market value of farmlands, central government incentive mechanism will be the main directions of future research.
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    Changes in Precipitation Extremes in Lancang River Basin, 1960-2005
    LI Bin, LI Lijuan, LI Haibin, LIANG Liqiao, LI Jiuyi, LIU Yumei, ZENG Hongwei
    2011, 30 (3):  290-298.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (846KB) ( )   Save
    Extreme precipitation is an important aspect of climate change. According to the estimation using the latest climate models, the extreme precipitation events will become frequent in a warming world. Significant increases of the very heavy precipitation and decreases of light and moderate precipitations have indeed been observed over most land areas of the globe in the last few decades. The Lancang River, with a relative altitude difference of about 5000 m, flows through 13 latitudes and 6 climatic zones. It is rarely seen in the world and has important scientific values for climatology, hydrology, geography and ecology. Since 1960, the basin has experienced a significant increase in temperature like most parts of the world. Studying the changes of extreme precipitation events in the basin in the context of global warming is of great importance.
    Based on a daily precipitation dataset of 35 meteorological observation stations distributed in and around the Lancang River basin, trends of precipitation amounts, precipitation days and daily precipitation intensity during a 45-year period (1961-2005) of 4 different classes ranging from less than 5, 5-10, 10-50 and larger than 50 mm were analyzed, and the precipitation frequency and the proportion of precipitation amount of each precipitation class were calculated. The result showed that all the indexes varied spatially, and for the basin as a whole, the frequency of the extreme events increased obviously. Analysis of a typical station indicated that the increase of extreme precipitation and the randomness of the climatic system might be closely related with each other.
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    The Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Extreme Drought Events in Shiyang River Basin
    WANG Xingmei, ZHANG Bo, ZHANG Kai, ZHANG Tiaofeng, DAI Shengpei, WANG Yamin, LI Dan
    2011, 30 (3):  299-305.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1079KB) ( )   Save
    With global warming, hot days and warm nights have significantly increased,but cold days and cold nights have decreased, and the frequency of extreme weather and climate events has significantly increased. Climate warming has four major challenges for our economy to face, of which the first challenge is the extreme weather events. The frequency of extreme weather events is getting bigger, with a tendency of getting stronger. Drought in global warming becomes more prominent and sensitive, and is one of the key and hot issues in climate change research. This paper analyzes the spatial and temporal characteristics of extreme drought events in Shiyang River Basin, combining ArcGIS 9.2 and Matlab 7.0 data software platform and using complex Morlet wavelet analysis and mathematical statistical theory. The results show that: (1) the average humidity index increases gradually from north to south in Shiyang Basin, and annual precipitation and altitude have significant positive correlations with the moisture index (0.01 confidence level), while the annual evaporation has a significant negative correlation (0.05 confidence level). (2) From the time point of view, the cycle with extreme drought is 19a, 9a, 6a, 4a and 15a, which may be affected by the South Asia High pressure with a three-year cycle. In spatial scale, the spatial distributions of the extreme drought frequency and surface moisture index are broadly similar, with slight difference, of which the lowest extreme drought frequency is in the Wuwei region, and the humid index in Minqin is the smallest in the study area. Furthermore, the extreme drought events occur mainly from July to September, and the extreme droughts frequency of this period accounts for 60.62% of the total frequency throughout the year. (3) The annual and July-September extreme drought frequencies show a slight upward trend, and the linear trend of the annual frequency is obvious to reach about 0.3/10a. The sudden change of the annual and July-September of extreme droughts frequency can be detected by the Pettitt mutation test, which occurred respectively in 2000 and 1983 (0.01 confidence level).
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    Characteristics of Pan Evaporation Changes During 1960-2009 in Weigan River Basin, Xinjiang
    LU Lei, QIAO Mu, ZHOU Shengbin,TANG Jin, YAN Junjie
    2011, 30 (3):  306-312.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (701KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the ground observations by the Xinjiang Bureau of Meteorology, the trend,periods and abrupt change of pan evaporation were analyzed in Weigan River Basin with methods of linear analysis, annual anomalies, abrupt t test, wavelet analysis and grey forecasting. The results indicated that as a whole, the annual pan evaporation trend was decreasing in the Weigan River Basin during the given 50 years. The average change was -19.72 mm/10a, which passed the significance test at 0.05 level. The results also showed the annual pan evaporation changes during 1987-2004, which had a high period before 1987, a low period 1987-2003 and a high period after 2004. The annual pan evaporation had presented abrupt changes during 1987-2004. The change type was complex, which included mean value changes and transition changes. There were obvious periods of 8, 17 and 20 years for the annual pan evaporation series during the given 50 years in the Weigan River Basin. At the scale of 8 years, there were 7 high value periods and 6 low value periods. At the scale of 17 years, there were 2 high value periods and 2 low value periods. At the scale of 20 years, there were 2 high value periods and 1 low value periods. The predicted amount of pan evaporation from the established grey dynamic model indicates that the dependability of the established grey dynamic model is very high and the predicted result has nicety. The annual pan evaporation will be increasing in the next three years.
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    Water and Heat Changes of Betula ermanii Treeline on Northern Slope of Changbai Mountains
    WANG Xiaodong, LIU Huiqing
    2011, 30 (3):  313-318.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (816KB) ( )   Save
    The treeline of Betula ermanii population had an obviously expanding trend on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains in recent 50 years. In order to examine the changing mechanism of treeline, in this study, based on the data from Tianchi meteorological station (2624 m altitude) regarded as a referencing site (1953-2007) and the air temperature field measurement, using two eco-climatic preferences which were warmth index (WI) and humid index (HI), the ecotone boundary between Betula ermanii and tundra on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains was determined by assurance ratio. The results were calculated by using the thresholds at 16 ℃·month and 68.8 mm/℃·month, and they showed that the two treelines were at 1975-2460 m and 1584-2231 m respectively. The interaction influence of WI and HI changes on treeline was not significant (p>0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between WI and HI change (p<0.01). In addition, there was a negative correlation between two treelines changes (r = -0.11<0). The results of correlation and interaction analysis indicated that the two treelines were unable to reach their potential height due to the asynchronous changes of heat and water. Therefore, the range of Betula ermanii treeline was estimated to be 1975-2231 m. The wavelike rise in Betula ermanii treeline (slope was positive, R2 <0.8) was discussed by trend and wavelet analyses. The fluctuation process was simple in lower treeline (the characteristic of catastrophe point). However, the complex fluctuation process in upper treeline indicated that fluctuation of treeline shift increased owing to large stresses.
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    The Evaluation of Regional Adaptation to Climatic Change: The Case Study of Xianyang City
    CHEN Taigeng, DONG Jie, YAN Junping, GUO Xiaoge
    2011, 30 (3):  319-324.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (620KB) ( )   Save
    The economic system, agricultural system, social system and the resources and environment system are selected as the subsystems for the evaluation of adaptation to regional climate change. The determinative weight values of evaluation factors are confirmed by using the AHP analytical method. The membership degree of climate change adaptation and the adaptation values are calculated by the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The result is that the membership degree of climate change adaptation shows an increasing trend year by year in Xianyang City from 1998 to 2007. The level of overall and partial adaptation is low, and it is in the transition state from "weak" to "general". The adaptation of economic system which is seldom affected by negative factors is in a state from "weak" to "strong". The adaptation of agricultural system which is affected greatly by negative factors is in a state from "weak" to "general". The adaptation of social system which develops stably and rapidly is in a state from "weak" to "strong". The adaptation of resources and environment system is in a state from "weak" to "general", which has a poor stability and is affected greatly by negative factors.
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    Empirical Soil Erosion Model for Single Rainstorm in Chabagou Drainage Basin
    CHEN Xiaoan, CAI Qiangguo, ZHENG Mingguo, LI Junlan
    2011, 30 (3):  325-329.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (578KB) ( )   Save
    Soil erosion model was not only important for soil erosion forecast, but also important for soil and water conservation performance evaluation. This paper established a mixed rainfall erosion model, an erosive rainfall erosion model and a rill erosion model, and analysed the accuracy of the soil erosion model, on the basis of hydrological data of rainfall in Chabagou drainage basin. The results showed that the model had a good prediction accuracy, and was quite accurate for a big sediment event. Slope, maximum rainfall intensity in 10 minutes and vegetation cover are the main factors for erosive rainfall. Slope, maximum rainfall intensity in 10 minutes and rainfall are the main factors for rill erosion, but vegetation cover has little effect on rill erosion.
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    Water System Integrated Modeling and Management Tool
    WANG Zhonggen, JI Peng, XIA Jun
    2011, 30 (3):  330-334.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (947KB) ( )   Save
    Referring extensively to domestic and foreign related construction method of the hydrologic cycle model system, with the results of CAS Knowledge Innovation Program key projects, " Trans-basin water transfer and its impact on terrestrial water cycle and water safety", using object-oriented design methods, and based on GIS, VR and other technology, this paper tried to build a prototype system, Water system Integrated Modeling and Management Tool (WIM), integrating data management of water resources, hydrologic cycle coupled models, as well as virtual reality and scenario analysis functions. WIM provides a flexible and scalable integrated mode for data, models and other tools and achieves the dynamic loading of data, on-line coupling of models and modules, to meet the needs of management of water resources and water security analysis under different scale hydrologic cycles.
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    Research and Application of Interface and Frame Structure of SWAT and MODFLOW Models Coupling
    CHU Jinggang, ZHANG Chi, ZHOU Huicheng
    2011, 30 (3):  335-342.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (689KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, water resources are increasingly affecting the global development of environment and economy. The temporal and spatial changes of water resources are directly dependent on the cognition of hydrological cycle laws. Watershed is the basic unit of natural water circulation, and the basic system for water resources development and utilization, water environment preservation, and water resources allocation and utilization. Based on the determination of the standard period of hydrological variation, the restoration of the natural runoff under the impact of human activities by the use of hydrological model through hydrology simulations, the quantitative evaluation of the impact of climate changes and human activities on watershed water sources variation and the obtainment of responding regularity and mechanism of watershed water circulation to climate changes and human activities are hotspots of the present hydrology research. The most widely used hydrological models are SWAT and MODFLOW. The necessity of coupling SWAT and MODFLOW to do co-simulation of surface water and groundwater is analyzed first, and then the interface problems, such as unit conversion and frame structure in the two models coupling are studied primarily. Because the smallest computational units of SWAT and MODFLOW are hydrologic response units (HRUs) and cells respectively, the conversion between HRU and CELL, that is the interface of SWAT and MODFLOW models coupling, must be implemented first in the SWAT and MODFLOW models coupling. Therefore, an HRU-CELL conversion method under ArcSWAT2005 and the frame structure of SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model is given. The HRU-CELL conversion method is applied to the co-simulation of surface water and groundwater in Hunhe River and Taizi River basins, and the effectiveness of the SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model in the water cycle simulations of large watersheds is verified to lay the foundation for the quantitative evaluation of the impact of climate changes and human activities on watershed water sources variation and the obtainment of responding regularity and mechanism of watershed water circulation to climate changes and human activities.
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    Occurrence Probability Estimation of Landslides and Debris Flows in Mountainous Areas Surrounding the Miyun Reservoir
    SONG Yang, CHENGWeiming, BO Yanchen,WAN Cong, SHEN Yuancun, JIANG Yan, LIU Haijian
    2011, 30 (3):  343-351.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1343KB) ( )   Save
    The occurrence of landslides and debris flows is a type of the natural geological disasters, and is closely related to many factors of hazard-formative environments. These factors include both internal conditional factors such as landform and hydrologic and tectonic conditions, and external conditional factors such as earthquakes and rainfall. To highlight the factors that have dominant role to cause debris flows and landslides, referring to the evaluation methods and factors selection in many investigations, this paper presents the regional analyses and evaluations on the factors which have determinative effects on the occurrence of landslides and debris flows based on regional spatial data. A weighting method is built based on experts' experience for all indicators to estimate the occurrence probability of landslides and debris flows. These indicators include landform factors (slope, aspect and slope-shape, relative height difference, and geomorphologic types), environmental factors (vegetation index, channel density and flood submerged area), and geological structural factors (fault distance and density and geological lithology). Based on the sensitivity analysis of these factors, the risk degrees of geological disasters can be obtained by means of multi-factor superposition, which represent the possibility of geological disaster on the statistical meaning (probability). The study is helpful to regional geological disaster prevention. In comparison with the location of the field-surveyed disaster sites with the forecasted disaster zones, it can be concluded that there is a good accordance between the distribution areas of landslide and debris flows and the estimated disaster zones. The geological hazards such as landslides and debris flows are mainly distributed in the 10 km buffer zone of faults, and most of them occur in the zones with the heights of 500-800 m and the slopes of 5°-25°.
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    Rural Residential Land Use Change and Its Influencing Factors in the Rapid-Urbanization Region: A Case Study of Longgang District, Shenzhen
    SUN Guiyan,WANG Chuansheng, XIAO Lei, DONG Guanpeng
    2011, 30 (3):  352-360.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.014
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    Based on the 1996 and 2006 land use data in Longgang District in Shenzhen City, applying the GIS technique and statistic methods on kilometer-fishnet units, this paper tries to discuss the layout characters, changes and influencing factors. Results show that while the urban area expands very fast, the rural residential land will not be obviously reduced, and land plot will become smaller and separate. Some 42% of the 1996’s rural construction land disappeared, while similar quantity of new rural construction land appeared in the past 10 years. Urbanization has great effects on rural land use in Longgang District. The disappeared rural residential lands are mostly located in the fast-urbanization areas near the urban centre of Shenzhen. New rural construction lands are located far from the places of fast urbanization and agglomerate near the former rural residential areas. Spatial factors have significant effects on rural residential land use, especially, slope is a key factor, and the number of villages reduces greatly in steep areas. Water and traffic lines have more and more significant agglomeration effects on rural esidential lands.
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    Comprehensive Evaluation of Human Settlement Quality in Beijing Suburban New Countryside
    ZHOU Kan, LIN Xueqin, SHEN Yuming, WU Lijun
    2011, 30 (3):  361-368.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.015
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    Rural human settlement is a significant sign of living standard of peasants, and its improvement can contribute to promoting the positive interaction between inhabited environment and social, economic and resource environment in the countryside. According to the field investigation in the first batch of pilot villages of new countryside planning and construction in Beijing, this paper attempts to discuss the elemental characteristics, influential factors and development levels of human settlement quality since new countryside construction being carried out in Beijing, and to seek for an optimization route to inprove human settlement quality based on urban-rural integrated development. In our study, the evaluation index system of human settlement quality is divided into 5 dimensions by using satisfaction evaluation method, which contains the levels of economic development, infrastructure facilities, public service facilities, ecological supports and social coordination, accordingly, the secondary indexes total up to 25. The results indicated that, firstly, with the construction of new countryside, great changes have taken place in the human settlements of suburban countryside in the aspects such as infrastructure, public services and natural environment. Secondly, the regional characteristics of human settlement quality are very remarkable in Beijing suburban new countryside, in which near-suburban area is better than other regional types. Thirdly, matching infrastructure and social environment play the most important role for the residents to form their overall impression of human settlement, while those factors such as income, road condition of villages, waste treatment facility, village clinics notably impact the satisfaction of human settlement. Finally, there are some key links to optimize the quality of human settlement, which include increasing peasant's income, enhancing investment and construction in rural public goods, and establishing a long-term management and protection mechanism to these public goods.
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    Bibliometric Analysis of International Research on Tibetan Plateau and Its Surrounding Areas During 2003-2008
    ZHANG Yan,WANG Ting, SUN Chengquan, MAXiaomin
    2011, 30 (3):  369-378.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.016
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    The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings have a special natural environment on the Earth. Its surface changes, special ecological environment and impact on the climate make this region become an international research focus and a key area for geography, resources and environmental science, ecology and other disciplines. This paper, taking the internationally renowned database of ISIWeb of Science as the data source, collects the international research literatures related to the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings and their reference citation. Through bibliometric methods, this paper analyzes the present and the development of the research on the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings from multiple angles, including countries, time distribution, research institutions, authors, journals, cooperative countries, and cooperative institutions. The paper gives a summary of the research characteristics on the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings in recent years.
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    Weathering Intensity of the TSG Holocene Loess-paleosol Sequence and Its Significance
    WANG Lijuan, PANG Jiangli, HUANG Chunchang, DING Min, NIU Xiaolu, LI Yanhua
    2011, 30 (3):  379-384.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.017
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    A Holocene loess-paleosol sequence was found at Tian-shui-gou (TSG) site, Dali. A detailed study on contrast the contents of major elements, magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr ratio was conducted in this paper to explore the environmental features in the Holocene. The analytical results show that Ca, Mg and Na are leached, Si and K are relatively enriched, but the transport phenomenon of Fe is not obvious. The distributions of magnetic susceptibility, Rb/Sr ratio, SiO2/(Al2O3+Fe2O3), SiO2/(MgO+CaO) and (CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3 imply that during the paleosol(S0) formation, chemical weathering was stronge, and the climate was warm and humid, while during the stage of loess(L0, Lt) accumulation, weathering intensity was weakened, and the climate turned to be relatively dry. There would be a climate change in the late Holocene.
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