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Table of Content

    25 December 2000, Volume 19 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Remote-Sensing Intelligent Geo-Interpretation Model and its Geo-Cognition Issue
    LUO Jian cheng
    2000, 19 (4):  289-296.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.001
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (464KB) ( 832 )   Save
    In this study, the notion of Remote Sensing Intelligent Geo Interpretation Model (RSIGIM) is firstly presented. The main task of RSIGIM is to automatically simulate the human’s interpretation to the remote sensing image. The initial target of RSIGIM is to describe, recognize, extract, classify and interpret the feature from RS image, and further to identify Geo properties and inner characters of the feature, such as size, structure, relationship. Integrated with geographical analysis model, the end target aims to mine out the geographical phenomenon, to predict developing process hidden in the large capacity of spatial data. The crucial issue of RSIGIM is to establish its cognition model, which is initially designed as a hierarchical structure. From low layer to high layer, three components, including statistical processing and analyzing model, neural computation and evolutionary computation based vision physiological cognition model, symbolic knowledge logic reasoning based vision psychological cognition model, are integrated to constitute relatively perfect cognition model.
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    Progresses of Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies
    Geng Yuan bo, Dong Yun she, Meng Wei qi
    2000, 19 (4):  297-306.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.002
    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (1204KB) ( 1618 )   Save
    Progresses of terrestrial carbon cycle studies are introduced in terms of some recent home and oversea literatures in this paper. These progresses are as follows: ① Major terrestrial carbon reservoirs, i.e. the biomass of terrestrial biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere, their organic carbon storages are 560Pg C, 1 400~1 500Pg C, 2 0×10 7Pg C respectively, and carbon storages of fossil fuels in lithosphere are about 5 000~10 000Pg C. Organic carbon storages of forest, grassland, desert, tundra, wetland and farmland in the terrestrial biosphere are 422Pg C、92 6 Pg C、5 9 Pg C、9 0 Pg C、7 8 Pg C、21 5 Pg C respectively. ② The “Missing sink” of CO 2 at atmosphere is about 0 7~3 1Pg C, and the assessing value of 1 7Pg C is generally thought to be satisfactory. It is possible that the “Missing sink” is located in middle latitude region of land in the earth. ③ The fluxes of CO 2 (Source) from LUCC (Land use/cover change) are between 0 6 and 3 6Pg C, and results of flux from different researchers have much difference. The value of global source and sink of CH4 is (535±125) Tg CH 4/a and (560±100) Tg CH 4/a respectively. ④ Some studies show that increasing concentration of CO 2 in atmosphere can increase NPP of vegetation. ⑤ The dynamic models of terrestrial carbon cycling have been developed recently, and the effect of LUCC and the coupling of cycling of C、N、P and S have been paid more attention to in these models.
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    The Paleoclimatic Evolution and its Relation to Man’s Activities in Southern Xinjiang, Since about 12.0 ka BP
    ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei gang, SHU Qiang
    2000, 19 (4):  307-316.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.003
    Abstract ( 533 )   PDF (1017KB) ( 962 )   Save
    Based on a synthetic study on variety of geologic records in southern Xinjiang, Characteristics of palaeoclimatic evolution in southern Xinjiang are basically identical to those revealed by other geological records in Xinjiang. Palaeoclimatic changes presented apparent Westlies Style model: during cold periods, relative humidity increased and lake water level rose; but in warm periods, the dry regime aggravated. The history of paleoclimatic changes is reconstructed preliminary in this paper and indicates that it has been experienced 5 relative warm(or hot) dry periods and 4 relative cold (or cool) humid periods. The warming peaks occurred at about 11 500~11 000 a、9 400 a、7 500~7 000 a、6 500~6 000 a、3 000 a、2 000 a and after 1 000 a BP, the cold peaks at 11 000~10 000 a、8 800 a、5 000~4 500 a、3 300 a and 1 500 a BP. The only relatively warm humid phase during 7 000~5 000 a BP may be deduced from the Megathermal Maximum, resulting from the strengthened summer southeastern monsoon force. The most interesting comparison shows that the above mentioned warm dry periods since about 4 0 ka BP basically coincide well with the periods of the phases of ancient cities abandoned in southern Xinjiang and also with the rise and decline of the ancient Silk Road. The quasi correlation between the changes of climate and the type and content of man land relationship implys that the natural evolution of climate and environment perhaps played a very important role in affecting man land relationship in arid area.
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    A Preliminary Study on Types and Characters of Man-induced Sediment Disaster
    JIN De sheng, SHI Chang xing, CHEN Hao, ZHANG Ou yang
    2000, 19 (4):  317-326.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.004
    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (368KB) ( 452 )   Save
    The man induced sediment disaster is identified as a kind of processes for land surface material to advance gradually or to surpass threshold erosion, transportation and accumulation by man’s activities. It possesses special attributes in sociology and disaster science. In accordance with the form of man’s activities, geomorphologic lacation behavior and particular, the man induced sediment disaster can be divided into 4 types: the drainage network, slope and gully, channel and plain estuary coastline. Each type includes 5 subtypes, e.g. erosion, transportation, accumulation, complexity and correlation. There are more than 54 kinds of man made sediment disasters, for example, destroying forest for farming, constructing highway and road, too much small and middle coal mining, cave dwelling, discarded earth and stone into channel sand gullies, excavated beyond normal limit of sand in river bed, desertification of cultivated lands, soil salinization, much more sedimentation above a dam and erosion below one after reservoir building, transporting water from one drainage basin to another one, etc..\;According to combination of man’s activities, geomorphology, and sediment mechanics with disaster science, the man induced sediment disaster is characterized by such properties as (1) accelerating tendency with geographical zonation, (2) sharply changing with human environment alvibration, (3) non order under blind action without special technically training, and (4) complexity and non linear figure, etc. One of the important reasons lead to man induced sediment disaster is the human environment vibration. If it is stable and people have high training, the man induced sediment disaster should be reduced, and vise versa. Therefore, it could be controlled only as through strengthening sediment management, correctly executing the water soil conservation law, and rising people’s understanding of environmental protection by education.
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    The Relationship between the Ecology Background of Reclaiming the West and the Out-of-poverty
    ZHANG Yi feng, WANG You feng, CHENG Zhi gang, ZHOU Li
    2000, 19 (4):  327-334.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.005
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (301KB) ( 507 )   Save
    Agriculture is the main department of the west of China, and the basic way to feed the people. But the agriculture level of the west is fairly laggard. Lack of the apparatus and machinery has become a big problem to this region. The ecology environment of the West is so poor that the habitat gets too little production to sustain their life. How to meliorate this situation is an important topic of the development of the west. Analysing the agriculture condition of the west and the main reason for the low level of agriculture, we can draw the conclusion that the bad eco environment is the most important reason for the lagging of the west. So the eco environmental protection and rehabilitation should be taken as a core issue and a pressing task. Several strategies about how to improve the eco environment are suggested in this paper, including inhibit deforesting and reclaiming, change some used land to forestry and meadow and build the preservative forestry for the water source. By these means the west of China will get not only the eco environment production but also the economy and society production. The fulfilment of these strategies needs lots of related laws and regulations. And it is necessary for the government to pay more attention to the agricultural development of the West and the eco environment protection.
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    A Study on the Pattern of Industrial Wave Expanding Along Traffic Economic Belts
    ZHANG Wen chang
    2000, 19 (4):  335-342.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.006
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF (471KB) ( 592 )   Save
    Traffic economic belt (TEB) is a kind of belt shaped regional economic organization system, which aggregates industries, population, resources, information, cities and towns, interflows of passenger, interflows of goods and so on. In the paper, the author explored the development mechanism of the traffic economic belt firstly. The author points out that three basic factorsal are essential to the formation of TEB: the traffic trunk line, group of towns, and the industrial system based on the secondary industry and the tertiary industry. The traffic trunk line is a basic premise of the development of TEB. The large and medium sized cities and group of towns with advantageous location tend to play such critical roles as those of growth cores to support the development of TEB. The aggregation and diffusion of industries and the evolution and promotion of industrial structure are important factors to maintain TEB and motivate its development. Then the author analyzes the spatial process of concentration and distribution of industries along the traffic trunk line. In the analysis, the basic theories concerning the industrial wave have been introduced. Based on empirical studies of the dynamics of textile industry, metallurgical industry and petrochemical industry in the Yangtze River delta region, the author explores the relationship between the development of traffic economic belt and the dynamics of industrial wave. The paper is ended with author’s conclusions on the spatial pattern of industrial wave.
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    A Study on Urban Ecology and Environment Integrating Index System in the Period of Rapid Urban Growth
    YANG Yan feng, WANG Li ming, WANG Hong wei, XU Shun cai
    2000, 19 (4):  351-358.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.008
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (777KB) ( 530 )   Save
    China is now experiencing the process of rapid urbanization, while environmental deterioration and ecological destruction in urban areas are becoming bottlenecks of urban growth at the same time. On account of the disparity and overlapping of the concepts between ecology and environment, the selection of urban ecological indices and environmental indices often contains problems of confusing the two aspects or overweighting one of the aspect, thus impairing the overall reflection of urban ecological and environmental characteristics. From the status in quo and discipline currents of ecology and environmental science, and the combining trend of ecological indices and environmental indices in China and abroad, this paper bring forward the basic principles of integrating urban ecological and environmental indices, and integrate them into a united index system using quantitative methods. Finally, the integrated index system is designed bearing fore functional aspects, namely condition, progress, capability, and alertness. Basing on the methodologies of sustainable development and systematic studies, some attempts are taken during the research, such as attaching the importance of recovery ability of environment and ecosystem, emphasizing the necessity for building the mechanism of system alertness, combining some quantitative analysis in the qualitative analysis, etc., so as to improve the practicability and controllability of index system in the dramatic urban development.
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    Application Model Research of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data In Urban Environmental Evaluation
    LAI Zhi bin, XIA Shu dong, CHENG Ji cheng
    2000, 19 (4):  359-365.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.009
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (767KB) ( 823 )   Save
    Perfect monitoring and evaluating system of urban environment is very important. Traditional monitor and evaluation system should be revised with the support of high resolution remote sensing technology. High resolution remote sensing satellites and their data, especially IKNOS satellite of Space Imaging Company, are introduced. Then the application feasibility research is done based on it. In addition, the environmental evaluation application model based on the high resolution remote sensing satellite data is given. This model has four main characters, and contents of this model are further explained in three parts. The first part is the urban environmental evaluation system. With the support of high resolution remote sensing satellite data and other environmental information, environmental evaluation system can be constructed, which is not only the basis of urban environmental evaluation, but also the basis of application of high resolution remote sensing data. The second part is Metadata management. Constructing the Metadata management system and adding environmental Metadata database to the origin database system are needed, and Metadata management benefits the data share and data efficiency acquiring. The third part is environmental evaluation factor getting and analyzing. Getting the evaluation factors from high resolution image should use the method of texture instead of the traditional method based on multiple spectrum. Based on these factors, special environmental models and GIS should be combined to do the urban environmental evaluation work. In the end, typical initial research is done in Xiammen Environmental Bureau.
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    An Appraisal of Regional Industrial Structure Based on Environments and Resources——An Example of Huairou County
    ZHANG Xiao dong, CHI Tian he
    2000, 19 (4):  366-373.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.010
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (444KB) ( 646 )   Save
    The industrial structure is interrelated to resources and environments. The harmonious relation between the economic benefit and the environment is the principle to distinguish whether the industrial structure should be readjust. The resource base is the basic condition of the industrial structure and the environmental capacity restricts it. But, in fact, the industrial structure is irrelevant with the condition of the resource sometimes in our country; especially the environment pollution is ignored in the development of the economy. For decision makers, it is difficult to judge the rationality of the industrial structure only by qualitative analyses, and quantitative analyses are more important. In the paper, an appraisal model of industrial structure is put forward and applied to Huairou County, Beijing. The rational appraising model of the industrial structure is determined by the sum of resource support index, environmental capacity index and economic benefit structure index. From the series results of ten years from 1989 to 1997, we can find that the trend of the industrial structure tends to be rational. The main problem of Huairou County is a lack of resources. According to the results of the model analysis, Huairou needs to adjust its industrial structure by developing tour industry, and beverage industry, instead of heavy industry, in the future.
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    Some Experiences of Desert Development in Israel and Their Inspirations to Ningxia’s Development
    SONG Nai ping,LI Yun sheng
    2000, 19 (4):  374-381.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.04.011
    Abstract ( 337 )   PDF (794KB) ( 599 )   Save
    Being in a badly outside political and sever natural environmental conditions such as suffering a lot of wars and facing population explosion caused by continually emigration and short of water and other natural resources, Israel has a complex man-earth relationship. By hard working and applications of advanced technology for years, Israel has been successful in developing its desert area. The experiences are as following: employing of advanced agricultural techniques such as computerized agriculture, even recently Robert agriculture, water-saving techniques mainly on irrigation methods to rationally use water resource; establishing a modernized marketing agriculture, and setting up a civilized and orderly social organization. Ningxia is similar to Israel in many aspects. From the comparisons being made between Ningxia, China and the State of Israel in this paper, it is of some practical significance for Ningxia to learn from the above experiences in its development.
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