#### Table of Content

24 August 2000, Volume 19 Issue 3
Original Articles
 Progress and Trend of Karst Geomorphology Study SONG Lin hua 2000, 19 (3):  193-202.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.001 Abstract ( )   PDF (276KB) ( )   The study of karst Geomorphology in China has made great progresses in 20 Century, especially in 90’s. Karstology linking with modern physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics etc. and aimed with computer and advantage analysis technology, many new fields such as hydrological geomorphology, karst hydrogeochemistry, fractal karst geomorphology, karst paleo environment etc. have been developed and the development theoretical and practical karst geomorphology have been accelerated. The paper is stressed on the progress: (1) the evolution of karst landform, many evidences show that the fengcong (peak clusters) landscape will develop to the fenglin (peak forests) landscapes in the favour conditions; (2) karst corrosion intensity and rates are mainly depended on the precipitation, temperature, geomorphological features and characteristics, lithology and geological structures. The karstification is stronger in south China than in north China in the influence of the tropical and subtropical monsoon climate, hot and wet in summer, cold and dry in winter; (3) the deep karst is well developed under the effect of geological structures, the organism is decomposed to produce the organic acids and releases great amount of CO 2; (4) no doubt, karst development is very difficult if there is any bio karst function. The features produced by the microorganism form the base for the macro karst geomorphology; (5) recently, the stalagmites have been employed to study the palaeo climate and environment by the micro laminae technique. Also the prospects have been made for the studying the karst ecological system and environment restoration and improvement, karst paleo environment and groble changes, environment protection and restoration of weathered and damaged speleothem landscape in show caves, experimental and quantitative karst geomorphology etc.. It will be paid more attention to enhance and get more important results in the early of 21 century with the intensive development in the karst regions of southwestern China.
 Overview of Study on Geo spatial Data Integration LI Jun, FEI Chuan yun 2000, 19 (3):  203-211.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.002 Abstract ( )   PDF (349KB) ( )   Application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and multi resources geo spatial data promotes the appearance of digital geo spatial data integration in 1960’s. But the weakness of study on geo spatial data integration hinders its own development. As a overview on geo spatial data integration, the paper focuses on fundamental concept, theory of data integration and problems in geo spatial data integration research currently. Geo spatial data is one kind of data used to represent, describe geographical processes and geographical phenomena. From the point view of geographical cognition, geo spatial data is abstraction of geographical entity controlled by geographical knowledge. Geo spatial data integration, as argued by many researchers, is the process during which multi resources and multi scale geo spatial data can be used in one uniform GIS software platform. The goals of geo spatial data integration, put simply, are creating seamless (including attribute seamless, temporal seamless and spatial seamless) dataset or database for certain application or general construction of geo spatial database. Study of geo spatial data integration mainly focus on data integration mechanism, error transfer, data quality controlling, multi scale, and representation of geo spatial data. Also many successful application of geo spatial data integration were carried out, but there are still many shortcomings of the fundamental researches on geo spatial data integration, such as integration principles, error propagation rules, multi scale data integration and data quality evaluation and controlling. The main problems about geo spatial data integration are short of general integration principles and rules, weak studying on geo spatial metadata, ignoring the applications of geo sciences principles and rules. Based on the analysis on geo spatial data integration, the authors list out some further research field on data integration such as network based data integration, data integration principles, metadata utility in data integration, geo sciences expert knowledge system and their application in geo spatial data integration.
 Challenges and Opportunities of China’s Digital Earth LIU Chuang, SUN Jiu lin 2000, 19 (3):  212-219.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.003 Abstract ( )   PDF (296KB) ( )   China is a huge country in land, in population, in history and in changes. Records covering over five thousands of years of China make a great deal of challenges and opportunities in the age of Digital Earth. More over, pixels from satellites provide the detail information about the global environmental changes in China. Based on the comparison studies of digital information of the earth sciences between China and the world else, authors indicate the keys for China to make the Digital Earth succeed. They are: constructing an integrated data and information policy system; establishing distributed national data centers, making a multiple-disciplinary training and education program; developing a data and information services market; enhancing the integration between the earth sciences and IT technology, including those of satellite, computational sciences, computer, telecommunication and so on. The international cooperation is important for China to develop the China’s Digital Earth.
 Studies on the Model for Judging Environmental Intergenerational Equity and its Application LI Chun hui, YANG Qin ye 2000, 19 (3):  220-226.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.004 Abstract ( )   PDF (471KB) ( )   Environmental intergenerational equity is one of the thinks of sustainable development. Based on the concept and signification of environmental intergenerational equity ,a model for judging environmental intergenerational equity is built and the environmental intergenerational equity degree and conflict degree are defined. The model is applied to judge the environmental intergenerational equity of 1980,1990 and 2000,the continuous three generations, in the contiguous areas on Shanxi, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia Autonomous. The results show the pollution environment is more and more worse, the intergenerational equity coefficient is 0.289 and conflict degree is 0.711 between 1980 and 1990,the intergeneration equity coefficient is 0.218 and conflict degree is 0.782 between 1990 and 2000.Thay are environmental inequity from former generation to next generation and the intergenerational conflict degree increase gradually. At last, building compensation base of intergenerational environment is the basal way to reach environmental intergenerational equity, then gives some measures and counterproposals for environmental intergenerational equity in the region.
 EI Nino, Global Warming and Disasters Increasing: Impacts on Sustainable Agricultural Productivity YU Hu ning, JIANG Ai liang 2000, 19 (3):  227-236.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.005 Abstract ( )   PDF (1008KB) ( )   Three periods are clearly divided based on decadal mean temperatures of the records for global surface temperatures of recent 120 years. The first of them was the period of lower temperature (from 1880 to 1919, at least 40 years), the second was the period of transition(fluctuation of temperature was not too much, from 1920 to 1979, about 60 years), the third is the period of temperature increasing. We understand the temperature of the Little Ice Age was lower than that of the period from 1880 to 1919 according to the references of the Little Ice Age (from 1450 or 1490 to 1850 or 1880, about 400 years). Therefore imagined duration of lower temperature is about 450 years. The variations of temperature for the recent 450 years are the kind of the process of unidirectional, gradual change. Another three periods may be also divided according to the situation of EI Nino emerging in this century. The first period was that of EI Nino accidental emerging from 1900 to 1940. The second period was that of EI Nino middle emerging from 1940 to 1980, the global temperature was increasing at faint or middle level for this period. The third period is that of frequently emerging of EI Nino from 1980 to 1998, the global warming is obviously. Recent 100 years the situation of EI Nino emerging is similar with the process of unidirectional, gradual change for global temperature. The new viewpoint, that is to pay close attention to the influences on the piled effects of greenhouse effect and EI Nino, is given out after thinking the thermal inertia of ocean. We think the EI Nino will be frequently emerged and global temperature will be also kept the warmer state for several decades or longer period in the future. The natural disasters, such as flood, drought, bio calamities etc., will be frequently took place following EI Nino and global warming. Therefore we should do the works for taking precautions against and reducing natural calamities, and safeguard the sustainable agriculture productivity.
 A Case Study on The Systematical Tourism Planning LIU Feng 2000, 19 (3):  237-243.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.006 Abstract ( )   PDF (706KB) ( )   That tourism planning is essential and urgent for the rapid growth of in ensuring economic benefit and sustainability is now widely recognized. China has practiced much in the field of tourism planning, but there are still some problems and lack of systematic research on theory. The paper introduces a new concept of tourism planning——Systematic Tourism Planning. The paper advances the theory that tourism planning is actually a systematic one. An underlying concept in Systematic Tourism Planning is that tourism should be viewed as an inter-related system of demand, supply, promotion and support factors. It is important that systematic tourism planning must integrate all these parts of the system, optimize and balance the economic, environmental and social-cultural factors in achieving sustainable development, and must be monitored to ensure that it is accomplishing the objectives and achieving the recommended policy. The paper takes the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an example, inquires into its basic contents, process and methodologies for the purpose of establishing and perfecting the theoretical and methodological system of tourism planning. In the end, the author concludes four characteristics of Systematical Tourism Planning.
 Fluvial Geomorphology in China: Opportunities and Challenges in the Era of Knowledge Economy ZHANG Ou yang 2000, 19 (3):  244-250.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.007 Abstract ( )   PDF (268KB) ( )   This paper reviewed the achievements of the study on fluvial geomorphology in China from the 40s, the foundation of the fluvial geomorphology, to the 90s, the attaining the leading level over the world in some study field, in the 20th century. The study on fluvial geomorphology in China has its distinct advantages in that China has various types of landscapes, historically recorded data, and perfect field meteorological, hydrological monitoring stations. It also has its obvious disadvantages because of its lagged facilities. The era of knowledge economy will eventually dominate the coming century. And the new characteristics of the knowledge economy and the arousing innovation of society and thoughts on human being will give the fluvial geomorphology new opportunities as well as severe challenges. The coming era will give the study of fluvial geomorphology high technological facilities, multi-sources of accurate data and fund support. And the new era will also request the study of fluvial geomorphology to fit the new market situation. To meet the era of knowledge economy, we should get use of fully the conventional advantages and modern high technology and equipment to enforce the creative study and the transition of the result into product from now. Thus, some strategies about knowledge innovation in fluvial geomorphology are offered in this paper.
 The Inspiration of Japanese National Land Development on the West Exploitation in China ZHANG Wen zhong 2000, 19 (3):  251-258.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.008 Abstract ( )   PDF (296KB) ( )   The plan of Japanese national land development played a positive role on solving the problems such as the regional economic difference, the industrial space distribution, the development of outlying districts and the environmental protection.\;In this paper, on the basis of the comments and summarize the successful experiences of Japanese national development, four main problems needed to be pay attention in the west exploitation in China were presented as follow. First, it’s important to draw up a clear development goal and a feasible development pattern, in addition, through legislative formality to ensure the implementation of the exploitation plan. Second, give full play the part of the public capital and private capital in the west exploitation. Third, bring about a great advance in the development of middle and small cities in the west. Fourth, correctly handle the problems of resources, environment and natural calamity in the west exploitation.
 Significance of Eco-environmental Protection in Development of Western Regions in Connection with Sandstorms CHEN Zhi qing,ZHU Zhen da 2000, 19 (3):  259-265.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.009 Abstract ( )   PDF (703KB) ( )   Sandstorm is a frequently occurred disastrous weather in northern China and occurred frequently in recent years with increase in disaster-affected area and loss. West China is an important source place of sandstorms, and the marginal area of the Tarim Basin, Hexi Corridor and Alxa Plateau are three important standstorm centers. Sometimes sandstorm affected area is very extensive and Beijing was hit by eight sandstorm events in last spring and caused great loss in national economy. The combination of strong wind, exposed sandy soil on ground surface and unstable air current constitutes the necessary conditions for the sandstorms. However, the accelerated desertification process resulting from irrational human economic activities is responsible for the accelerated sandstorms. Facts proved that in places where desertification was well managed and controlled and eco environment was well protected, then sandstorm intensity reduced and loss mitigated. Otherwise, natural environment would be devastated, desertification expanded and sandstorm aggrevated, sandstorm has sounded a warning on ecology. Eco environment in western regions of China is very vulnerable, so to strengthen eco environmrntal protection and rehabilitation should be taken as a core issue and a pressing task. Efforts should be made to put prevention first and give priority to protectionso as to bring eco environment in west China to develop toward benign circulation and maintain sustainable development of these regions.
 Spatial Economy Analyses of Basin and Western Developing Stratagem QIAN Le xiang, XU Shu ming, QIN Fen 2000, 19 (3):  266-272.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.010 Abstract ( )   PDF (445KB) ( )   In this paper, the characteristics of the integrality and relativity, the sectionality and differentiality, the hierarchy and network, and the opening and dissipation of spatial economy of basin were described. The principles of system, synthesis, regionalization, tridimensional network, and water resource centered basin exploration were analyzed. A model of Point axis region gradual exploration was proposed. The essential idea of the model is to strengthen the economic and technologic energy of point and axis, guided by the model of regional growth and economic development and taking the point and axis exploration to be the important formation of basin development. So the national resources of whole basin can be fully explored and utilized.
 Land Reclamation and Land-use Changes During Last 50 Years in Ke’erqin Deserts, Inner Mongolia Wulantuya 2000, 19 (3):  273-278.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.011 Abstract ( )   PDF (630KB) ( )   Ke’erqin Deserts, in eastern Inner Mongolia, has relatively favorite water and heat conditions for agriculture. Based on analyses of human reclamation activities, area of cultivated land in one typical region, and spatial structures and inner differences in/among major counties, land use pattern changes during last 50 years in Keerqin Deserts is discussed. The result shows that, after four times large scale reclamation since the foundation of P. R. China, Land use pattern Changed vastly in Keerqin Deserts. The major feature of that change is northern ward movement of both northern agriculture cultivation frontier and farmland gravity in Ke`erqin Deserts. And the major driving force of that change is increases in population and direction of national development polices, rather than natural conditions of rainfall and temperature, which have little change compared with 50 years ago. Over reclamation without proper protecting measures has caused environmental worsening and soil desertification in Ke’erqin Deserts.
 Impacts of Irrigation on Soil Environment by Lifting up Water from the Yellow River in Ningxia YU Jiang ping, WEN Yun chao, WANG Yi ming, SONG Nai ping 2000, 19 (3):  279-284.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.03.012 Abstract ( )   PDF (231KB) ( )   In this study, soil survey was conducted at Hecaogou village of Tongxin County, which is located at the area of Ningxia irrigated by lifting up water from the Yellow River. On the basis of soil survey, irrigation induced changes in soil salinity, soil texture, nutrient and trace element content and their impacts on soil sandification, salinization and soil environmental quality were analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that: (1) Irrigation can obviously reduce the salt content of surface soil, but there is a trend for salt to gather at the depth of 50~90 cm and soil salization is likely to emerge again if irrigation were ceased or irrigation water were reduced; (2) The sandification is mitigated, with a decreasing in sand fraction and an increasing in clay fraction; (3) Irrigation may slightly increase the nutrient content, with the organic matter content and the total P increased more than others, while increase of Copper, Chromium, Zinc, Nickel and Cadmium content will partly decrease the soil environment quality and the soil F leaching is a challenge for reducing F poisoning in this area.