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Table of Content

    24 April 2000, Volume 19 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    Biospheric Aspects of Hydrological Cycle: BAHC Plan and its Research Progress
    GAO Yan chun, WANG Chang yao
    2000, 19 (2):  97-103.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.001
    Abstract ( 434 )   PDF (509KB) ( 854 )   Save
    Based on the presentation of the scope, principal subjects and structure of BAHC (Biospheric Aspects of Hydrological Cycle), the Core Project of IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Project), the progress of BAHC is introduced in this paper, and in the light of its research status quo and development trend, the new theme and focuses of BAHC in future is also discussed. The content of this paper includes following three parts: Part 1:Outline of BAHC——consists of following two contents: 1. The ...
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    Geographical Information System (GIS) and Geographical Analysis
    WANG Rang hui
    2000, 19 (2):  104-109.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.002
    Abstract ( 411 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1581 )   Save
    The integration of GIS and geography helps geographers to analyse a series of regional or global geographical problems, to study the inner structural feature, distribution patterns, evolution process among atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere, to research the ways and mechanism of material flow, energy flow and information flow. Earth system is a large system that has many factors and complex structure. Moreover, the system is changeable with the variety of natural function and human activities. The researches of earth system and its related problems depend on new technologies. Geographers can understand space and physical relationship of data on geology, geomorphology, hydrology, meteorology, pedology and botany with the development of VRGIS. Meanwhile, geographers can know the inner mechanism of geographical environment, seek the ways of digital modular and quantitative study, and push development of digital earth theory and quantitative geography research.
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    A Study on Seamless Integration of Multi-sources Spatial-data (SIMS)
    SONG Guan fu, ZHONG Er shun, LIU Ji yuan, XIAO Le bin
    2000, 19 (2):  110-115.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.003
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (625KB) ( 1575 )   Save
    Spatial data sharing is necessary for socialized Geographical Information Systems. It requires integrating spatial data in different formats. Data exchange through interchange file formats is a popular way to share data between different GIS or cartography software. Data exchange is a time and labor concerning way. We have to run one software package to export data to a specified interchange file, such as DXF, then, run another software tool to import it. The process is too complicated, and it will take us a lot of time when we need to frequently exchange mass data. Spatial Data Interoperation is an ideal way provided by Open GIS Consortium (OGC) to share spatial data among software packages. In this way, GIS software data accessing interfaces should comply with the standards formulated by OGC. We can then share spatial data among different software without exporting or importing. It requires each software package has OGC’s standard data accessing interfaces. Now, this is still not a practical way for spatial data sharing. The Seamless Integration of Multi source Spatial data (SIMS) technology is a spatial data accessing architecture. SIMS consists of three tiers, including data providers, data agent and data consumers. In this model, data consumers, such as analysis components, access data through data agent instead of directly accessing data providers. It has one data agent but can have more than one data provider. Each data provider is implemented for a specified software file format. SIMS not only provide capabilities to access (read and write) spatial data in different formats, but also gives user abilities to perform analyses among several kinds of spatial data formats. In this paper, the authors describe the SIMS technologic architecture, and discuss its development and application.
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    Spatial Modeling of Land Use and Its Effects in China
    CHEN Youqi, Peter H. Verburg, XU Bin
    2000, 19 (2):  116-127.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.004
    Abstract ( 580 )   PDF (757KB) ( 2113 )   Save
    This paper introduces the main principles and structure of the GIS model (CLUECH, Conversion of land use and its effects in China) to analyze the land use change. Through GIS modeling, this paper reveals the factors that determine the distribution of the different land use types, and special emphasis is put to cultivated land. Correlation and regression analysis are used to identify the most important explanatory variables from a large set of candidate determining factors. We found that the distribution of land use in China is best described by a combination of different biophysical and socio economic factors. Furthermore, both scale and type of the studied region can have a very important effect on the correctness of the model. The result shows that the distribution of cultivated land is strongly correlated with the distribution of population, especially with the distribution of agricultural population. This relation shows the rural character of China, where population and agriculture are strongly clustered. Other important factors explaining the distribution of cultivated land are the suitability of the soil for irrigated rice cultivation, elevation, temperature, and some hydrological conditions. This means that cultivated land is also strongly related to the suitability of the soil for agriculture. In the spatial aspect, this model reveals that the conversion of cultivated land in China will mainly happen in the transition area between the eastern farming region and the west husbandry region, because of the land suitability and ecological reasons. The main results of the CLUECH model can be judged as reasonable and applied to the policy making related land use/land cover change.
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    The Interacting Models and Mechanisms of Soil Nitrogen with Rainfall and Runoff
    ZHANG Xing chang, SHAO Ming an
    2000, 19 (2):  128-135.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.005
    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (892KB) ( 1518 )   Save
    Soil N loss by erosion on slope land is affected by soil mineral N loss mainly by runoff and organic N loss mostly by sediment. The process of soil nitrogen loss by erosion is restricted by interaction of soil nitrogen with rainfall and runoff. The interacting process of soil N with rainfall is divided into two stages: under rainfall conditions, soil N releasing process from soil to rain drops and soil N (mostly nitrite N) infiltrating process from top soil to deep soil in soil profile. Meanwhile, interacting process model of soil N with runoff is divided into three types, i.e. the mixed depth model of interacting process of soil N with runoff, the releasing and transporting model of soil N from topsoil to runoff and from upper slope to down slope, and process model of soil N loss by erosion. Based on analysis on interaction of soil with rainfall and runoff on slope land, the interacting models and mechanisms of soil nitrogen with rainfall and runoff are discussed to provide research methods and thoughts for further study on soil N loss by erosion.
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    The Issues and Managements of Water in the Typical Regions in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    WU Kai, TANG Deng yin, XIE Xian qun
    2000, 19 (2):  136-141.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.006
    Abstract ( 555 )   PDF (652KB) ( 746 )   Save
    In this paper the water issues and their change regularities in the typical regions in the Huang Huai Hai Plain were briefly introduced. The main water issues in Cangzhou Hengshui Region are: the serious deficit of water resources, the serious exploitation in above quota of groundwater in the deep layer and the disastrous windstorm tide. The losses for the deficit of water were estimated and the experience relationships between the table depth in the central part of the groundwater funnel and the exploitation in above quota of groundwater were established in the first part. The main water issues in the Delta Area of the Huanghe River are: the deficit of water resources, the serious effect of the absence of flow in the Huanghe River and the development exploitation in above quota of groundwater. The countermeasures of exploiting resources for relaxing the absence of flow in the Huanghe River were suggested in the second part. The main water issues in Anyang Region are: the deficit of water resources and the quick reduced rate of the groundwater table. The experience relationship between the groundwater table and the exploitation in above quota of groundwater was astablished in the third part. In addition, the development prospects of the irrigations of water diverting from the Huanghe River and from the Changjiang River in the typical regions were forecasted in the paper, all of which will be over 32 per cent of the water supplies in 2010.
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    Impact of Xiaolangdi Water Conservation Project on Deposition Reduction of the Huanghe River Estuary
    YOU Liang yuan
    2000, 19 (2):  142-149.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.007
    Abstract ( 618 )   PDF (287KB) ( 449 )   Save
    Xiaolangdi Water conservation project is the largest one in the Huanghe River. It changes the oncoming water and sediment process of the Lower Huanghe River and consequently, the deposition of the Huanghe River Estuary. Using obtained experimental formulas, this paper gets the following results:\;1. Comparing with the situation without Xiaolangdi project, deposition volume decreases at the first utilization stage, and then deposition volume is restored at the second utilization stage. Besides, the deposition volume is also depended on different discharge level of the Xiaolangdi reservoir.\;2. Global warming and human activities impact on deposition volume of the Huanghe River Estuary. If the water and soil conservation works are continuously increased with the normal speed, in addition to Xiaolangdi project, it is possible to make a good deposition volume reduction, which is better than that under only Xiaolangdi project.\;3. The river mouth spit is also related to oncoming water and sediment, consequently, to Xiaolangdi project. The Changing amplitude of the river mouth spit at the second utilization stage of Xiaolangdi project is faster than that of the first utilization stage.
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    The Separation and Optimal Allocation about Functional Types of Provincial Capitals in China
    XUE Dongqian, YAO Shimou, LI Bo
    2000, 19 (2):  150-154.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.008
    Abstract ( 613 )   PDF (555KB) ( 1166 )   Save
    This paper analyses the malpractices that take the provincial capitals as comprehensive, single center: the separation of department and region; the waste of natural and economic resource; the common of industry’s structure. The author points out ways and steps on the separation and transform of functional types in provincial capitals. A inseparable contact zone and strong influence zone are defined. It has made out determination about urban function of provincial capitals and the judge about the leading cities in every provinces of China, at the same time, the author puts forward the thinking of the construction and deploy about functional structure in provincial capitals: strengthening administrative, cultural function、transferring partial functions of provincial capitals; observing and studying the functions of provincial capitals from the urban system.
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    The Discussion of Motive Forces and Measures to Sustainable Rural Economics of Western Plain of Shandong Province——A Typical Case Study of Dongchangfu County
    WANG Yun cai, GUO Huan cheng
    2000, 19 (2):  155-161.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.009
    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (778KB) ( 499 )   Save
    Dongchangfu County is a county with the characteristics of Liaocheng and agriculture area of north china and Huanghuaihai region. It has large population and less developed economic, particularly rural economic is backward. With the development of 50 years in the past it had formed four characteristics of PRED system. Firstly, gross population is large scale and increasing rapidly, but less educated. Secondly, natural resources such as mineral, water and energy are scare, land resources are main natural resources but are poor and less productive. Thirdly, natural disasters such as drought, flood, saltization and alkalization had been better prevented from, but some of them still did great damages to people; fourthly, with the rapid growth of economic, capital and technology inputs are less sufficient, it consumes large resources with large waste.\;The study on motive forces of sustainable rural economics is the research of main promoting forces and the restricted factors which hamper the economics growth during the year of 1980 to 1996, when the development of it was the fastest in the past, the aim of it is to foster the growth pole of sustainable rural economic and take the measures to it correspondingly.
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    Experimental Study on Practical Agricultural Water-saving Measures on Huabei Plain
    YANG Xiao guang, CHEN Fu, SONG Dong mei, GONG Fei, ZHU Wen shan
    2000, 19 (2):  162-166.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.010
    Abstract ( 423 )   PDF (196KB) ( 474 )   Save
    According to the field experiment study results of research station, some of the practical measures for agricultural water conservation were put out in this paper. Marched to the situation of current economical and technical conditions, these practical measures were suitable in the region of Huabei plain. The sprinkle irrigation was a low cost and high efficiency engineering measure for agricultural water conservation. Straw covering and stubble keeping were effective regulating ways on the field layer. In order to get the double beneficial target of both water conservation and stable yield, the overshoot mechanism brought out by water stress was useful to enhance the allocation of the precious water resources.
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    Water-saving Irrigation Regionalization and Water-saving Measures in the Irrigation Districts of the Huanghe River Basin
    FU Guo bin
    2000, 19 (2):  167-172.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.011
    Abstract ( 426 )   PDF (232KB) ( 671 )   Save
    The irrigation districts of the Huanghe River basin is divided into five different water saving irrigation regions according to regional physical and social features, such as, climatic, topographic, physiognomic, soil, vegetation, geologic, hydrologic, water resource and its utilities, agriculture, economic development etc.. The first region, consisting of the irrigation districts from the riverhead to Lanzhou City, is characterized with rich runoff and little cultivated lands. The irrigation in this region should pay an attention to the new irrigation techniques and small water transferring loss. The second region, covering the irrigation districts from Lanzhou City to He Kou Town, has a negative water balance owing to limited rainfall and highly developed irrigation system. Reconstructing the poor quality and long history irrigation engineering and ameliorating the low efficiency drainage system should be the key problems for the water saving irrigation development in this region. The third region, ranging from He Kou Town to Long Men, has a small amount of irrigation lands and a high silt content. The water saving irrigation planning in this region should be mixed together with the conservation of soil and water. The fourth region, including mainly Wenhe River and Feihe River basins, has the smallest irrigation duty and the highest water use efficiency among the irrigation districts of the Huanghe River Basin. The fifth region is one of the largest irrigation district groups in China and has more irrigation lands than any other regions in the Huanghe River Basin. The water saving irrigation in this region has a close relationship to the silt reducing measures and groundwater exploitation.
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    A Research on the Ecological Environment of the Upper and Middle Reaches of Changjiang River
    DENG Hong bing
    2000, 19 (2):  173-180.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.012
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (438KB) ( 578 )   Save
    The essay analyses the main problems of ecological environment system of the upper and middle reaches of Changjiang River, indicates the guiding ideology, basic principle and objective, analyses the regional distribution of the upper and middle reaches of Yangtze River, and puts forward the strategic countermeasures of the regional ecological environment reconstruction according to the internal requirements of its sustainable development. The countermeasures include carrying out established policies, dealing with the original region first, enforcing laws and regulations, uniting the regional economic development and the ecological environment building up, and exploring industrialization approaches and market economic methods.
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    Expounding Strategy of Resources after the Cold War from the Angle of the Geopolitics
    DUAN Jin jun
    2000, 19 (2):  181-186.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.013
    Abstract ( 483 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1039 )   Save
    The article expounds that the pattern of the world has been changed very completely after the cold war, and the large countries in the west have adjusted their geographical strategies. The stategies of resources are very important part in their national strategies. The principle of the limited resources is not outmoded; on the contrary, the shortage of resources is very obvious. Resources have great influence upon geographical pattern globally and regionally. With discussion of natural resources in Middle East, Middle Asia, and Southern China Sea, this paper puts forward that, as the largest developing country, China should utilize the foreign resources and defend the rights of economy and resources.
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    Inspiration from Digital Earth
    ZHANG An ding, QI Qing wen
    2000, 19 (2):  187-192.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2000.02.014
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (220KB) ( 415 )   Save
    This paper expounds some inspirations from Digital Earth, including strategic view, position of big power, self reliance & technical absorbing, blind following, importance of reorganization, etc. The author’s ideas are as follows: At first, we must have macroscopic & overall view of China’s development, analyzing the influence of DE to China, so as to lead China’s way of construction in a global oriented mode. Secondly, we should keep calm and make definite scheme about Digital Earth, and not follow the wave or DE blindly, thus utilize the idea of DE scientifically and rationally. Thirdly, in order to maintain its position of big power in the world, China should accomplish our scientific objectives, such as strengthening our development & construction on National Earth Observing System, Nation Spatial Data Infrastructure, etc. Fourthly, we should not only absorb and import the technologies from the developed countries, but also develop our own software & hardware system in self reliance way, and thus can construct Digital China successfully. Finally, we also have to make reorganization on administrative mechanism, intelligent data, science & technical units, as well as different academic realm. A wholly new science, Earth Information Science, will be created in the process of reorganization.
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