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Table of Content

    24 August 2001, Volume 20 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    The Milestone in the Developmental Process of Modern Cartographic Science in China --The Characteristics and Innovation of The National Atlas of China
    LIAO Ke
    2001, 20 (3):  201-208.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.001
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (844KB) ( 814 )   Save
    At first, this paper expounds the importance of The National Atlas and the compiling course of The National Atlas of China, and then put emphasis on the characteristics and innovation of The National Atlas of China. The characteristics and innovation include: (1) The National Atlas of China is a complete collection of the key information on the nation’s various aspects including nature, population, economy, society and history. (2) The results obtained from studies on different fields including geology, biology, environmental science, economy, and history of China have been systematically summarized in The National Atlas of China. (3) The compilation of The National Atlas carries out the "sustainable development" strategy and emphasizes the relationship between human being and nature. (4) The compilation of The National Atlas realized the essential revolutionary transformation from traditional technology to complete digitization and automation, and the forms of electronic atlas and Internet map satisfy the needs of information society. The accomplishment of The National Atlas of China has scientific importance, applicable values and social benefits; it also has an important role in the developmental progress of modern cartography in china. The National Atlas of China is an important result of creative work of Chinese science and technology during the 21st century. Scientists from three generations have used their knowledge and expertise to work on this project, mading it an unique case in Chinese history of science; and such case is even very rare in the world history. At present, The National Atlas of China represents the highest level of the development of the Chinese cartography; it produces a great impact on the world and it occupys an important position among National Atlas of various countries. The work on The National Atlas of China has historical contributions to the development of cartographic science in China and it is indeed a milestone marking the developmental progress of modern cartographic science in China.
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    Changing Tendencies and Utilizations of Water Resources in the Typical Sand Regions around Beijing
    WU Kai, YU Jing jie
    2001, 20 (3):  209-216.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.002
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (306KB) ( 521 )   Save
    The surveys of agricultural geography in the typical sand regions around Beijing are briefly indroduced in this paper. The regional differences of water condition in the typical sand regions are analyzed from the aspects of the time space change and the frequency calculation of annual precipitation. The Pealson Type-III Model and Wakeby Distribution are used to simulate the frequency distribution of annual precipitation, and the results that accord with the demands of the precision are obtained. According to the annual area precipitation series of Fengning County, the periodicities with the annual area precipitation are determined by the autoregression analysis, the variance analysis and the spectrom analysis. The agrometeorology indexes and the water yield functions of the main crops are analyzed in water condition utilization. That also suggested in the part are the comprehensive yield increasing techniques of the main crops, shch as naked oats, potato and pea, and the effective measures for improving the condition of agricultural water supply, including the natural protective system of farmland in the rain fed agriculture regions and water saving agriculture in the irrigated agriculture regions.
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    A Review on Simulating Plant Response to Climatic Changes
    LI Shuang cheng
    2001, 20 (3):  217-226.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.003
    Abstract ( 444 )   PDF (727KB) ( 1110 )   Save
    While current projections of climatic change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree uncertainty, the potential effects of climatic change on plant species and their combined units population, community and vegetation are of increasing concern largely due to their huge economic value and ecological service functions. Many researchers have simulated the climatic effects on plants species or vegetation by using various models last decade. In sum, these models are classified into five groups, namely bioclimatic classification approach, ecological response surface approach, stand model approach, plant physiological models, and statistical model approach. In this paper, the author gives a critical review on advantages and disadvantages of the models, and finally indicates the potential trends of these models. In conclusion, various models should be reformulated with perfect tradeoff between robustness and sensibility. Only when these models reflect more accurately realistic relationships between plant species or vegetation and climatic variables, can they be employed to simulate responses of plant species or vegetation to rapid change in climate.
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    Water Resources and Eco environment Protection in the Arid Regions in Northwest of China
    TANG Qi cheng, ZHANG Jie bin
    2001, 20 (3):  227-233.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.004
    Abstract ( 690 )   PDF (720KB) ( 1085 )   Save
    This paper presents basic water resource and environment issues in the arid regions in the northwest of China. The first part reviews the water resources situation. The major water resource in the arid region in Northwest of China is surface water. Runoff distribution and relative features are the second part. There are many characteristics of surface water, such as heterogeneity of temporal and spatial distribution, diversity of runoff alimentation, and frequent exchanging between surface water and groundwater. At the third part, as is the most important part of this paper, the ayther studys the general eco environment situation in the arid regions in the Northwest of China through three typical inland watersheds. The situation is improved in the oasis but worsening outside oasis. Worsening cases include land desertification, glacial recession, lake drying up, river drying up in the lower reaches, higher frequency of dust devil, large area degradation of natural grasslands and natural vegetational cover damage. Water is needed to meet these challenges. At last part of this paper, a suggestion is given to the eco environment construction in the arid region. The suggestion is that water use should be divided into two parts: for ecological use purpose and for national economics use purpose, respectively. As to different typical cases of eco environment deterioration occurred in the lower reaches of Tarim river, Erjina region of Heihe river and Minqing region of Shiyang river, these water use insights should be dealt with carefully with different stress respectively.
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    The Moisture Regime Spatial Distribution of Farming and Pasturing Transitional Areas in the Northeastern China and Its Impacts on Land Use
    ZHANG Jun tao, AI Hua, YU Chang ying
    2001, 20 (3):  234-239.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.005
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (243KB) ( 386 )   Save
    The vulnerable eco environment and most sensitive global environmental change characterize the research area. The moisture regime is a principle factor, by which the differentiation and variance of the physical geographical environment are influenced directly. The structure, function, and spatial distribution pattern of the regional eco geographical system along the longitude is determined by the key factors of precipitation, moist coefficient/aridity, and soil moisture regime. Regional differentiation in annual or growing season (from May to September) potential evapo transpiration is obvious. The annual aridity is increased from the east to the west of the research area, although it is affected by contour microclimates. The aridity in summer and fall is less than that in winter and spring. The regional differentiation in vegetation and soil is also impacted by the moist regime. Based upon the land use structure, the research area may be divided into five land use types.
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    A Study on the Evaluation Index System of Agricultural Resources Effective Utility
    XU Yong
    2001, 20 (3):  240-246.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.006
    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (457KB) ( 916 )   Save
    In view of the entity and integrity of natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture, the paper selects and builds the Evaluation Index System (EIS) of agricultural resources effective utility on the basis of the necessity and observable basic principles to build EIS. This paper includes four sections as follows. Firstly, the author discusses observable basic principles to build EIS. The principles include objective laws of sciences, a system in its entirety, easy operation, good arrangement and sequence of structure, and changeable trends. Secondly, by analyzing systematically the behavior and characteristic of agricultural production progress of resources and the basic ways of agricultural resources effective utilization, the author selects 94 indices, which include 46 background and input indices, 14 potential indices and 34 evaluation indices. As a result of analyzing comparatively 34 evaluation indices, the author builds the evaluation index system consisting of 13 comprehensive evaluation indices. Thirdly, as an addition to EIS, the author discusses 5 comprehensive evaluation indices of 13 ones, including attenuation intensity of soil production, biotic economic index, scientific and technical contribution ratio of agriculture, commercialization index of agricultural products, and management comprehensive index. Last, some problems are discussed in the paper.
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    A Blue Print of Land Use Region Based on Regional Indicator System for Sustainable Land Use in China
    CHEN Bai ming
    2001, 20 (3):  247-253.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.007
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (455KB) ( 670 )   Save
    Developing indicator system of sustainability for land resources is one of the preferential scopes in sciences and technology put forward in Agenda 21st Century for each country. The Ministry of Land and Resources has started to deal with this project. The paper probes into the land use regions served to establish regional indicator system for sustainable land use, and displays notable divergences of different evaluation criteria of the grades of sustainable land use and diversity of indicator types within indicator system in different areas in China. Based on principles including relative identity between natural characters and land use conditions within an area, notable divergences in thresholds of main indicators or same indicators in different systems in different areas, and the integrity of administrative divisions, ten land use regions have carried out on the basis of comprehensive analysis of characters of land use patterns, environmental conditions, and management measures in different areas, and these ten land use regions are the regional scope for establishing regional indicator system for sustainable land use.
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    A Study on Northern Boundary of Winter Wheat during Climate Warming: A Case Study in Liaoning Province
    HAO Zhi xin, ZHENG Jing yun, TAO Xiang xin
    2001, 20 (3):  254-261.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.008
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (511KB) ( 985 )   Save
    In this paper, based on geographic planting data of winter wheat and present meteorological data, climatic northern boundary of winter wheat in Liaoning province was studied systematically. The grey correlation analysis revealed that the accumulated temperature and precipitation before overwintering, the negative temperature during the overwintering, and the precipitation of May and June were the four key affecting factors. By analyzing the factors of the accumulated temperature before overwintering and negative accumulate ground temperature of tillering node level and evaluating the real climatic productivity, the result indicates: the northern boundary of winter wheat would be Benxi-Fushun-Faku-Zhangwu-Fuxin-Beipiao-Chaoyang (about 42.5°N). It will move 1-2 latitudes to north comparing with past boundary (along the Great Wall line). The result not only has important guiding significance to the northern boundary of planting winter wheat, but also has reference effect to reconstruction of historical climate by using crop planting boundary in historical periods.
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    The Study on Thermal Infrared Radiant Directionality of Non isothermal Land Surface
    CHEN Liang fu, FAN Wen jie, LIU Qin huo
    2001, 20 (3):  262-267.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.009
    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (120KB) ( 887 )   Save
    The angular effects of emitted radiation from non isothermal land surface are the basis for component temperatures retrieval from multi angle thermal infrared remote sensing data. This paper reviews two different directions in the studies of this field. One is to define new concepts of emissivity, for example, the "e emissivity", "r emissivity", the band averaged emissivity, and "canopy emissivity" et al. Some of the them are component temperatures dependent. Another is to build thermal radiant model to illustrate the emitted radiation from non isothermal mixed pixel. This paper then shows the recent progress of this field in China. It also points out in final section that several trends should be strengthened, such as the basic theories and concept, the remote sensing field measurement, the simplification and test of radiant model, and algorithms of component temperatures retrieval from multi angle data of thermal infrared remote sensing.
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    An Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Urban Residential Location Selection
    ZHANG Wen-zhong
    2001, 20 (3):  268-275.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.010
    Abstract ( 748 )   PDF (505KB) ( 2389 )   Save
    Due to recent housing reforms in China, individual consume of urban population has become the principal part of the real estate market, and residents now can select their own home rather than have a home assigned to them by the government. This paper focuses on the main factors that influence the residents who live in cities and towns to select a residential location under the new housing system. The author thinks that the price of the house is the objective condition which affects the urban population to choose their residential location. Once they determine the money that they want to pay for the house, the residential location space is roughly decided. In addition, the traffic convenience and the environment of the residential location are the important objective factors that affect the resident to make decisions. The social, economic and cultural characteristics of the residents themselves and different favoritism they showed for the residential location and environment influence the process and result of the residential location selection as well. Divided social stratum due to different income also affects the division and isolation of the residential space. Overall, since many factors influence the residential location selection in various ways, real estate developers should fully consider the general requirement and consume behavior of residents purchasing houses. Only in this way can developers make the housing development match with the demand of the residents.
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    Infrastructure and the Living Environment of Human Being
    JIN Feng jun
    2001, 20 (3):  276-285.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.011
    Abstract ( 664 )   PDF (470KB) ( 1242 )   Save
    Infrastructure is a system which supports the activity of human beings. In order to improve their living environment, human beings always expend huge capital to construct infrastructure. Without doubt, infrastructure has been playing important roles in improving human living conditions, and human activity more and more depends on infrastructure and infrastructure service. However, there is little research to appraise the influence of infrastructure to human activity. In this paper, the relations between infrastructure and human living environment are studied systematically. The paper points out that the roles of infrastructure in improving human living environment concentrate in three aspects: firstly, as a basic condition, infrastructure supports the expansion of living space. Due to the development of modern infrastructure, personal daily activity space has been expanded over 20 times. The travel time from Beijing to Shanghai, for instance, has been reduced to less 2 hours by air at present from 150 hours in the middle of nineteen century. Infrastructure leads to rational and efficient utility of living space and changes the concepts of relation between time and space of human beings. Secondly, infrastructure promotes the share of resources around the world. Statistics show that there are several billion tons of goods exchanged among countries due to the support of railway and maritime infrastructure. Infrastructure has increased human capacity and promoted efficiency in resources sharing. Thirdly, infrastructure has roles to optimize living environment. A lot of non productive infrastructures have been given more important attention to improve natural environment.
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    The Impact of River Seasonalization on Ground Water and Environment in Haihe Drainage Basin
    HE Fan neng, WANG Guo
    2001, 20 (3):  286-294.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.03.012
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (522KB) ( 742 )   Save
    On the basis of analyzing the trend of river seasonalization in Haihe drainage basin, the article lays special stress on exploring how river seasonalization influences ground water and environment in the downstream plain. In the final analysis, we consider that there is close inter influencing and cause effect relation between river seasonalization and extra exploitation of ground water. Because of extra exploitation of ground water, river seasonalization has been increasingly serious. Conversely, temporal spatial distribution, replenishment and flow field of ground water have been profoundly affected by more and more serious river seasonalization. Meanwhile, a series of environmental and ecological problems have occurred, such as deprssion cone of ground water, land subsidence, seawater or saline water intrusion, declining of the river course function, deterioration of water quality, and so on. Currently, the problems have become important factors which restrict social and economical sustainable development, and have influenced the living conditions of human being. It is therefore, a pressing and long standing duty that water resource be reasonably exploited and ecological environment be effectively preserved.
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