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Table of Content

    24 January 2001, Volume 20 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    The Yellow River Mouth Extension Since 1194 as Influenced by Human Activities
    XU Jiong xin
    2001, 20 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (504KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the instrument measured data in the past 50 years and the data extracted from historical documents, a study has been made of the human activities on the river mouth extension, at a time scale of 10 2~10 3 years. During the period studied, the Yellow River empties into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, successively, and the deltas it has shaped are known as Abandoned and Modern Yellow River Deltas. The extension of the Abandoned Yellow River can be divided into 2 stages. The first is from 1194 to 1578, during which the extension rate of river mouth was rather slow. The second is from 1579 to 1855, during which the extension rate was greatly accelerated. The curve showing the temporal variation of the extension rate of the modern Yellow River Mouth can be fitted by 3 straight lines with different slopes. Accordingly, the change from 1855 to present can be divided into 3 stages, and the turning points between the 3 straight lines may be regarded as the threshold points that indicates the marked changes in the manner and degree of human activities. On this basis, a 3 stage model has been put forward to describe the process of river mouth extension as a response to the changing human activities.
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    A Preliminary Study on Eco geographic System and Ecological Construction in West China
    WU Shao hong, ZHENG Du, YANG Qin ye
    2001, 20 (1):  10-20.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1003KB) ( )   Save
    Eco geographic system is a hierachical regional system divided or combined from geographic related comparison and integrated analysis of biological and non biological factors on the earth’s surface according to natural distributing laws. Main objects of the system are special patterns of natural factors and their relationship to natural resources. Ecological construction is to take measurements to reduce or eliminate environmental factors that are unsuitable for human living and development. The main measurement for ecological construction include vegetation recovery and protection, agricultural (including livestock husbandry and forestry) structural adjustment, land degradation reparation and natural disaster reduction. It is eco geographic system that gives regional differentiation of natural factors, which is a frame to recognize the environment, a foundation to set up policies for environmental reparation, and an important instruction for vegetation recovery and conservation. Ecological construction in the West China faces many environmental problems, such as salinity and alkalinity in the Northwest area; soil erosion in the Loess Plateau and the Southeast areas; grassland degradation in the Qinghai Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau area; and landslide and mud flow in the Southwest area. Ideological problems in management of ecological construction include “ecological construction=planting trees” and “converting farmland certainly to forestry land”. Moreover, disorder development situation should be avoided and simplified working methodology must be diversified. According to differentiation of natural conditions, eco geographic system of West China is divided into 8 temperature zones and 25 basic regions. Based on environmental characteristics of West China, relationship between eco geographic system and ecological construction. The authors set up ecological construction pattern for West China from the eco geographic system of West China. Brief ecological strategies of each region are described.
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    Macroscopic Background and Theoretical Basis on Ecological Reconstruction and Man land System Intergration in Northwest Arid Area of China
    FANG Chuang lin, XU Jian hua
    2001, 20 (1):  21-28.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (813KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the systematical analysis on the macroscopic background of the ecological reconstruction and economic sustainable development in the global arid area, this paper analyzes the situation that ecological environment is getting worse and worse in northwest arid area of China. The opportunity and the challenge on ecological reconstruction which are faced with in northwest arid area of China are also analyzed. It is considered that ecological threat has become the biggest security threat throughout the whole world. Furthermore, the degeneration of biodiversity is amazing, many species are frequently in emergencies, a lot of fragile ecological regions have been reduced to ecological disaster areas, ecological pillages which go beyond nations and districts still continue, and astonishing ecological destructions accelerate ecological poverty and economic poverty. So ecological reconstruction is paid more and more attention to in international society, and ecological security strategy has become an important part of the global strategy. According to this, this paper puts forward that regional sustainable development theory, restoration ecology theory, and social ecology and geo ecology theory can be considered as the theoretical basis of ecological reconstruction and economic sustainable development in northwest arid area of China.
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    Studies on Sustainable Development Evaluation of Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi
    CUI Ling zhou, LI Zhan bin, CAO Ming ming, LI Mian
    2001, 20 (1):  29-35.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (281KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the pilot studies on the evaluation index system and method of sustainable development of Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi, this paper has designed the structure frame of the index system including three types of index such as one advance comprehensive index-the comprehensive index of sustainable development, five basic indexes and thirty element indexes, the Analytic Hierarchy Process which can be used to calculate the sustainable development index weight supported by entropy technology, and the model can be used to evaluate the sustainable development comprehensively integrated by mathematical method such as compositive appraisement method of hierarchy multilayer、main component analytical method、regression analytical method and so on. And then, based on the theory and methods, evaluating and analyzing the sustainable development of Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi was presented concretely.
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    Integration and Fusion of Multi source Information and its Optimized Using in RS Image Based Mapping
    QI Qing wen, PEI Xin fu
    2001, 20 (1):  36-43.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (736KB) ( )   Save
    The integration & fusion of multi source information is one of the key problems in Geo information Science. Its significance is linked closely with the feature of geo information, the technological characteristics of information gathering, as well as the feature of system for information processing. This paper expounded the author’s study on the method, the latest techniques and the application, of integration & fusion for multi source information, detailed in three respects, i.e., the integration & fusion of information from different RS sensors and platform, the integration & fusion of RS information with non RS information, and the integration & fusion of GIS data in different format. Furthermore, the author analyzed the optimized using of this technique, taking the RS image based investigation of soil erosion in Loess Plateau as an example, including the analysis of technical workflow for RS based image mapping, the analysis of various information sources and the method information fusion, as well as information transformation technology from RS based image to GIS database, etc. The paper concluded that for the purpose of optimum utilization of information from various sources, the integration & fusion of multi source information is remarkably important, and the methods & techniques related in this paper are highly efficient and usable.
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    The Deposition, Breach, and Diversion in the Lower Yellow River and Their Relationships with Human Activities during the Historical Period
    CHEN Zhi qing
    2001, 20 (1):  44-50.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (704KB) ( )   Save
    It is well known that the Yellow River is a very famous river with much sediment in the world. Deposition of the river bed as well as the breach and diversion of the river course happened frequently through the whole historical period, so that the accumulation of North China Plain has been getting more faster since Quaternary period. According to field investigations, the behavior of the lower Yellow River before Tongwaxiang breach happened was basically the same as that of the modern lower Yellow River. The average accumulating ratio of the lower Yellow River for the riverbed was 6 5 cm/a during 1855~1982, not including 1938~1947 when the Yellow River took the southern course and 7 7 cm/a for the floodplain.\;It is shown from statistical data that the frequency of river breach and diversion in the Lower Yellow River has been faster. The frequency of river breach and diversion in the Lower Yellow River wasn’t very high before the period from 602 B C to A D 907, but increased more obviously during Wudai Dynasty to Song and Yuan Dynasty than before, almost one time of breach per two years. In order to guarantee water transport of grain to the capital during Ming Dynasty, the northern levee was reinforced, but the southern one was not, so that the breach frequency of this period was doubled compard with Song and Yuan Dynasty. On average, there are three times of breaches per two years during Qing Dynasty to Republic of China.\;The accelerated deposition and the increasing frequency of breach and diversion in the Lower Yellow River are caused by the complex action of natural factors and human activities. With the increase of population, the change of cultivation types and the destroying of vegetation in the drainage area of the Middle Yellow River during the historical period, soil erosion was greatly intensified and the oncoming sediment to the Lower Yellow River increased, so that deposition, breach and diversion happened frequently in the lower Yellow River.
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    The Linkage between Industrial Water Use Decrease and Industrial Structural Upgrade ——Experience of Developed Countries
    JIA Shao feng
    2001, 20 (1):  51-59.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (490KB) ( )   Save
    It’s difficult to forecast industrial water demand in developing countries when the size of industry enlarges quickly and the structure of industry changes rapidly. It’s especially unbelievable that industrial water demand will double in every 10 years or so for every developing country, because developed countries have set examples that industrial water use (here it means fresh water withdraw) may decrease when industrial structure changed from labor-and-capital-intensive type to technology-and-knowledge-intensive type. In this paper we mainly discuss the time and reasons of the decrease of industrial water use in developed countries. Following are the conditions or influence factors for the decrease of industrial water use in developed countries. Firstly, the stricter regulations of environmental protection are the macro background. Secondly, industrial structural upgrade, especially the migration of heavy-chemical industries from developed countries to developing countries, is the essential driving force. Thirdly, the promotion of the efficiency of industrial water use is the technological guarantee. Fourthly, the crude oil price rising or the petroleum crisis was the inducing factor but not the necessary condition. Finally, in some countries water resources shortage is one of the main reasons why industrial water use decreased. (But in most developed countries the ratio of fresh water withdraw to total water resources is still very low). When industrial water use decreased in developed countries, the corresponding proportion of secondary industry in total GDP ranged from 30% to 45%, while employment proportion of secondary industry ranged from 28% to 38%. From these figures we can get some quantitative concepts of the condition of industrial water use decrease in developed countries, but the qualitative judgement of the constriction of heavy-chemical industries is more important.
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    An Analysis on Spatial Difference of Land Use Change in Qianguo County of Jilin Province
    LIU Xiang nan, XU Hong mei, CAO Wen
    2001, 20 (1):  60-66.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (685KB) ( )   Save
    Different combinations of physical geographical elements induce the difference of spatio temporal pattern of land use change. There are four physical geographical units in Qianguo county of Jilin province. Based on spatial analysis and statistical analysis, we conclude that the primary pattern of land use and the tendency of land use changes are all different in four physical geographical units. Though land use change is mainly affected by social and economic conditions in a short period, the integrated character of the combination of physical geographical elements controls the land use dynamic process. The relationship between land use dynamic process and the character of physical geographical units is different in different units.
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    Pattern Analysis of Spatial Structure of Urban System Dominated by Physical Geographic Factors
    WANG Xin yuan, FNA Xiang tao, GUO Hua dong
    2001, 20 (1):  67-72.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (564KB) ( )   Save
    Radar remote sensing can detect micro relief, building, vegetation distribution, surface roughness and water content sensitively. It is a very useful means for these studies. Based on Radarsat Scan SAR data supplied by Center of Canadian Remote Sensing (CCRS), the pattern of spatial structure of urban system dominated by physical geographical factors is studied in Huang-Huai-Hai plain. Physical geographic condition is foundation for urban forming and developing. A case studies patterns of spatial structure of urban system in different physical geographic factors (i.e. river, paleo channel, and landform) in Huang-Huai-Hai plain. The results are listed as follows: (1) In peneplain with plenty water resource, hexagonal spatial structure of urban system can be formed. Due to differential competed function of central places, the hexagonal system is distorted. The result is that the area covered is decreased and the girth is unchanged——but every border is usually unequal; (2) A pattern of pentagonal system evolves from hexagonal system controlled by a river; (3) A pattern of quadrilateral develops from hexagonal system under two parallel rivers; (4) The equal distance distribution of central places in narrow geographic space has its special reasons. The results are very important for understanding urban’s formation and development and urban plan in Huang-Huai-Hai plain.
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    Medical Geographical Evaluation on 150 Years Plague Epidemic
    LI Hai rong, YANG Lin sheng, WANG Wu yi, TAN Jian an
    2001, 20 (1):  73-80.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (310KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data of plague in China since 1840, nine appropriate indictors are selected, which are total number of plague, total number of plague deaths, annual average of number of plague cases, annual average plague deaths, the number of plague occurring years, the number of human plague epidemic sites during the highest incident years, total number of human plague epidemic sites, incidents times for epidemic sites of human plague, and case fatality rate. The data of nine indictors show non normal distribution through distribution tests, so we establish the standards to divide the grades for all the plague indictors by the way of percentile. The spatial distribution features of each plague indicators are studied by using GIS. Moreover, a comprehensive indicator to assess plague for different areas is made through the method of factor analyzing, which is applied for regionalization of the plague in whole China. The results indicate that there are two plague prevalent regions: north of China and south of China in the past. In south of China, Yunnan, Fujian, Guangxi and Hainan provinces were seriously prevalent plague areas; Jilin, Inner-Mongolia, Shan’xi provinces, in north of China, were also seriously prevalent plague areas. At present, almost all the plague areas are controlled, but there are still a few cases of plague in west especially in the south west of China. The comprehensive evaluation of plague will be benefit for watching out of plague prevalence and convenient for plague management according to various grades of different areas.
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    Studies of Analogies of Fractal Structure between River Networks and Systems of Central places: A Theoretical Approach to the Symmetry between Physical and Human Geographical Systems
    CHEN Yan guang, LIU Ji sheng
    2001, 20 (1):  81-88.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    It is demonstrated in the paper that the cascade structure of river networks is analogous to that of urban systems or systems of central places, i.e.,the two kind of systems have the same fractal recurrence. Where mathematical models are concerned, the first and second ones of Horton’s laws of drainage composition is same to Beckmann’s models of city hierarchies which are based on central place theory; Hack’s law, which can be derived from the second and third Horton’s models, is same to allometric relationships between area and population of urban systems, the latter is connected with Beckmann’s models and thereby with central place theory. A conclusion can be drawed as follows: urban systems as well as central places are symmetrical with river networks, as is generalized, we have a conclusion that human geographical systems are symmetrical with physical geographical systems, with the symmetry breaking to some extent in some aspects.
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    Development on the Integrating of “3S” in the Era of Digital Earth
    MA Rong-hua, HUANG Xing-yuan, PU Ying-xia
    2001, 20 (1):  89-96.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2001.01.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (251KB) ( )   Save
    The relationship between“3S”and digital earth as well as the essence of GIS,GPS and RS is discussed.Then we analyze the integrating between each of “3S” and the their key technique based on their essence respectively.What’s more,the actual situation of development is also analyzed.The defect of the integrating between each other results in the full integrating of “3S”.And the full integrating is one of the front of study on the area of spatial science.As a result,it is very difficult to the study.At the present,the study on the theory is dropped behind the practice.After our analyzing by their development at present and the key technique of integration of GIS,GPS and RS,the conclusions are drawn:(1)the integrating of “3S”is the essential result of development of GIS GPS and RS,and the most extensive application and the most perfect technique is the integrating of GIS and RS.(2) the rapid development of “3S” makes the content of earth system science extend and results in the birth of Geo informatics.(3) the birth of digital earth benefits from the rapid development of “3S”and the its extensive and successful application.“3S”technique is one of the basic and kernel technique of digital earth.Certainly,the birth of digital earth also pushes the development of “3S”more deeply and more extensively.The technique of “3S”is one of the key techinques of Digital Earth.And they are complemented each other.As a result,they must develop commonly.
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