Table of Content

    24 November 2002, Volume 21 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Original Articles
    A Perspective on Hydrological Base of Water Security Problem and Its Application Study in North China
    XIA Jun
    2002, 21 (6):  517-526.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (647KB) ( )   Save
    The issue of water shortage and related eco environmental degradation in the North China is one of the major emergency problems in China. As runoff generated from mountain area is significantly decreased and water resources are over developed, serious water and eco environmental problems have arisen, such as drying up of river system, ground water decline, lake & wetland degradation, and water pollution in plain area, etc. It has been shown, that in the case of Haihe River Basin, among the total rivers of 10000 km, the rivers of 4000 km have been turned to be seasonal rivers. Comparing with the situation in the beginning of 1950s, the wetland area within the Basin has decreased from 10000 km 2 to 1000 km 2 at present. The area with over extraction of groundwater covers nearly 90000 km 2, or 70% of the plain areas. Comparing with that of the end of 1950s, the accumulated over extracted groundwater is 90 billion m 3. Water and soil loss area in mountainous region is 110000 km 2, or two thirds of the mountainous region. The sandstorms induced by desertification are endangering Beijing and other cities. Thus, the problems of water shortage and related eco environmental issues in North China have become the most significant issues to impact sustainable development in this very important region that is political, cultural and economic center of China. This paper addresses these emergent issues by the case study of Haihe River Basin in North China. The new advantage in international study on water and background causing these problems from natural change and particular human activity are analyzed. Key points are addressed in four aspects: (a) the study of the water cycle process impacted by high intensity human activity, a process which is quite different from that in natural water cycle, (b) water utilization related to new economic partner change, such as saving water model, (c) study on eco hydrology, and interaction of water and ecology impacted by climate change and human activity, and (d) reasonable water allocation that includes Water Diversion from South to North and saving water issue in local areas. Several suggestions of both study on the water cycle, which is a very important base of water security in North China, and study on application of water resources and eco environmental rehabilitation are proposed. These key issues will benefit to both advantage of water science and sustainable developing in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Prospect in the Research of Water Cycle at the Typical Catchments of North China Plain Using Environmental Isotopes
    SONG Xian fang, XIA Jun, YU Jing jie, LIU Chang ming
    2002, 21 (6):  527-537.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1036KB) ( )   Save
    The water problems in North China plain are very serious, and they hinder the economic development. The reason is that the research of water cycle is not enough. Environmental isotopes have become integral components of hydrological research and applications. They routinely contribute to such investigations, complementing geochemistry and physical hydrology. The environmental isotopic technology is the most powerful tool for hydrological research. For instance, the stable isotopic composition of water is modified by meteoric processes and so the recharge waters in particular environment will have a characteristic isotopic signature. This signature then serves as a nature tracer for the provenance of waters; on other hand, radioisotopes decay provides us with a measure of circulation time, thus groundwater renewability. The source of vapor, which forms precipitation, the mechanism of rainfall and runoff at the slope, the relation among precipitation surface water soil water groundwater, groundwater quality evolution and recharge processes can be understood. In this paper, the stable isotopes (D and O 18) and the radioisotopes (T and C 14) are explained, and their basics, usages and some examples in Japan and China are also introduced. Lastly, the prospect in the research of water cycle at the typical catchments of North China Plain using environmental isotopes is described, including three parts: the system of "atmosphere soil vegetation"at small scale; rainfall and runoff at the slope; water cycle at catchment scale.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Regional Water Resources Stress and Water Resources Security Appraisement Indicators
    JIA Shao feng, ZHANG Jun yan, ZHANG Shi feng
    2002, 21 (6):  538-545.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (866KB) ( )   Save
    Discussed are definition of water resources security, water resources stress indicators and indicator system for regional water resources security appraisement. Water resources security means that every person has the right to get safe water supply with acceptable price. In fact, there are 3 layers or aspects of water resources security. The first is the social aspect of water resources security which means household water demand, especially that of poor family as a basic human right, should be satisfied. The second is the economic aspect of water resources security which means water supply should meet rational demand of economic development. The third is the ecological aspect of water resource security which means the minimum water demand of ecological system should be met to protect ecological integrity. Per capita water resources and water use intensity are used universally to measure water resources stress. These two indicators are simple and convenient to show general situation of water resources and water use, but they can’t reveal all aspects of water resources security. Water resources security is a very integrated concept and can’t be measured by one or two simple indicators. To appraise regional water resources security, a system of indicators should be developed. Following 5 indicators are suggested to appraise general situation of water resources security: satisfied level of total water demand, ratio of human water consummation to total water quantity consumable by human being, probability of draught, ratio of household water satisfaction when draught, and GDP loss when draught. 5 indicators are used to measure water resources security level on the aspect of social security: ratio of water really supplied to standard water demand in city and town, ratio of water really supplied to standard water demand in village, ratio of household water supply to safe quality with total household water supply, ratio of household expenditure for water to total expendable income, and ratio of safe water supply to poor people. Following indicators are selected to appraise water resources security in the aspect of economy: average time of no water supply to enterprises, ratio of water quantity really irrigated to rational quantity of irrigation water, ratio of land area irrigated to polluted water to total irrigated land area, and percentage of water use expenditure in total production cost. As to the ecological aspect of water resources security, we select following indicators: satisfied level of ecological water requirement, water use intensity, ratio of river length polluted to total river length, ratio of accumulative quantity of ground water over withdrawal to average annual ground water recharge, ratio of real area of lakes to expected lake area, and percentage of aviation canal shorting.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evolution Trend of Miyun Reservoir Inflow and Its Motivating Factors Analysis
    GAO Ying chun, YAO Zhi jun, LIU Bao qin, LV Aifeng
    2002, 21 (6):  546-553.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (414KB) ( )   Save
    Stochastic hydrology methods are used to analyze the characteristics of annual inflow evolution of Miyun reservoir. The result has shown that the amount of annual inflow of the Miyun reservoir tends to decrease exponentially from 1954 to 1990 in general. Moreover, flood peak decreases extremely in both quantity and proportion, and its decreasing extent is higher than that of common runoff. At the mean time, evolution trend shows apparent periods. In order to find out the motivating factors of annual inflow evolution, we analyzed the relationship between precipitation and runoff. Through correlation analyzing, it is quite clear that the change of annual inflow was partly dependent on precipitation. But the precipitation is not the major motivating force of the evolution, and climate changes have only little influence to inflow decreasing. The annual inflow of Miyun reservoir responds directly to human activities, especially after 1960. Experimental result shows that it is obvious that the annual inflow decreasing is mainly caused by human activities, such as extreme population increase and land use changes.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Study for Groundwater Resources System of China with Three-rated Appraising Method of Sub Area
    LOU Hua jun, MAO Ren zhao, XIA Jun, FENG Yan fang
    2002, 21 (6):  554-563.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1039KB) ( )   Save
    Surface water and groundwater are important constitutes of water resource system. Since the water transports and deposited in different ways within the medium between surface and ground, so the modeling and appraising method adopted are different. In the first time of water resources appraising of China, only the difference in national groundwater resources’ gross is up to 10000 billion tons (or about 1/8 of all the national groundwater resources). This data is twice of the data of the water transported from south to north or more. The author thinks that the main reasons for the total error of groundwater resource appraisal are: 1) In the nature, groundwater and surface water frequently converse and replenish with each other. It is improper to appraise them seperately. But in water resources appraising of China, from one level to three level sub areas, ground water moduli were not divided along with surface water together. 2) In water resources appraising, the computing methods of replenishment and evaporation for surface water and ground water are not be united, and the resource quantities’ iteration principles are different, leading to the inconformity of various results. 3) Basic data for water resource’s evaluation of China come from the different management department respectively. Water conservancy department manages surface water and agricultural water. On the other hand, constructed department manages the water for city use. For a few years, the groundwater had been managed by geologic and mining section, which, meantime, could pursue a part of monitoring work. They all have accumulated but different data of many years. The data of above three sections are the foundation on which the water resource’s evaluations in China proceed. The author thinks that in the first time of water resources evaluation of China, surface water should be evaluated according to river valley, while ground water be evaluated through hydrology geology unit, so that the gross’ error can be avoided in water resources’ appraising. The author also brings up the project of three level evaluation and sub area. In the groundwater resources’ quantity evaluation, one and two level sub area methods according to river valley are adopted. Three level sub area methods according to groundwater unites are used to resolve the problem of the water resources’ evaluation error.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Study on the Dynamic Variation of Shallow Groundwater Table in the Saline and Water Deficit Region in North China Plain
    MAO Ren zhao, LIU Xiao jing, LOU Hua jun
    2002, 21 (6):  561-572.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (338KB) ( )   Save
    The property of precipitation and dynamics variation of shallow groundwater level in the saline and water deficit region, North China Plain, were discussed in this paper by taking Nanpi Testing Area as a case study. The annual precipitation concentrates in a few of rainstorm process within the monsoon climate region. The shallow groundwater is recharged mainly by the permeated runoff of rainstorm. So the resuming extent of groundwater level can express the active water resource status. The average annual precipitation from 1965 to 2001 was 5457mm. Simple statistics revealed that there was a linear relationship between the groundwater level and the annual rainfall amount. The correlation coefficient was 06317 and 04249 in the two periods of 1980~1989 and 1995~2001 respectively. The biggest annual fluctuation amount of the groundwater level was 41m, and season resuming amount was among 19~38m. According to the results measured by artificial rainfall, there was no runoff in grassland when it rained continually with 569mm of the total water amount. The runoff coefficient was 013 when it rained continually with 1143mm of the total water amount at 106mm/min of the raining intensity. But the coefficient was 021 for bare farmland at alike raining intensity. The resuming amounts of groundwater level were 141~397m in the Nanpi Testing Area when a heavy rainstorm with 252mm water amount occurred in July 13, 1997. The Grey Dynamic Model results show that the shallow groundwater level will be declining gradually in the future based on the water supplying, water utilization and water geo hydrological condition at present. The decline ratio is about 012~014m/y. It is difficult to keep the water balance only with the recharge of rainfall. Therefore it is emphasized to take the comprehensive water saving measures and to regulate the runoff of many years as well as to introduce water from outside watersheds etc. in order to prevent the water environment deterioration of the area.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Research on Distributed Time Variant Gain Model: a Case Study on Chaohe River Basin
    WANG Gang sheng, XIA Jun, TAN Ge, LV Aifeng
    2002, 21 (6):  573-582.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (588KB) ( )   Save
    By probing into the evolvement of distributed hydrological model and considering real conditions of the arid or semi arid regions in China, this paper advances Distributed Time Variant Gain Model (DTVGM) by coupling the mechanism of water cycle with system theory. The distinguish feature of TVGM is that runoff generation contribution can be analyzed by a set of time variant gain parameters (g1, g2, etc.). The rainfall runoff relationship characterized by TVGM is just a typical nonlinear behavior. DTVGM is developed based on TVGM. It picks up such information as the gradient of the slope, the direction of the slope, the water current path, as well as the boundaries of the river network and the watershed of the land surface units with DEM by establishing itself on the basis of GIS/DEM. It simulates the movement of the water in the soil vegetation atmosphere (SVAT) system, describes the relation between the cellular grids in the horizontal direction, and performs mathematical calculations of the surface water and the groundwater on the watershed cellular grids divided by DEM. DTVGM includes two components: one is runoff generation process on grid elements; the other is flow routing process based on ranked grids. At present, the runoff generation process is divided into two layers in the vertical direction: the upper layer is the surface flow; the lower layer is the subsurface flow. On the other hand, the kinematic wave models are applied to simulate the flow routing process. At the end of the paper, the distributed hydrological model of Chaohe River Basin is established by applying DTVGM. The research results indicate that the application of DTVGM is successful, which can satisfy the requirement of water resources management.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evapotranspiration, Yield and Crop Coefficient of Irrigated Maize under Straw Mulch Conditions
    ZHANG Xi ying, CHEN Su ying, PEI Dong, LIU Meng yu
    2002, 21 (6):  583-592.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1066KB) ( )   Save
    Agricultural water use takes up about 70% of the total water consumption in the North China Plain. Thus improvement of the water use efficiency (WUE) in agriculture would play an important role in sustainable water use in the North China Plain. Agronomic water saving measure is one of the most important aspects in water saving agriculture. Reducing soil water evaporation and optimizing irrigation scheduling are effective methods in improving the farmland WUE. Maize is one of the staple crops in the piedmont of Mt. Taihang in the North China Plain and is usually inter planted into winter wheat field about one week before wheat crop is harvested. At harvest, the wheat straw is left to mulch maize crop so as to reduce evapotranspiration, especially during the earlier growth stages. Maize grows during the rainy months of June to September, and the rainfall usually meets its requirement for growth. In dry years or with inter seasonal variability of rainfall distribution, however, irrigation is essential to maintain good maize yield in the region. Due to the fact of a severe shortage of irrigation water in the region, this study aims to examine the effects of numbers of irrigation on maize grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and crop coefficient under straw mulch conditions. The results of field trials in the years of 1999 and 2001 showed that total evapotranspiration and WUE of irrigated maize under straw mulch were 390 mm and 22 kg/m 3, respectively, with grain yield of about 8000 kg/ha. Maize yield increased with the irrigation numbers and reached the highest 8834 kg/ha and 8010 kg/ha in 1999 and 2001, respectively, when the irrigation was applied four times over the growing season. Irrigation more than four times, however, caused grain yield reduction in both seasons. In contrast, WUE was only slightly decreased with the increase in the numbers of irrigation. Mulching reduced total soil evaporation by 50 mm in the 2001 season measured by micro lysimeters. At the early growing stage, crop coefficient of maize with mulching was about 05, which was about 50% lower than that without mulching. The coefficient over the growing season with mulch varied between 03~15 with an average of 10.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Conceptual Model of Predicting Soil Water Storage of Winter Wheat Root Zone
    OUYANG Zhu, LUO Yi, GAI Guang ming, LIU Chuan shou, CHAI Huai tang
    2002, 21 (6):  593-599.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (724KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the knowledge of the SPAC system, a conceptual model of water balance in winter wheat root zone was set up. The model assumed vertical flow of water only. The evapotranspiration was estimated by combining the reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficient and soil water stress coefficient. The crop coefficient is the function of crop LAI, and the soil water stress coefficient is the function of soil water content. The lower boundary flux was modeled as a function of soil water storage in the root zone empirically. Fundamental data required to run this model included the daily meteorological data, soil properties (such as soil type, wilting point and field capacity), the irrigation data, the initial values of soil water storage in root zone, LAI of crop, and the some other empirical parameters involved. The empirical parameters should be calibrated prior to the model application. Empirical parameters in the model were calibrated firstly and the model was validated independently with the winter wheat plot test data in Yucheng Station and Yongledian Station. The results showed that the simulated values by the model agreed well with the measured ones. This model contains only a few parameters and is simple in form. So it can be easily adopted in field water management. When it is used, prior calibration of the parameters in the model should be done with the field data.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Water Use and Irrigation Management of Winter Wheat in the North-western Plain of Shandong Province
    ZHAO Qian jun, LUO Yi, OUYANG Zhu, CHAI Huai tang, LIU Chuan shou, GAI Guang ming
    2002, 21 (6):  600-608.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (516KB) ( )   Save
    This paper presented results of water consumption at different growth stages of winter wheat by means of field experiment and model simulation. Meanwhile, the widely adopted irrigation water management strategies of winter wheat in the north western plain of Shandong province was discussed according to the model simulation results of soil water dynamics and crop water consumption process. Totally, water consumption of winter wheat during its growth season from 1998 to 1999 was 438mm in depth. Those consumed during the period from seedling to end of reviving, from shooting to grain filling, and from grain filling to harvest accounted for 20%, 67% and 13% of the total, respectively. Soil water dynamics simulation revealed that soil water drainage beneath 100cm was closely related to the soil water content before irrigation and water amount applied each time. The currently adopted irrigation practices should be checked on the basis of the field capacity and soil water status prior to irrigation. Otherwise, large amount of drainage will occur and lead to the low irrigation water use efficiency.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Study on Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture in Wheat Field Under Sprinkling Irrigation Condition
    GAO Lu, CHEN Su ying, HU Chun sheng, HUO Xi liang
    2002, 21 (6):  609-615.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (789KB) ( )   Save
    This experiment was carried in a wheat field with different water treatments under sprinkling irrigation conditions. Soil samples were obtained from each point under four layers of 0~10cm, 10~20cm, 20~40cm and 40~60cm. Soil water content was measured. The classical statistics was applied to analyze the data, and the results indicated that the 10~20 cm layer was affected most by rainfall and evapotranspiration. Further more, Semivariance analysis found that the difference of spatial correlation existed among different treatments with the same layer or different layers with the same treatment, and that effect of sprinkling irrigation on spatial correlation of soil moisture existed. In addition, when comparing the same layers’ range with different treatmented, range tended to increase and water was more uniformly distributed in the soil as the irrigating amount increased. These results showed some merits in increasing water use efficient and precision agriculture.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Simulated Prediction of Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in the North-China-Region
    GAO Yan chun, YU Jing jie, LIU Chang ming
    2002, 21 (6):  616-624.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (368KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, by considering the Middle Route region of Water Transfer from South to North as background, the South Part of Haihe River basin(SPHR) is selected as the representative area for the North China region. System Dynamics (SD) model of SPHR water resources system is established, and the variation trends of water supply and demand under different hypothetical climate change scenarios are predicted by simulation. The prediction results show that climate change will disturb the operation of SPHR water resources system, especially affect its economic growth rate However, within the range of climate change (ΔT≤18℃,ΔP≥-024%), climate change can not change the operation law of SPHR water resources system, which is controlled by internal driving factors, such as economy growth, science and technology development, population increase and water saving improvement, etc. The results also verified the certain tendency of zero increase or negative increase of water demand and water shortage in future under the conditions of technology development and water saving improvement. The results provide the quantitative reference indexes for water demand management and water saving improvement, and also supply the necessary basis for decision making on economy planning and water transfer.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Water Resource Security and Method Research on Enactment and Management of Industrial Water Use in Beijing
    ZHANG Shi feng, JIA Shao feng
    2002, 21 (6):  625-631.  doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (376KB) ( )   Save
    Water security problems are very serious. The water resource use rate is now 135% in Beijing. Water use management in industry plays a key role in addressing Beijing water security challenge. Enactment and management on industrial water quota is of great importance for scientific research and application. The paper defines the quota of industrial water at first, then expounds some fundamental methods and draws some conclusions as follows: (1) industrial water quota includes primary quota and assistant quota. Primary quota is the water quantity which is used to yield unit product, and it includes two parts: the water for product process and that for assistant production process. Assistant quota includes affiliated life water quota and enterprise’s water consumption per unit production value; (2) the technical process of production is the main factor to define industrial water quota. Once the technical process of production is determined, the unit production’s water consumption quota is a fixed value. While the same production is manufactured, different water quota can be used if different material and techniques are used in the course of manufacture; (3) the method on management of quota is discussed. It is considered that the kernel of the management of water quota is to convert water quota into water withdrawal criterion which can be of easy operation in respective industries and enterprises. The water withdrawal criterion is decided on the basis of water quota and also such factors as affiliated life water, the scale of enterprise, the rate of working time of enterprise, the management level of water saving of enterprise and seasonal fluctuation.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics